Zhangjiakou

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Zhangjiakou

张家口市

Changchiakow, Kalgan
清河岸上是我家 - panoramio.jpg
Gulou of Xuanhua.jpg
雪夜大境门,闪烁的是 警灯 - panoramio.jpg
五一广场放礼花 - panoramio.jpg
Tong Bridge of zhangjiakou,Nov 13,2009.jpg
Clockwise from the top: Qingshui riverfront, downtown fireworks, Tong Bridge, Qingyuan Building, Dajingmen
Nickname(s): 
Pearl of the Great Wall (塞外明珠)
Location of Zhangjiakou City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Zhangjiakou City jurisdiction in Hebei
Zhangjiakou is located in Hebei
Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Zhangjiakou is located in North China Plain
Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou (North China Plain)
Zhangjiakou is located in China
Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou
Zhangjiakou (China)
Coordinates (Zhangjiakou municipal government): 40°46′08″N 114°53′10″E / 40.769°N 114.886°E / 40.769; 114.886Coordinates: 40°46′08″N 114°53′10″E / 40.769°N 114.886°E / 40.769; 114.886
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
Settled2500 B.C.
EstablishedNovember 15, 1983
Municipal seatQiaodong District
Government
 • Party SecretaryHui Jian (回建)
 • MayorWu Weidong (武卫东)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city36,861.56 km2 (14,232.33 sq mi)
 • Urban407.21 km2 (157.22 sq mi)
 • Districts[1]6,963.8 km2 (2,688.7 sq mi)
Elevation
716 m (2,349 ft)
Population
 (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city4,650,000
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
 • Urban1,055,900
 • Urban density2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)
 • Districts[1]
2,137,000
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-07
Licence plate prefixes冀G
Websitewww.zjk.gov.cn
Zhangjiakou
ZJK name.svg
"Zhangjiakou", as written in Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese张家口
Traditional Chinese張家口
PostalChangchiakow
Literal meaning"Zhang family's pass"
Kalgan
Simplified Chinese喀拉干
Traditional Chinese喀拉幹
Literal meaning(Mongolian) "The gate"
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptᠬᠠᠭᠠᠯᠭᠠᠨ

Zhangjiakou (/ˈɑːŋiˈɑːˈk/;[2] Chinese: 张家口; pinyin: Zhāngjiākǒu; Mandarin pronunciation: [ʈʂáŋ tɕjá kʰòu]) also known as Kalgan and several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest. By 2019, its population was 4,650,000 inhabitants on 36,861.56 square kilometres (14,232.33 sq mi), divided into 17 Counties and Districts. The built-up (or metro) area made of Qiaoxi, Qiaodong, Chongli, Xuanhua, Xiahuayuan Districts largely being conurbated had 1,500,000 inhabitants in 2019 on 1,412.7 km2 (545.4 sq mi).

Since ancient times, Zhangjiakou has been a stronghold of military significance and vied for by multiple sides. Hence, Zhangjiakou is given the nickname the Northern Gate of Beijing. Due to its strategic position on several important transport arteries, it is a critical node for travel between Hebei and Inner Mongolia and connecting northwest China, Mongolia, and Beijing. Dajingmen, an important gate and junction of the Great Wall of China is located here.[3]

In the south, Zhangjiakou is largely cultivated for agricultural use. In the north, Bashang is a part of the Mongolian plateau and dominated by grasslands. The forest coverage reaches 37%, earning Zhangjiakou the title of National Forest City. According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Zhangjiakou has the freshest air and least PM 2.5 pollution of all Chinese cities north of Yellow River. Zhangjiakou also possesses 4.6% of China's wind energy resources, 2.5% of which has already been put into use. Moreover, the city ranks second in solar energy use [4]:25–30 Zhangjiakou will be one of the host cities at the 2022 Winter Olympics.

Names[edit]

Zhangjiakou (Chang-chia-k'ou) is written 张家口 in simplified Chinese and 張家口 in traditional Chinese. It is Zhāngjiākǒu in pinyin, the name meaning "Zhang family pass." Older names for the town in Chinese include Zhāngyuán (張垣), used in the Republican era.

