A Qing dynasty illustration of Zhang He
|General of Chariots and Cavalry Who Attacks the West
229 – 231
|General of the Left (左將軍)|
220 – 229
|General Who Defeats Bandits (盪寇將軍)|
215 – 220
|Monarch||Emperor Xian of Han|
Qinzhou District, Tianshui, Gansu
|Courtesy name||Junyi (儁乂)|
|Posthumous name||Marquis Zhuang (壯侯)|
|Peerage||Marquis of Mao (鄚侯)|
Zhang He (died 231), courtesy name Junyi, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He continued serving in the state of Cao Wei under its first two rulers, Cao Pi and Cao Rui, during the Three Kingdoms period until his death.
Zhang He began his career under Han Fu, the Inspector of Ji Province, in the 180s when he joined the Han imperial forces in suppressing the Yellow Turban Rebellion. He became a subordinate of the warlord Yuan Shao in 191 after Yuan seized the governorship of Ji Province from Han Fu. Throughout the 190s, Zhang He fought in the battles against Yuan Shao's northern rival, Gongsun Zan. In 200, Zhang He initially fought on Yuan Shao's side at the Battle of Guandu against Cao Cao, a warlord who controlled the Han central government. However, he defected to Cao Cao after Yuan Shao's defeat at Guandu in the same year.[a] Since then, he had fought in several wars under Cao Cao's banner, including the campaigns against Yuan Shao's heirs and allies (201–207), the expeditions in northwestern China (211–214), and the battles around Hanzhong (215–219). After Cao Cao's death in 220, Zhang He served in Wei and fought in battles against Wei's rival states, Shu Han and Eastern Wu. His best known victory was at the Battle of Jieting in 228, in which he defeated the Shu general Ma Su by cutting off the enemy's access to water supplies and then attacking them. In 231, he was killed in an ambush laid by Shu forces during the Battle of Mount Qi while he was reluctantly pursuing a retreating enemy force.
Chen Shou, who wrote Zhang He's biography in the historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi), named Zhang one of the Five Elite Generals of his time, alongside Zhang Liao, Yue Jin, Yu Jin and Xu Huang.
- 1 Service under Han Fu and Yuan Shao
- 2 Defection to Cao Cao
- 3 Service under Cao Cao
- 4 Service under Cao Pi
- 5 Service under Cao Rui
- 6 Family
- 7 Appraisal
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
Service under Han Fu and Yuan Shao
Zhang He was from Mao County (鄚縣), Hejian State (河閒國), which is in present-day Maozhou, Hebei. Towards the end of the Han dynasty, when the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out, he responded to the Han government's call for volunteers to serve in the army and help to suppress the revolt. He was appointed as a Major (司馬) and placed under the command of Han Fu, the Inspector (刺史) of Ji Province (present-day southern Hebei). In 191, after Han Fu relinquished his control of Ji Province to the warlord Yuan Shao, Zhang He came to serve Yuan and was promoted to the rank of Colonel (校尉). Between 191 and 199, Zhang He fought on Yuan Shao's side in the war between Yuan and his rival Gongsun Zan. In 199, after Yuan Shao had eliminated Gongsun Zan at the Battle of Yijing, Zhang He was further promoted to General of the Household Who Brings Peace to the Country (寧國中郎將) for his achievements in battle.
Defection to Cao Cao
In 200 CE, Yuan Shao fought the Battle of Guandu with Cao Cao, a warlord who controlled the Han central government and the figurehead Emperor Xian. When Yuan Shao had the upper hand in the initial stages of the battle, Zhang He suggested that he avoid direct confrontation with Cao Cao and instead send a light cavalry force south to attack the rear of Cao's camp. Yuan Shao did not heed Zhang He's suggestion.
