Quanzhou is a prefecture-level city facing the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China. Its is Fujian's largest metropolitan region, with an area of 11,245 square kilometers (4,342 sq mi) and, as of the 2010 Census, a population of 8,128,530. Its built-up area is home to 6,107,475 inhabitants, encompassing the Licheng, Fengze, and Luojiang urban districts; Jinjiang, Nan'an, and Shishi cities; Hui'an County; and the Quanzhou District for Taiwanese Investment. Quanzhou was the 12th largest Chinese extended metropolitan area in 2010.
Quanzhou is the atonal pinyin romanization of the city's Chinese name, which derives from its former status as the seat of the imperial Chinese Quan ("Spring") Prefecture. Earlier romanizations include "Chinchew", "Chincheu", "Chin-cheu", "Chin-chew", "Chinchu", "Choanchew", and "T'swan-chau". The name "Tsinkiang" is an older form of Jinjiang. Its Arabic name Zayton (زيتون), once popular in English, also appears as "Zaitun" and "Zaytun".
The prefecture-level city of Quanzhou administers four districts, three county-level cities, four counties, and two special economic districts. The People's Republic of China claims Jinmen County, more widely known as Kinmen County, as part of Quanzhou, but the territory is currently under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China.
|Licheng District||鲤城区||Lǐchéng Qū||Lí-siâⁿ-khu||52.41||404,817||7,724|
|Fengze District||丰泽区||Fēngzé Qū||Hong-te̍k-khu||132.25||529,640||4,005|
|Luojiang District||洛江区||Luòjiāng Qū||Lo̍k-kang-khu||381.72||187,189||490|
|Quangang District||泉港区||Quán'gǎng Qū||Chôan-káng-khu||306.03||313,539||1025|
|Shishi City||石狮市||Shíshī Shì||Chio̍h-sai-chhī||189.21||636,700||3,365|
|Jinjiang City||晋江市||Jìnjiāng Shì||Chìn-kang-chhī||721.64||1,986,447||2,753|
|Nan'an City||南安市||Nánān Shì||Lâm-oaⁿ-chhī||2,035.11||1,418,451||697|
|Hui'an County||惠安县||Huì'ān Xiàn||Hūiⁿ-oaⁿ-kūiⁿ||762.19||944,231||1,239|
|Anxi County||安溪县||Ānxī Xiàn||An-khoe-kūiⁿ||2,983.07||977,435||328|
|Yongchun County||永春县||Yǒngchūn Xiàn||Éng-chhun-kūiⁿ||1,445.8||452,217||313|
|Dehua County||德化县||Déhuà Xiàn||Tek-hòe-kūiⁿ||2,209.48||277,867||126|
|Jinmen County *||金门县||Jīnmén Xiàn||Kim-mn̂g-kūiⁿ||—||—||—|
- *: Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has considered Jinmen part of Quanzhou. However, the PRC has never controlled Jinmen. The Republic of China (ROC) currently administers Jinmen.
Quanzhou is a coastal prefecture bordered by Xiamen, a sub-provincial city to the southwest. It also borders the Zhangzhou and Longyan prefecture-level city towards the west. Putian and Fuzhou form Quanzhou's northeast border and Sanming forms the northwest one.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Quanzhou is mountainous and has many rivers and tributaries originating from the interior. The prefecture's two major rivers—the Jin and the Luo—flow into Quanzhou Bay from the west and north, respectively, forming wide estuaries.
Quanzhou has four distinct seasons. Its moderate temperature ranges from 0 to 38 degree Celsius. In summer there are typhoons that bring rain and some damage to the city.
Quanzhou was established in 718 during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). In those days, Guangzhou was China's greatest seaport, but this status would be surpassed later by Quanzhou. During the Song Dynasty (960–1279) and Yuan Dynasty (1279–1368), Quanzhou was one of the world's largest seaports, hosting a large community of foreign-born inhabitants from across the Eurasian world. Today, a number of relics related to that era are preserved and exhibited in the Quanzhou Overseas Relations Museum. A particularly important exhibit is the so-called Quanzhou ship, a seagoing junk that sunk some time after 1272, and was recovered in 1973–74.
