Zelenogradsk

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Zelenogradsk
Зеленоградск
View of Zelenogradsk
View of Zelenogradsk
Flag of Zelenogradsk
Coat of arms of Zelenogradsk
Location of Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
Location of Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk is located in European Russia
Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk (European Russia)
Zelenogradsk is located in Europe
Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk
Zelenogradsk (Europe)
Coordinates: 54°58′N 20°29′E / 54.967°N 20.483°E / 54.967; 20.483Coordinates: 54°58′N 20°29′E / 54.967°N 20.483°E / 54.967; 20.483
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaliningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative districtZelenogradsky District[1]
Town of district significanceZelenogradsk[1]
Founded1252[2]
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 • Total13,026
 • Estimate 
(2018)[4]
15,644 (+20.1%)
 • Capital ofZelenogradsky District[5], town of district significance of Zelenogradsk[5]
 • Urban okrugZelenogradsky Urban Okrug[6]
 • Capital ofZelenogradsky Urban Okrug[6]
Time zoneUTC+2 (MSK–1 Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
238326, 238530
OKTMO ID27510000001

Zelenogradsk (Russian: Зеленогра́дск​ ; German: Cranz; Polish: Koronowo; Lithuanian and Old Prussian: Krantas) is a town and the administrative center of Zelenogradsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located 34 kilometers (21 mi) north of Kaliningrad, on the Sambian coastline near the Curonian Spit on the Baltic Sea. Population: 17,296 (2021 Census);[9] 13,026 (2010 Census);[3] 12,509 (2002 Census);[10] 10,786 (1989 Census).[11]

In its heyday, Zelenogradsk (as Cranz) was a popular seaside resort on Germany's eastern Baltic coast, comparable to Bognor Regis in England. However, at the end of World War II, the Soviets took over the town, and much of its tourist traffic has been diverted to nearby Svetlogorsk.

History[edit]

The site of today's Zelenogradsk was originally an Old Prussian fishing village, in the proximity of Kaup, a Prussian town on the coast of the Baltic Sea in the Viking era. The area became controlled by the Teutonic Order and settled with Germans. The German name Cranz, originally Cranzkuhren, derives from the Old Prussian word krantas, meaning "the coast". In 1454, King Casimir IV Jagiellon incorporated the region to the Kingdom of Poland upon the request of the anti-Teutonic Prussian Confederation.[12] After the subsequent Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466), the village became a part of Poland as a fief held by the Teutonic Knights.[13] For most of its history, it remained a small village.

1890–1905 postcard of Cranz with the Ladies Bath

From the 18th century it formed part of the Kingdom of Prussia, and from 1871 it was also part of Germany, within which it was administratively located in the province of East Prussia. During the 19th century, Cranz became the primary seaside resort for the Kingdom of Prussia on the East Prussian coastline, especially after the construction of a railway line connecting it with Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) in 1885. From 1816 to 1895, it was known as das königliche Bad, or "the royal bathing resort". In the late 19th century, the settlement was inhabited by more than 1,000 people, mainly living off tourism, however, the fishing industry remained strong.[14] There was trade in flounder and salmon;[14] smoked flounder was a regional delicacy. Two annual fairs were held, usually in July and August.[14] Although Cranz had over 6,000 inhabitants by the start of World War II, it has not yet received a town charter.

The area was overrun by the Soviet Red Army during World War II and annexed to the Russian SFSR, although it suffered minimally through warfare. The German population fled during the evacuation of East Prussia or was subsequently expelled in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement. Cranz was renamed Zelenogradsk in 1946[2] and was granted town status in the subsequent years.

In 2015, a monument of poet Adam Mickiewicz was erected in the town to commemorate his visit in 1824.[15]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Administration building

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Zelenogradsk serves as the administrative center of Zelenogradsky District.[5] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Zelenogradsky District as the town of district significance of Zelenogradsk.[5]

Within the framework of municipal divisions, since May 15, 2015, the territories of the town of district significance of Zelenogradsk and of four rural okrugs of Zelenogradsky District are incorporated as Zelenogradsky Urban Okrug.[6] Before that, the town of district significance was incorporated within Zelenogradsky Municipal District as Zelenogradskoye Urban Settlement.[6]

Tourism[edit]

Pier
Transfiguration Church
Water tower
Museum

The tourism industry was neglected during the Cold War and Zelenogradsk's tourism primacy was relinquished to nearby Svetlogorsk. This policy changed in recent years. Zelenogradsk is becoming more popular with Russian vacationers, and many rich Russians own private houses in the area.

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Zelenogradsk is twinned with:

Former twin towns:

In March 2022, the Polish city of Braniewo terminated its partnership with Zelenogradsk as a reaction to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[17]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Law #463
  2. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 147. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  4. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Resolution #640
  6. ^ a b c d Law #420
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  11. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  12. ^ Górski, Karol (1949). Związek Pruski i poddanie się Prus Polsce: zbiór tekstów źródłowych (in Polish). Poznań: Instytut Zachodni. p. 54.
  13. ^ Górski, pp. 96–97, 214–215
  14. ^ a b c Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom IV (in Polish). Warszawa. 1883. p. 610.
  15. ^ Rogaczykowa, Helena (2015). "Odsłonięcie pomnika Adama Mickiewicza w Zielenogradsku oraz Dzień miasta Zielenogradsk". Głos znad Pregoły (in Polish). No. 9 (230). p. 3.
  16. ^ Patrick White. Flaws in the Glass. A Self-Portrait. London 1981, p. 41. ISBN 0-14-006293-9
  17. ^ "Braniewo zrywa współpracę z rosyjskimi miastami partnerskimi" (in Polish). Retrieved March 14, 2022.

Sources[edit]

  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Ведомости Правительства Калининградской области"), №112, 26 июня 2010 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #463 of May 27, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Law #450 of July 3, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №420 от 27 апреля 2015 г. «Об объединении поселений, входящих в состав муниципального образования "Зеленоградский район", и организации местного самоуправления на объединённой территории», в ред. Закона №452 от 4 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об объединении поселений, входящих в состав муниципального образования "Зеленоградский район", и организации местного самоуправления на объединённой территории"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации http://www.pravo.gov.ru, 5 мая 2015 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #420 of April 27, 2015 On the Merger of the Settlements Comprising the Municipal Formation of "Zelenogradsky District" and on the Organization of the Local-Self Government on the United Territory, as amended by the Law #452 of September 4, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad Oblast "On the Merger of the Settlements Comprising the Municipal Formation of "Zelenogradsky District" and on the Organization of the Local-Self Government on the United Territory". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication have passed.).

External links[edit]

Media related to Zelenogradsk at Wikimedia Commons