Yuan Shao had sent his general Chunyu Qiong to guard his army's supply depot at Wuchao (烏巢; southeast of present-day Yanjin County, Henan). One night, Cao Cao led a raid on Wuchao to destroy Yuan Shao's supplies. When news of the attack on Wuchao reached Yuan Shao's camp, Zhang He advised Yuan, "Lord Cao's forces are well-trained so they'll definitely defeat Chunyu Qiong. If Chunyu Qiong is defeated, all is lost for you, General. You should immediately despatch forces to reinforce Wuchao." Yuan Shao's adviser Guo Tu disagreed with Zhang He, "Zhang He's idea isn't right. Why don't we attack Cao Cao's main camp instead? He'll definitely head back to defend his camp. In this way, we can stop the attack on Wuchao without having to send reinforcements there." Zhang He replied, "Lord Cao's camp is well-defended and can't be conquered easily. If Chunyu Qiong is taken captive, we'll all become prisoners-of-war." Yuan Shao despatched a detachment of light cavalry to reinforce Wuchao and sent heavily armed forces to attack Cao Cao's main camp. Cao Cao succeeded in destroying Yuan Shao's supplies at Wuchao, while his main camp successfully resisted Yuan's attacks. Cao Cao scored an overall decisive victory over Yuan Shao in the battle.
Guo Tu felt embarrassed after seeing that his suggestion had resulted in his lord's defeat, so he attempted to divert attention away from himself by accusing Zhang He of displaying schadenfreude upon learning of their defeat. Zhang He became afraid when he heard about this, so he defected to Cao Cao's side. Cao Cao was very pleased when Zhang He came to join him and he told Zhang, "In the past, Wu Zixu failed to realise and met his downfall.[b] What if he had abandoned Yin like Weizi[c] and defected to Han like Han Xin?[d]"
Inconsistency in historical records
The historian Pei Songzhi pointed out a discrepancy between Zhang He's biography and the biographies of Cao Cao and Yuan Shao about the time when Zhang He defected to Cao Cao's side. According to Cao Cao and Yuan Shao's biographies, Yuan sent Zhang He and Gao Lan to attack Cao's main camp per Guo Tu's suggestion. They defected to Cao Cao when they learnt that Wuchao was lost, and their defection resulted in Yuan Shao's defeat. Based on these two accounts, Zhang He defected to Cao Cao before Yuan Shao's defeat at the Battle of Guandu. On the other hand, Zhang He's biography mentioned that Zhang defected to Cao Cao after Yuan Shao's defeat at Guandu and after Guo Tu slandered him.
Service under Cao Cao
After his defection, Zhang He was appointed by the Han imperial court (under Cao Cao's control) as a Lieutenant-General (偏將軍) and received the title of a Marquis of a Chief Village (都亭侯). Between 200 and 207, he fought on Cao Cao's side against Yuan Shao's heirs and allies at the battles of Ye (204), Bohai (205) and Liucheng (207). In 206, he participated in the campaign against pirate forces led by Guan Cheng (管承) in Donglai Commandery (東萊郡; around present-day Yantai and Weihai, Shandong). He was promoted to General Who Pacifies the Di (平狄將軍) for his contributions. In 209, after the Battle of Red Cliffs, Chen Lan and Mei Cheng (梅成) started a rebellion in Lu County (六縣; in present-day Lu'an, Anhui). Cao Cao ordered Zhang Liao to lead a force to suppress the revolt. Zhang He and Niu Gai (牛蓋) served as Zhang Liao's deputies and succeeded in eliminating the rebels.
Campaigns in northwestern China
In 211, Zhang He participated in the Battle of Weinan against a coalition of warlords from the Guanzhong region led by Ma Chao and Han Sui. The coalition broke up after Cao Cao defeated the warlords in the battle. Cao Cao sent Zhang He to lead a force to attack one of the warlords, Yang Qiu, at Anding Commandery (安定郡; covering parts of present-day Ningxia and Gansu), and Zhang succeeded in forcing Yang to surrender. In 212, Zhang He accompanied Xiahou Yuan on a campaign against another of the warlords, Liang Xing, and the Di tribes in Wudu Commandery (武都郡; in present-day Longnan, Gansu). In 214, Xiahou Yuan and Zhang He defeated Ma Chao, who had borrowed troops from the warlord Zhang Lu in Hanzhong Commandery after being driven out of Guanzhong. They also eliminated rebel forces led by Song Jian (宋建).
Battles in Hanzhong
In 215, when Cao Cao launched a campaign against Zhang Lu in Hanzhong Commandery, he first sent Zhang He to lead an army ahead to attack Liang Xing and the Di tribal king, Dou Mao (竇茂). He ordered Zhang He to lead 5,000 infantry to clear the path after entering Hanzhong via San Pass (散關; southwest of present-day Baoji, Shaanxi). After receiving Zhang Lu's surrender, Cao Cao headed back and left behind Xiahou Yuan, Zhang He and other generals to defend Hanzhong from his rival Liu Bei, who controlled Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing), which was directly south of Hanzhong.
