Zelenogorsk, Saint Petersburg
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Location of Zelenogorsk in Saint Petersburg
|Federal subject||Saint Petersburg|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
Zelenogorsk (Russian: Зеленого́рск; before 1948 Terijoki, a name still used in Finnish and Swedish), is a municipal town in Kurortny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located in part of the Karelian Isthmus on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. Population: 14,958 (2010 Census); 12,074 (2002 Census); 13,032 (1989 Census).
It has a station on the St. Petersburg-Vyborg railroad. It is located about 50 kilometers (31 mi) northwest of central Saint Petersburg.
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From 1323 to 1721 the Zelenogorsk area was a part of Sweden. It was ceded to Russia in 1721, becoming "Old Finland", which again was united with the Grand-Duchy of Finland in 1811. Until 1917, Terijoki was part of the Grand-Duchy of Finland, ruled by the Grand Dukes of Finland, who were the Tsars of Russia, (1812–1917).
Even though all of Finland was part of the Russian Empire, a customs border was located at Terijoki. A valid passport was needed for crossing the border between Russia and the Grand Duchy of Finland.
Vladimir Lenin managed to travel in secrecy over the internal border to Finland in 1907. Ten years later, in April 1917, he would return through the Terijoki border control at the head of the contingent of Bolshevik exiles that had accompanied him from Switzerland.
With completion of the Riihimäki-St. Petersburg railroad in 1870, Terijoki become a popular summer resort, and was frequented by St. Petersburg's upper class until closure of the border during the Russian Revolution (1917).
When the Republic of Finland gained independence on 6 December 1917, Terijoki became a part of it, and remained so until it was occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War (1939-1940). It was regained by Finland in 1941 during the Continuation War (1941-1944), but then was then occupied again by the Red Army during the later stages of the same war and annexed to the Soviet Union in 1944.
After the Second World War, its original Finnish population was expelled. They were relocated close to Helsinki and Soviet citizens were relocated to Terijoki. Around the start of the 21st century, the town's population was estimated to have been a few thousand, rising to above 50,000 in summer.
As of the beginning of the 21st century, Zelenogorsk is actively developing in many directions. Various actions to improve the quality of life in Zelenogorsk and modernize the region have been undertaken.
July 25 is the date of the annually celebrated City Day. On this day in 2009, a fountain was opened in the central square of the city park, and a sculpture named "Boots of the Traveller" was solemnly unveiled along the central avenue.
Gulf of Finland coast at Zelenogorsk
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №368-ФЗ от 11 октября 2018 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 5 Федерального закона "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #368-FZ of October 11, 2018 On Amending Article 5 of the Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Pearson, Michael, The Sealed Train; Fischer, Louis, Lenin; a Biography
- Bohlen, Celestine (September 26, 1992). "Zelenogorsk Journal; When Grass Is Greener, There's an Urge to Build". The New York Times. Retrieved March 29, 2012. External link in
- Зеленогорск отмечает 461-ю годовщину со дня основания [Zelenogorsk are celebrates 461st anniversary from the date of the basis]. Society (in Russian). fontanka.ru. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2009-09-03. External link in
- Terijoki.spb.ru – Site with information about the history and the modern life of Zelenogorsk/Terijoki
- Terijoki.fi – Information about the Finnish period of Terijoki and present Finnish Terijoki-activities