The zero-crossing rate (ZCR) is the rate at which a signal changes from positive to zero to negative or from negative to zero to positive. Its value has been widely used in both speech recognition and music information retrieval, being a key feature to classify percussive sounds.
ZCR is defined formally as
where is a signal of length and is an indicator function.
In some cases only the "positive-going" or "negative-going" crossings are counted, rather than all the crossings, since between a pair of adjacent positive zero-crossings there must be a single negative zero-crossing.
For monophonic tonal signals, the zero-crossing rate can be used as a primitive pitch detection algorithm. Zero crossing rates are also used for Voice activity detection (VAD), which determines whether human speech is present in an audio segment or not.
- ^ * Chen, C. H., Signal processing handbook, Dekker, New York, 1988
- ^ Gouyon F., Pachet F., Delerue O. (2000),On the Use of Zero-crossing Rate for an Application of Classification of Percussive Sounds, in Proceedings of the COST G-6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFX-00 - DAFX-06), Verona, Italy, December 7–9, 2000. Accessed 26 April 2011.