Bulk Fe. Cast iron, consisting of scrap iron of construction grade, has been used as a reactive material for permeable reactive barriers for groundwater remediation. Reactions are generally believed to occur on the Fe (oxide) surface; however, graphite inclusions have been shown can also serve as a reaction sites.
Nanoscale Fe. In addition to using macroscale iron in PRBs, nanoparticles (1-100 nm diameter) of zerovalent iron (nZVI) are effective.
Zn. Zinc has showed much higher reactivity toward pentachlorophenol than iron. This indicates that zinc may be used as a replacement for ZVI in dechlorinating chlorinated phenols. Chlorinated phenols are sequentially dechlorinated and thus less chlorinated phenols have been identified as a reduction product.
Tratnyek, P. G.; M. M. Scherer; T. J. Johnson; Matheson, L.J. (2003). Permeable reactive barriers of iron and other zerovalent metals. In: Tarr M. A. (ed.), Chemical Degradation Methods for Wastes and Pollutants; Environmental and Industrial Applications. Environmental Science and Pollution Control, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 371–421. doi:10.1201/9780203912553.ch9
^Fu, Fenglian; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Liu, Hong (2014). "The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: A review". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 267: 194–205. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.12.062.
^Stefaniuk, Magdalena; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Ok, Yong Sik (2016). "Review on nano zerovalent iron (NZVI): From synthesis to environmental applications". Chemical Engineering Journal. 287: 618–632. doi:10.1016/j.cej.2015.11.046.
^Gillham, Robert, John Vogan, Lai Gui, Michael Duchene, and Jennifer Son. "Iron Barrier Walls for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation." . Ed. Hans F. Stroo and C. Herb Ward. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, 2010.
^Tratnyek, Paul, and Rick Johnson. "Remediation with Iron Metal." Center for Groundwater Research. Oregon Health and Science University, 04 Feb. 2005.
^ abJafarpour, B.; Imhoff, P. T.; Chiu. P.C. 2005. Quantification and modeling of 2,4-dinitrotoluene reduction with high-purity and cast iron. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. 76(1-2): 87-107. doi:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2004.08.001
^Kim, Y. H.; Carraway, E. R. 2003. Dechlorination of chlorinated phenols by zerovalent zinc. Environmental Technology. 24(12): 1455-1463. doi:10.1080/09593330309385690
^Boparai, Hardiljeet K.; Joseph, Meera; o'Carroll, Denis M. (2011). "Kinetics and thermodynamics of cadmium ion removal by adsorption onto nano zerovalent iron particles". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 186 (1): 458–465. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.029. PMID21130566.
^Bedner, M.; W. A. MacCrehan; G. R. Helz. 2004. Making chlorine greener: investigation of alternatives to sulfite for dechlorination. Water Research. 38(10): 2505-2514. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2004.03.010