Haggai 1 →
|Book||Book of Zephaniah|
|Christian Bible part||Old Testament|
|Order in the Christian part||36|
Zephaniah 3 is the third (and last) chapter of the Book of Zephaniah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Zephaniah, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter contains further indictments against the Jerusalem community, a prophecy of salvation for Judah and the Nations with Yahweh reigning victoriously as king in Jerusalem.
Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century[a]), and Codex Leningradensis (1008). Fragments containing parts of this chapter in Hebrew were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, including 4Q77 (4QXIIb; 150–125 BCE) with extant verses 19–20; 4Q78 (4QXIIc; 75–50 BCE) with extant verses 1–2; 4Q82 (4QXIIg; 25 BCE) with extant verses 3–5; and Wadi Murabba'at Minor Prophets (Mur88; MurXIIProph; 75-100 CE) with extant verses 1–6, 8–20.
There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK: S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century). Fragments containing parts of this chapter in Greek (a revision of the Septuagint) were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, that is, Naḥal Ḥever (8ḤevXIIgr; 1st century CE) with extant verses 6–7.
Further Indictments against the Jerusalem Community (3:1–8)
After the oracles against the neighboring nations, the judgment of God is announced for Jerusalem for all her sins, but concludes with an announcement of his judgment against the nations.
- "Therefore wait for Me," says the Lord,
- "Until the day I rise up for plunder;
- My determination is to gather the nations
- To My assembly of kingdoms,
- To pour on them My indignation,
- All My fierce anger;
- All the earth shall be devoured
- With the fire of My jealousy."
- "For plunder": or "for witness" in Greek Septuagint and Syriac version; Targum reads "for the day of My revelation for judgment"; Vulgate has "for the day of My resurrection that is to come"
Salvation for Judah and the Nations (3:9–13)
- "For then I will restore to the peoples a pure language,
- That they all may call on the name of the Lord,
- To serve Him with one accord."
Yahweh's Reign as King in Jerusalem (3:14–20)
The joy of Yahweh's victorious kingship in the midst of the people is the theme of the closing section of this book.
- In that day it shall be said to Jerusalem:
- "Do not fear;
- Zion, let not your hands be weak.
- "Let not your hands be weak" - "Let not thine hands be slack" (KJV) — cited (paraphrased) in Hebrews 12:12.
- The Lord your God in your midst,
- The Mighty One, will save;
- He will rejoice over you with gladness,
- He will quiet you with His love,
- He will rejoice over you with singing."
- "The Mighty One, will save" is translated from Hebrew: גבור יושיע gib-bōr yō-shî-a'. The word "gibbor" (= "mighty"), here as an attribute of God, is used in Isaiah 9:6 as one of the attributes of Messiah, who "has all power in heaven and earth"; whereas the word "yoshia" has the same root verb "yasha" (="to save") as "yeshua" or "Jesus" (="he saves" or "savior"), for Jesus Christ, who will be in the midst of His people, and at the head of them, to save them from the enemies (evil ones); the main theme of this passage.
- Since 1947 only parts containing verses 1–19 are extant
- Collins 2014.
- Hayes 2015.
- Metzger, Bruce M., et al. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Keck, Leander E. 1996. The New Interpreter's Bible: Volume: VII. Nashville: Abingdon.
- Mason 2007, p. 606.
- P. W. Skehan (2003), "BIBLE (TEXTS)", New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2 (2nd ed.), Gale, pp. 355–362
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
- Ulrich 2010, p. 617.
- Dead sea scrolls - Zephaniah
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 38.
- Ulrich 2010, p. 618.
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 39.
- Fitzmyer 2008, pp. 140-141.
- Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
- Fitzmyer 2008, p. 127.
- Zephaniah 3:8 NKJV
- Note [d] on Zephaniah 3:8 in NKJV
- Zephaniah 3:9 NKJV
- Note [e] on Zephaniah 3:9 in NKJV
- Hebrew text analysis - Zephaniah 3:9. Biblehub.com
- Zephaniah 3:16
- Zephaniah 3:17
- Gill, John. Exposition of the Entire Bible - Zephaniah 3:17
- Collins, John J. (2014). Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451469233.
- Fitzmyer, Joseph A. (2008). A Guide to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 9780802862419.
- Hayes, Christine (2015). Introduction to the Bible. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300188277.
- Mason, Rex (2007). "35. Zephaniah". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback) ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 604–607. ISBN 978-0199277186. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- Ulrich, Eugene, ed. (2010). The Biblical Qumran Scrolls: Transcriptions and Textual Variants. Brill.
- Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
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