Zaynab bint Khuzayma
Zaynab bint Khuzaymah
Mother of the Believers
زينب بنت خزيمة
Zaynab bint Khuzaymah
|Died||Rabiʽ al-Thani 4 AH ; c. September 626 AD|
|Known for||Wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Mother of the Believers|
|Title||ʾumm ul-mumineen |
|Spouse(s)||Ubaydah ibn al-Harith |
Muhammad (m. 624-626 AD)
|Children||Muawiya, Awn, Munqidh, Ibrahim, Harith, Rabta, Khadija, Sukhayla, Amina, Safiya|
|Parent(s)||Khuzayma ibn Al-Harith |
Hind bint Awf
|Family||House of Muhammad|
Zaynab bint Khuzaymah (Arabic: زينب بنت خزيمة), also known as Umm al-Masakin, "Mother of the Poor", born 595) was one of the wives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. As a result of her early death, less is known about her than any of his other wives. Her children were Muawiya, Awn, Munqidh, Ibrahim, Harith, Rabta, Khadija, Sukhayla, Amina, Safiya. All of these children were fathered with her previous husband, Ubayda ibn al-Harith.
Zaynab was first married to Tufail bin Harith, who either divorced her or died shortly afterward. Zaynab then married her first husband's brother, Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In 624, her husband died of wounds received in the Battle of Badr, and she began to live in poverty. Ibn Kathir, in his 14th century Sira, referred to Zaynab's first husband as being Husayn bin al-Harith, and her third marriage to Abdullah ibn Jahsh, who was killed at the Battle of Uhud.
There are conflicting reports as to whether she was shunned and sought marriage, or whether she turned down many offers of marriage. Some even suggest she had a third husband, who also died.
Marriage to Muhammad
The following year shortly after his marriage to Hafsa bint Umar, Muhammad approached her with a mahar of either 400 dirhams or 12 ounces of gold, and offered to marry her. There has been debate about how the marriage was proposed, in Ibn Kalbi's al-Isaba, he claimed that Muhammad proposed to her directly - while Ibn Hisham wrote that her uncle, Quobaisa bin Arm al-Hilali had arranged the marriage proposal.
It was said the marriage, which took place during the month of Ramadan, was meant to assure his followers that their deaths in battle would not mean their families would starve and be neglected. She was the first of his wives to come from outside the Quraysh tribe. At one point, a poor man came to her house to beg for some flour, and she gave him the last of her own, and went without food that night. Muhammad was moved by her compassion, and told his other wives about it and preached that "if you have faith in Allah...he would provide for your sustenance, even as he doeth for the birds, who leave their nest hungry in the morning, but return full at night".
After her death, her household in Muhammad's circle remained empty for a notable period of time, before his sixth wife, Umm Salama was moved in, and noted "He married me and moved me to the chamber of Zaynab bint Khuzayma, the Mother of the Poor".
- Lings, Martin, "Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources", 1983. p. 201.
- Awde, Nicholas. "Women in Islam", 2000. p. 10
- Khaled, Amr. The Mothers of the Believers: Zaynab Bint Khuzayma
- Rasoulallah.net, Lady Zainab bint Khozaima
- Prophet Muhammad for All, Hadrat Zainab
- Wessels, Antonie. "A Modern Arabic Biography of Muhammad", p. 107
- Ibn Hisham, The Life of the Prophet, Book IV. c. 833.
- Kloppenborg, Ria. "Female stereotypes in religious traditions", p. 89
- Marriage to Daughter-in-law
- Ahmed, M. Mukkaram. "Encyclopaedia of Islam", 2005. p. 141
- Ibn Kathir, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad, p. 419
- Hatimy, Said Abdullah Saif. "Woman in Islam", 1979. p. 105
- Isaba, Isti'ab, Jamhara, 262 and Tabari III, 179
- Sharma, KM. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, "What's In a Name?", 1997.
- Muslim World League Journal, 1998
- Bodley, Ronald V. "The Messenger: The Wives of Mohammed", 1946.
- Ibn Hisham I, 345. II, 294. Tabari III, 177. Nasab Quraysh, 316