Due to its reputation, Quanzhou has been called the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road. Zhao Rugua, a Quanzhou customs inspector during the Song dynasty, wrote the Zhu fan zhi (諸蕃志, also Chu-fan-chi), which was about foreign places and items involved in trade with China. The word satin derives from the Arabic name of the city. Zayton is also the word for olive and the symbol of peace in the Arabic and Persian languages.[dubious ] Quanzhou may have been given this title by the Muslims in honour of fact that it was a cultural melting pot at the time due to the trade culture.
In The Travels of Marco Polo, Quanzhou was listed as the departure point for Marco Polo's expedition to escort the 17-year-old Mongol princess bride Kököchin to her new husband in the Mongol Ilkhanate. In 1357 however a military revolt by the local Muslim militia against the Yuan dynasty led to the Ispah Rebellion that resulted in large civilian casualties in Quanzhou, with the Yuan loyalist commander Chen Youding massacring the Muslim community.
Of the Chinese Li family in Quanzhou, Li Nu, the son of Li Lu, visited Hormuz in Persia in 1376, converted to Islam, married a Persian girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. Li Nu was the ancestor of the Ming Dynasty reformer Li Chih.
The Ding family of Chendai in Quanzhou claims descent from the Muslim leader Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar through his son Nasr al-Din (Nasruddin or Na-su-la-ding in Chinese). The Ding family has branches in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Malaysia among the diaspora Chinese communities there, no longer practicing Islam but still maintaining a Hui identity. The deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Muslim Association on Taiwan, Ishag Ma (馬孝棋), has claimed "Sayyid is an honorable title given to descendants of the Prophet Mohammed, hence Sayyid Shamsuddin must be connected to Prophet Mohammed". The Ding (Ting) family in Taisi Township in Yunlin County of Taiwan, traces descent from him through the Ding of Quanzhou in Fujian.
Nasruddin was appointed governor in Karadjang, and retained his position in Yunnan till his death, which Rashid, writing about 1300, says occurred five or six years before (according to the Yüan shi, Na-su-la ding died in 1292). Nasr-uddin's son Abubeker, who had the surname Bayan Fenchan (evidently the Boyen ch'a-r of the Yüan shi), was governor in Zaitun at the time Rashid wrote. He bore also his grandfather's title of Sayid Edjell, and was minister of Finance under Kubilai's successor (D'Ohsson, torn, ii, pp. 476, 507, 508). Nasr-uddin is mentioned by M. Polo, who styles him Nescradin (vol. ii, p. 66).
Quanzhou is a city with a long history and rich culture. It also has many religions, people believe in different religions from various countries came to Quanzhou in ancient time, especially during Song and Yuan Dynasty. Religions like Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism etc. can be seen here, you can visit different places of interest about these religion in Quanzhou city. It was elected as "Ten Most Charm City in China" in 2004 by CCTV China's first charm city selected activities.
Quanzhou is also a migration source of many Overseas Chinese living in South East Asia and to Taiwan during the last couple of centuries. About 6 million people whose ancestors were from Quanzhou now live abroad. Most of them live in Southeast Asian countries like Singapore, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar (Burma), or Thailand. One tenth (0,6) of overseas Quanzhounese now live in Hong Kong.
Locals speak the Quanzhou variety of Min Nan similar to Amoy (spoken in Xiamen), similar to South East Asian Hokkien and Taiwanese. It is essentially the same as the dialect spoken in Xiamen, and is unintelligible with Standard Chinese (Mandarin). Many overseas Chinese whose ancestors came from the Quanzhou area, especially those in Southeast Asia, often speak mainly Hokkien at home. In Taiwan, the locals speak a version of the Minnan language which is called Taiwanese. Around the "triangle area," which includes Quanzhou, Xiamen and Zhangzhou, locals all speak Minnan languages. The dialects they speak are similar but have different intonations. It is analogous to the differences between American English and British English.
Historically, Quanzhou exported black tea, camphor, sugar, indigo, tobacco, ceramics, cloth made of grass, and some minerals. They imported, primarily from Guangzhou, wool cloth, wine, and watches, as of 1832. As of that time, the East India Company was exporting an estimated ₤150,000 a year in black tea from Quanzhou.
Quanzhou is a major exporter of agricultural products such as tea, banana, lychee and rice. It is also a major producer of quarry granite and ceramics. Other industries include textiles, footwear, fashion and apparel, packaging, machinery, paper and petrochemicals.