Zhangjiakou was historically known to Europeans as Kalgan (喀拉干, Kālāgàn) until the mid 20th century. This name derives from the Mongolian name of the city, Cighulaltu qaghalgha.svg, "Čiɣulaltu qaɣalɣa" (Classical Mongolian), "Chuulalt haalga" (modern Mongolian) or shorter, Qaghalghan.svg, "Qaghalghan" (Classical Mongolian), "Haalgan" (modern Mongolian), which means "the gate" (in the Great Wall). In Manchu, the city is known as Imiyangga Jase.svg (Imiyangga jase).

Because of its strategic position above and northwest of Beijing, Zhangjiakou has been nicknamed "Beijing's Northern Door".

History[edit]

Pre-Qin Era[edit]

Left image: Huangdi or Yellow Emperor
Right image: Chiyou

There are many paleolithic remains like Nihewan, Xiaochangliang,and Maquangou located in Guyuan county, which indicated human activities dating back as far as 1.36 million to 2 million years ago, thus becoming one of the earliest sites of human activities in human history and constituting a challenge against the notion that humanity originated from East Africa.[5]

Around 2500 BC, the legendary ancestors of Chinese people, Huangdi, Yandi, and Chiyou used to live in area of Zhuolu Town, and later fought the Battle of Zhuolu and Battle of Banquan, amalgamating different tribes into a single Huaxia tribe, thus beginning Chinese history.[5]

During Spring and Autumn period, Xiongnu and Donghu people inhabited the northern area while Yan State (since around 11th century BC) and Dai state (since 7th century BC) occupied the southern area. In 475 BC, Dai was occupied by Zhao Wuxu of Zhao State. In 300 BC, King Wuling of Zhao established Dai Commandery, managing the area of ancient Dai state with its administrative center in Dai, currently Daiwangcheng, Yu County. During the same period of time, King Zhao of Yan sent General Qin Kai who was once captured by Donghu people and thus became familiar with their tactics to defeat Donghu. Following that, Yan State built Great Wall in its border extending from Zaoyang (currently northeast of Xuanhua) to Xiangping (currently north of Liaoyang). In 283 BC, King Zhao established Shanggu Commandery.[5]:15–16 In 265 BC, Li Mu, a famous general of Zhao, commanded and deployed troops in Dai to protect against Xiongnu. After arriving in Dai, initially Li Mu banned any counterattack against Xiongnu to preserve the strength for years, which however incurred the discontent of King of Zhao. As a result, Li Mu was sacked. Following Zhao troops' defeat later, King of Zhao reinistated Li Mu. Viewing Zhao troops as cowards, Xiongnu grew arrogant and underestimated Zhao's strength. Finally, Li Mu led troops and ambushed Xiongnu, causing hundreds of thousands of casualties and great damage of Xiongu, thus ensuring decades of peace in Zhao's borderlands.

In 228 BC, Wang Jian, a Qin general defeated Zhao army and occupied its capital, Handan. Jia, a son of Zhao king, escaped to Dai, currently northeast of Yu County and declared himself as the King of Dai. In alliance with Xi, King of Yan, the combined army, commanded by Crown Prince Dan was defeated at Yishui. In 222 BC, Wang Ben, a Qin general defeated Yan state and then, attacked Dai. He captured Jia and ended Dai as a state. Jia feared humiliation and committed suicide.

Qin-Han Era[edit]

During Qin dynasty, Shihuangdi sent Meng Tian, commanding 300,000 troops to defend his empire from Xiongnu's attacks. They spent 10 years connecting the Great Wall of Yan, Qin and Zhao, thus building Great Wall of Qin, the first Great Wall of 10,000 li, its 80-kilometer-long relics currently located in Batou (坝头), or Erdaogou (二道沟) in local slang, to the north of Zhangjiakou downtown area. The southern area of Zhangjiakou was under jurisdiction of Dai Commandery and Shanggu Commandery.

