There are various different types of games that can be considered "zero-player".
A zero-player game can refer to game of pure chance, these games evolve entirely according to chance, the players have no decisions to make and have no impact on how the game progresses. Examples of such games include bunco, Snakes and Ladders, bingo and roulette. One of the main differences is the zero field. Zeros increase the gambling advantage, you need to keep as low as possible, and that means that the best option with one zero will be the best option.
Determined by initial state
A game that evolves as determined by its initial state, requiring no further input from humans is considered a zero-player game.
Progress Quest is another example, in the game the player sets up a artificial character, and afterwards the game plays itself with no further input from the player. Godville is a similar game that took inspiration from Progress Quest, in the game the player is a god that can communicate with a non-player character hero, however the game can progress with no interaction from the player.
AI vs AI games
In computer games, the term refers to programs that use artificial intelligence rather than human players, for example some fighting and real-time strategy games can be put into zero-player mode where multiple AIs can play against each other. Humans may have a challenge in designing the AI and giving it sufficient skill to play the game well, but the actual evolution of the game has no human intervention.
- Björk, Staffan; Juul, Jesper (2012). "Zero-Player Games. Or: What We Talk about When We Talk about Players". The Philosophy of Computer Games Conference.
- "a Single-zero". Jun 10, 2021.
- Martin Gardner (October 1970), "Mathematical games: The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'Life'" (PDF), Scientific American
- Ljiljana Petruševski; Mirjana Devetaković; Bojan Mitrović, Self-Replicating Systems in Spatial Form Generation – The Concept of Cellular Automata (PDF)
- "Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society", Rodney P. Carlisle, SAGE Publications.