Later that year, Zhang He pacified Badong (巴東; east of present-day Chongqing) and Baxi (巴西; around present-day Langzhong, Sichuan) commanderies and relocated the residents to Hanzhong. He was defeated by Liu Bei's general Zhang Fei at Dangqu (宕渠; in present-day Qu County, Sichuan) and abandoned his horse and escaped on foot via a shortcut with only a few of his men. He retreated back to Nanzheng (南鄭; present-day Nanzheng County, Shaanxi) with his remaining troops. He was promoted to General Who Defeats Bandits (盪寇將軍) later.
In 218, Liu Bei launched a campaign to seize control of Hanzhong from Cao Cao's forces. He garrisoned his forces at Yangping (陽平; in present-day Ningqiang County, Shaanxi) while Zhang He stationed his troops at Guangshi (廣石). Liu Bei divided his thousands of elite soldiers into ten groups and ordered them to attack Zhang He's position at night. Zhang He personally led his men to resist Liu Bei's forces and succeeded in holding off the enemy. In the meantime, Liu Bei set fire to the fences at Zhang He's camp in Zouma Valley (走馬谷). Xiahou Yuan led some soldiers to put out the fire and encountered Liu Bei's force along the way and engaged the enemy. Xiahou Yuan was killed in action while Zhang He retreated. According to the Weilüe, Liu Bei was fearful that Xiahou Yuan would be replaced by Zhang He as the commander of Cao Cao's forces in Hanzhong. He also expressed disappointment after learning that it was Xiahou Yuan, and not Zhang He, who was killed in battle.
Cao Cao's forces in Hanzhong were shocked when they learnt of their commander's death and became worried that Liu Bei might take advantage of the situation to press on the attack. Guo Huai, a Major (司馬) who served under Xiahou Yuan, expressed support for Zhang He to be the new commander. He said, "General Zhang (He) is a famous general in the Empire. Even Liu Bei is afraid of him. He's the only person capable of restoring stability in this hour of peril." Zhang He assumed the role and reorganised his forces. The other officers were all willing to submit to his command. Stability was restored.
Cao Cao, who was then in Chang'an, sent a messenger to Hanzhong to approve Zhang He's command. In the following year, he personally led an army to Hanzhong to reinforce Zhang He. Liu Bei ordered his forces to remain in their positions in the mountainous regions and refused to engage Cao Cao in battle. Cao Cao eventually gave up on Hanzhong and led his forces out. Zhang He was relocated to a garrison at Chencang (陳倉; present-day Chencang District, Baoji, Shaanxi).
Service under Cao Pi
Cao Cao died in early 220 and was succeeded by his son Cao Pi as the King of Wei (魏王). Cao Pi promoted Zhang He to General of the Left (左將軍) and increased his marquis rank to Marquis of a Chief District (都鄉侯). Later that year, Cao Pi ended the Han dynasty and established the state of Cao Wei with him as its first ruler, after which he enfeoffed Zhang He as the Marquis of Mao (鄚侯). In 221, Cao Pi ordered Zhang He and Cao Zhen to lead forces to attack the Lushui and Eastern Qiang tribes in Anding Commandery (安定郡; covering parts of present-day Ningxia and Gansu).
Battle of Jiangling
In the following year, Cao Pi summoned Zhang He and Cao Zhen for an audience with him in the Wei capital Luoyang, and then ordered them, Xiahou Shang and other generals to lead armies to attack Jiangling Commandery (江陵郡; commandery capital in present-day Jiangling County, Hubei), which was controlled by Wei's rival state, Eastern Wu. During the battle, Zhang He supervised the Wei forces as they captured an island on the Yangtze River and started constructing a small castle on it. The battle had an inconclusive overall result because the Wei forces withdrew on their own without making any significant gains.
Service under Cao Rui
Cao Pi died in 226 and was succeeded by his son Cao Rui as the emperor of Wei. Cao Rui ordered Zhang He to garrison in Jing Province to defend Wei's southern border from Eastern Wu. Later on, Zhang He and Sima Yi led troops to attack Wu forces commanded by Liu E (劉阿) and defeated them at Qikou (祁口).
