Zhang Jian (politician)
Zhang Jian (Chinese: 张謇; 1853–1926), courtesy name Jizhi (季直), sobriquet Se'an (啬庵), was a Chinese entrepreneur, politician and educationist.
Zhang was born in Haimen County, Jiangsu Province in 1853. He achieved the highest score in the 1894 Imperial Examination of the Qing Dynasty and attained the title zhuangyuan. He subsequently served in the Hanlin Academy.
In 1909, Zhang was elected the chairman of Jiangsu provincial parliament. In 1912, Zhang drafted the Abdication Edict for Puyi, the last emperor of China. He was appointed as the Minister of Enterprise of the temporary government of the Republic of China. In 1913, Zhang became the Minister of Industry and Commerce and Minister of Agriculture and Forestry in Beiyang Government. In 1914, he served as the director of the State Administration of Water Resources.
The ideal he advocated, "Enterprise as Father, Education as Mother", has a profound impact on Chinese history. In his life, he founded over 20 companies, and over 370 schools, and made a significant contribution to the industrialization and education of modern China.
- Fong, Grace S. "Female Hands: Embroidery as a Knowledge Field in Women’s Everyday Life in Late Imperial and Early Republican China" (PDF). columbia.edu. Retrieved 31 March 2015.