Its GDP ranked first in Fujian Province for 20 years, from 1991 to 2010. In 2008, Quanzhou's textile and apparel production accounted for 10% of China's overall apparel production, the production of sport and tourism shoes accounts for 80% of Chinese, and 20% of world production, stone exports account for 50% of Chinese stone exports, resin handicraft exports account for 70% of the country's total, ceramic exports account for 67% of the country's total, and candy production accounts for 20%.
Different districts and counties in Quanzhou have their own special industries which are known to the rest of China. Jinjiang and Shishi are famous for apparel and textiles, Huian is famous for its stone, Quangang is famous for petrifaction, Dehua for Ceramics, Yongchun for Citrus, Anxi for wulong tea, Nan An for building materials, and Fengze for resin.
Quanzhou is an important transport hub within southeastern Fujian province. Many export industries in the Fujian interior cities will transport goods to Quanzhou ports. Quanzhou Port was one of the most prosperous port in Tang Dynasty while now still an important one for exporting. Quanzhou is also connected by major roads from Fuzhou to the north and Xiamen to the south.
Jinjiang Domestic Airport is Quanzhou region's airport, served by passenger flights within Fujian province and other destinations throughout the country.
Quanzhou has two kinds of railway service. The Zhangping–Quanzhou–Xiaocuo Railway, a "conventional" rail line opened ca. 2001, connects several cargo stations within Quanzhou Prefecture with the interior of Fujian and the rest of the country. Until 2014, this line also had passenger service, with fairly slow passenger trains from Beijing, Wuhan, and other places throughout the country terminating at the Quanzhou East Railway Station, a few kilometers northeast of the center of the city. Passenger service on this line was terminated, and Quanzhou East Railway Station closed on December 9, 2014.
Since 2010, Quanzhou is served by the high-speed Fuzhou–Xiamen Railway, part of the Hangzhou–Fuzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, which runs along China's southeastern sea coast. High-speed trains on this line stop at Quanzhou Railway Station (in Beifeng Subdistrict of Fengze District, some 10 miles north of Quanzhou city center) and Jinjiang Railway Station. Trains to Xiamen take under 45 minutes, making it a convenient weekend or day trip. By 2015, direct high-speed service has become available to a number of cities in the country's interior, from Beijing to Chongqing and Guiyang.
Long-distance bus services also run daily/nightly to Shenzhen and other major cities.
Colleges and universities
- Huaqiao University (national)
- Yang-en University (private)
- Quanzhou Normal University (public)
- Quanzhou Medical College (public)
- Huguang Photography and Art College
- Liming Vocational University(public)
Quanzhou is one of the twenty-four famous historic cultural cities first approved by the Chinese government.
Notable Historical and cultural sites (the 18 views of Quanzhou as recommended by the Fujian tourism board) include:
- Qing Yuan mountain (清源山) - The tallest hill within the city limits, which hosts a great view of West lake.
- East Lake Park (东湖) - Located in the city center. It is home to a small zoo.
- West lake Park (西湖公园) - The largest body of fresh water within the city limits.
- Kaiyuan Temple (开元寺) - A very old and famous pair of giant stone pagodas surrounded by temples and wonderful gardens and trees.
- Ashab Mosque (清净寺) - Said to date to 1009, it is thought to be one of the oldest Mosques in the world and the only one build in that century in China.
- Scholar Street (状元街) - Champion street about 500 meters long, elegant environment, mainly engaged in tourism and cultural crafts.
Notable Modern cultural sites include:
- Fengze Square - Located in the city center and acts as a venue for shows and events.
- Da Ping Shan - The second tallest hill within the city limits, crowned with an enormous equestrian statue of Zheng Chenggong.
- The Embassy Lounge - Situated in the "1916 Cultural Ideas Zone" which acts as a platform for mixing traditional Chinese art with modern building techniques and designs. It also acts as the unofficial headquarters for the expats of Quanzhou.
- Dehua porcelain (德化瓷器)
- Huian stoneware (惠安石刻)
- Anxi Tieguanyin (安溪铁观音)
- Quanzhou Shaolin Five Ancestors Fist (泉州五祖拳)
- Yongchun martial arts
The city hosted the Sixth National Peasants' Games in 2008.
Quanzhou is also the birthplace of the actress Yao Chen.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quanzhou.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Quanzhou.|
- The Stones of Zayton speak from China Heritage Newsletter