Repelling the first Shu invasion
In 228, Zhuge Liang, the chancellor-regent of Wei's rival state Shu Han, led the Shu forces on the first of a series of campaigns to attack Wei. Zhang He was recalled back from Jing Province to defend Wei's western borders in the Guanzhong region (covering areas in present-day Gansu and Shaanxi) from the Shu armies. Later that year, he defeated the Shu general Ma Su at the Battle of Jieting by first cutting off the enemy's access to water supplies and then attacking them. Earlier on, the three commanderies of Nan'an (南安; in present-day Dingxi, Gansu), Tianshui (天水; in present-day Tianshui, Gansu) and Anding (安定; covering parts of present-day Ningxia and Gansu) had responded to Zhuge Liang's call and defected to Shu. Zhang He attacked the three commanderies and took them back for Wei. Cao Rui issued an imperial decree to praise Zhang He for his success in repelling the Shu invasion and reward him by adding 1,000 taxable households to his marquisate. Zhang He had 4,300 households in his marquisate after the increment.
Aborted campaign against Wu
Around the time, the Wei general Sima Yi, who was training naval forces in Jing Province, planned for an invasion of Wu via the Han River, which links to the Yangtze River. Cao Rui ordered Zhang He to lead forces from the Guanzhong region to Jing Province to support Sima Yi. However, when they arrived in Jing Province, it was already in winter and the waters were unsuitable for the larger ships to sail on, hence the campaign was aborted. Zhang He then returned to his garrison at Fangcheng (方城).
Predicting the outcome of the Siege of Chencang
In late 228, Zhuge Liang launched a second campaign against Wei and besieged the Wei fortress at Chencang (陳倉; present-day Chencang District, Baoji, Shaanxi), which was defended by Hao Zhao. Cao Rui summoned Zhang He back to the capital Luoyang to discuss plans to counter the Shu invasion but they met in Henan instead. Cao Rui placed Zhang He in command of 30,000 troops and reassigned some of the Imperial Guards to serve as Zhang's bodyguards. He asked Zhang He, "General, if you're late, will Zhuge Liang have already captured Chencang?" Zhang He predicted that Zhuge Liang's forces could not maintain the siege on Chencang for long because they lacked supplies. He replied, "Zhuge Liang will have already left before I even reach Chencang. I estimate he has less than 10 days worth of supplies." He then led his troops towards Nanzheng (南鄭; present-day Nanzheng County, Shaanxi), travelling day and night. The Shu forces retreated. Cao Rui summoned Zhang He back to Luoyang and commissioned him as General of Chariots and Cavalry Who Attacks the West (征西車騎將軍).
In 231, when Zhuge Liang launched the fourth campaign against Wei, Cao Rui ordered Sima Yi and Zhang He to lead Wei's forces west to counter the invasion. When Zhang He's army arrived in Lueyang (略陽; present-day Lueyang County, Shaanxi), Zhuge Liang retreated to Mount Qi (the mountainous regions around present-day Li County, Gansu) to defend his position. When Sima Yi ordered Zhang He to pursue the enemy, Zhang refused and said that according to classical military doctrine, they should not pursue an enemy force returning to its base. Sima Yi insisted, so Zhang He had no choice but to pursue the retreating Shu forces. He fell into an ambush at Mumen Trail (木門道; near present-day Mumen Village, Mudan Town, Qinzhou District, Tianshui, Gansu) and died after a stray arrow hit him in the right knee. Cao Rui granted him the posthumous title "Marquis Zhuang" (壯侯), which literally means "robust marquis".
Zhang He had four sons, who were all enfeoffed as marquises by Cao Rui in recognition of their father's contributions to Wei. The eldest, Zhang Xiong (張雄), inherited his father's title "Marquis of Mao" (鄚侯). The youngest son, whose name is unknown, received the title of a Secondary Marquis (關內侯).
Zhang He was described to be a resourceful and proficient military leader who was well versed in geography and capable of making accurate predictions about war situations, to the point where even Zhuge Liang was wary of him. Even though he served in the military, he highly respected Confucian scholars. He once recommended Bei Zhan (卑湛), a learned scholar who was known for his good moral conduct and who was from the same hometown as him, to serve in the Wei government. Cao Rui accepted Zhang He's suggestion and appointed Bei Zhan as an Academician (博士). He also issued an imperial decree to praise Zhang He for not only defending Wei's borders, but also showing concern for the internal preservation of Wei.
In popular culture
- Two other accounts claimed that Zhang He defected to Cao Cao's side before Yuan Shao lost the Battle of Guandu. See #Inconsistency in historical records.
- Wu Zixu was an official in the Wu state during the Spring and Autumn period. He foresaw that Wu would be defeated by the Yue state and attempted to warn King Fuchai, but was ignored. Fuchai eventually ordered him to commit suicide. What Cao Cao meant is: "If Wu Zixu had realised that he should no longer serve King Fuchai, he might not have met his downfall."
- Weizi (微子) was a relative and adviser of King Zhou, the tyrannical last ruler of the Shang dynasty. He abandoned Shang and defected to the faction which eventually overthrew Shang and established the Zhou dynasty.
- Han Xin was a general who served under Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty. He initially served Liu Bang's rival Xiang Yu, but defected to Liu Bang's side later and assisted Liu Bang in defeating Xiang Yu and unifying China under Han rule.
- de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 1048. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0.
- (評曰：太祖建茲武功，而時之良將，五子為先。于禁最號毅重，然弗克其終。張郃以巧變為稱，樂進以驍果顯名，而鑒其行事，未副所聞。或注記有遺漏，未如張遼、徐晃之備詳也。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 60.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 63.
- (張郃字儁乂，河閒鄚人也。漢末應募討黃巾，為軍司馬，屬韓馥。馥敗，以兵歸袁紹。紹以郃為校尉，使拒公孫瓚。瓚破，郃功多，遷寧國中郎將。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (漢晉春秋曰：郃說紹曰：「公雖連勝，然勿與曹公戰也，密遣輕騎鈔絕其南，則兵自敗矣。」紹不從之。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖與袁紹相拒於官渡，紹遣將淳于瓊等督運屯烏巢，太祖自將急擊之。郃說紹曰：「曹公兵精，往必破瓊等；瓊等破，則將軍事去矣，宜急引兵救之。」郭圖曰：「郃計非也。不如攻其本營，勢必還，此為不救而自解也。」郃曰：「曹公營固，攻之必不拔，若瓊等見禽，吾屬盡為虜矣。」紹但遣輕騎救瓊，而以重兵攻太祖營，不能下。太祖果破瓊等，紹軍潰。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (圖慙，又更譖郃曰：「郃快軍敗，出言不遜。」郃懼，乃歸太祖。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖得郃甚喜，謂曰：「昔子胥不早寤，自使身危，豈若微子去殷、韓信歸漢邪？」拜郃偏將軍，封都亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (臣松之案武紀及袁紹傳並云袁紹使張郃、高覽攻太祖營，郃等聞淳于瓊破，遂來降，紹衆於是大潰。是則緣郃等降而後紹軍壞也。至如此傳，為紹軍先潰，懼郭圖之譖，然後歸太祖，為參錯不同矣。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 64–65.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 66.
- (陳蘭、梅成以氐六縣叛，太祖遣于禁、臧霸等討成，遼督張郃、牛蓋等討蘭。 ...) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (拜郃偏將軍，封都亭侯。授以衆，從攻鄴，拔之。又從擊袁譚於渤海，別將軍圍雍奴，大破之。從討柳城，與張遼俱為軍鋒，以功遷平狄將軍。別征東萊，討管承，又與張遼討陳蘭、梅成等，破之。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 67.
- (超奔漢中，還圍祁山。叙等急求救，諸將議者欲須太祖節度。淵曰：「公在鄴，反覆四千里，比報，叙等必敗，非救急也。」遂行，使張郃督步騎五千在前，從陳倉狹道入，淵自督糧在後。郃至渭水上，超將氐羌數千逆郃。未戰，超走，郃進軍收超軍器械。淵到，諸縣皆已降。) Sanguozhi vol. 9.
- (從破馬超、韓遂於渭南。圍安定，降楊秋。與夏侯淵討鄜賊梁興及武都氐。又破馬超，平宋建。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖征張魯，先遣郃督諸軍討興和氐王竇茂。太祖從散關入漢中，又先遣郃督步卒五千於前通路。至陽平，魯降，太祖還，留郃與夏侯淵等守漢中，拒劉備。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (郃棄馬緣山，獨與麾下十餘人從間道退，引軍還南鄭，巴土獲安。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.
- (郃別督諸軍，降巴東、巴西二郡，徙其民於漢中。進軍宕渠，為備將張飛所拒，引還南鄭。拜盪寇將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 68.
- (劉備屯陽平，郃屯廣石。備以精卒萬餘，分為十部，夜急攻郃。郃率親兵搏戰，備不能克。其後備於走馬谷燒都圍，淵救火，從他道與備相遇，交戰，短兵接刃。淵遂沒，郃還陽平。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (魏略曰：淵雖為都督，劉備憚郃而易淵。及殺淵，備曰：「當得其魁，用此何為邪！」) Weilüe annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (當是時，新失元帥，恐為備所乘，三軍皆失色。淵司馬郭淮乃令衆曰：「張將軍，國家名將，劉備所憚；今日事急，非張將軍不能安也。」遂推郃為軍主。郃出，勒兵安陣，諸將皆受郃節度，衆心乃定。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (太祖在長安，遣使假郃節。太祖遂自至漢中，劉備保高山不敢戰。太祖乃引出漢中諸軍，郃還屯陳倉。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 69.
- (文帝即王位，以郃為左將軍，進爵都鄉侯。及踐阼，進封鄚侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (詔郃與曹真討安定盧水胡及東羌， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (... 召郃與真並朝許宮，遣南與夏侯尚擊江陵。郃別督諸軍渡江，取洲上屯塢。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 70.
- (明帝即位，遣南屯荊州，與司馬宣王擊孫權別將劉阿等，追至祁口，交戰，破之。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (諸葛亮出祁山。加郃位特進，遣督諸軍，拒亮將馬謖於街亭。謖依阻南山，不下據城。郃絕其汲道，擊，大破之。南安、天水、安定郡反應亮，郃皆破平之。詔曰：「賊亮以巴蜀之衆，當虓虎之師。將軍被堅執銳，所向克定，朕甚嘉之。益邑千戶，并前四千三百戶。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (司馬宣王治水軍於荊州，欲順沔入江伐吳，詔郃督關中諸軍往受節度。至荊州，會冬水淺，大船不得行，乃還屯方城。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (諸葛亮復出，急攻陳倉，帝驛馬召郃到京都。帝自幸河南城，置酒送郃，遣南北軍士三萬及分遣武衞、虎賁使衞郃，因問郃曰：「遲將軍到，亮得無已得陳倉乎！」郃知亮縣軍無穀，不能乆攻，對曰：「比臣未到，亮已走矣；屈指計亮糧不至十日。」郃晨夜進至南鄭，亮退。詔郃還京都，拜征西車騎將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zizhi Tongjian vol. 72.
- (魏略曰：亮軍退，司馬宣王使郃追之，郃曰：「軍法，圍城必開出路，歸軍勿追。」宣王不聽。郃不得已，遂進。蜀軍乘高布伏，弓弩亂發，矢中郃髀。) Weilüe annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (諸葛亮復出祁山，詔郃督諸將西至略陽，亮還保祁山，郃追至木門，與亮軍交戰，飛矢中郃右膝，薨，謚曰壯侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (子雄嗣。郃前後征伐有功，明帝分郃戶，封郃四子列侯。賜小子爵關內侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- (郃識變數，善處營陣，料戰勢地形，無不如計，自諸葛亮皆憚之。郃雖武將而愛樂儒士，嘗薦同鄉卑湛經明行脩，詔曰：「昔祭遵為將，奏置五經大夫，居軍中，與諸生雅歌投壺。今將軍外勒戎旅，內存國朝。朕嘉將軍之意，今擢湛為博士。」) Sanguozhi vol. 17.
- Zhang He, Wei General - Portal Three Kingdoms, Magic: the Gathering - Online Gaming Store for Cards, Miniatures, Singles, Packs & Booster Boxes
- Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
- Luo, Guanzhong. Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo Yanyi).
- Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
- Sima, Guang. Zizhi Tongjian.