During Han dynasty, most part of the area belonged to You Prefecture while some parts belonged to Wuhuan, Xiongnu and Xianbei.[5]:15–16 When Liu Bang established Han dynasty, he granted Dai and the title of King of Dai to his brother Liu Zhong in 201 BC. One year later, Liu Zhong was defeated by Modu Chanyu of Xiongnu and escaped, thus demoted. In 196 BC, Chen Xi, the chancellor of Zhao, rebelled against the emperor and occupied more than 20 cities soon after. As a result, Liu Bang commanded an army in person from Luoyang. During the war, the empress launched a coup d'état and killed Han Xin, the most important general who helped establish Han dynasty. With the help of Fan Kuai and Zhou Bo, Liu Bang defeated Chen Xi very soon. Following the rebellion, Liu Bang granted the title of King of Dai to his third son, Liu Heng, later Emperor Wen of Han.[5]:17–21

Expansion of Han dynasty. Wei Qing's campaigns against Xiongnu is shown in red arrows.

Zhangjiakou was a major battleground during Han–Xiongnu War. In 127 BC, Xiongnu cavalry attacked Shanggu (currently Huailai), Yuyang. The Emperor Wu of Han launched a successful counterattack. In 124 BC, Xiongnu cavalry invaded Dai Commandery. Emperor Wu ordered Wei Qing commanding 100,000 troops to counterattack. Wei Qing left the Great Wall more than 600 to 700 kilometers, encircled Xiongnu's head, Youxianwang (右贤王). In 122 BC, 50,000 Xiongnu invaded Shanggu, killed hundreds of people. In next March, Huo Qubing commanded 10,000 cavalry to counterattack and achieved success. In 119 BC, Wei Qing and Huo Qubing each commanded 50,000 cavalry. Huo Qubing departed from Dai Commandery, marched 2000 li northward crossing Gobi desert. Finally, Han troops defeated Xiongnu under Yizhixie completely. Following the success, a new office, the Colonel-Protector of the Wuhuan (护乌桓校尉), was established in Shanggu in order to prevent contact between the Wuhuan with the Xiongnu and to use them to monitor the Xiongnu activities.[6] In 106 BC, Emperor Wu of Han organized the Western Han Dynasty into 13 province-sized prefectures, each administered by a cishi (刺史) or inspector, thus putting Shanggu and Dai under the jurisdiction of You Prefecture.

Following Xin dynasty, Lu Fang (卢芳) rebelled against Han but was defeated. Then, Emperor Guangwu of Han granted him the King of Dai. In 48 AD, Eastern Han dynasty established Colonel-Protector of the Wuhuan in Ningcheng (宁城), Shanggu (currently, Ningyuanbao Qiaodong District), representing Han's management of Wuhuan. Meanwhile, Han also opened Hu Market (胡市) to conduct regular exchanges with Wuhuan in Ningcheng. From 110 AD, Ningcheng also began to manage affairs with Xianbei.[5]:21–22

Jin-Sui Era[edit]

In 274, Western Jin divided Shanggu Commandery and established Guangning Commandery (廣寧郡) in Xialuo (下洛, in the west of present Zhuolu), which was disestablished during Northern Qi.

During the period known as Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese history when the northern China was repeatedly invaded and occupied various nomadic peoples from further north, Zhangjiakou area became part of Dai, Former Yan, ultimately ruled by Northern Wei of Xianbei. In 310, by helping Jin's Liu Kun, the governor of Bingzhou to fight Xiongnu state of Han Zhao, Tuoba Yilu, the supreme chieftain of the Tuoba, was appointed Duke of Dai by Western Jin and since 315, the King of Dai. In 376, Dai was conquered by Former Qin state.

Former Qin fell into disarray in 383 following its defeat by Jin forces at the Battle of Fei River. In 386, Tuoba Gui, the grandson of Tuoba Shiyijian, the last King of Dai, took the opportunity to reestablish Dai and soon changed its name from Dai to Wei. Initially, Tuoba Gui was a vassal of Later Yan but claimed imperial title in 397 after defeating Murong Bao of Yan in Battle of Canhe Slope. Later, Tuoba Gui was given the title of Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei.

In 423, in order to defend itself from Rouran’s invasions, Northern Wei built a Great Wall from Chicheng to the east and Wuyuan to the West, and established Huaihuang (懷荒, in present Zhangbei), Rouxuan (柔玄, in present Shangyi), Woye (沃野, in present Wuyuan County, Inner Mongolia) as two of the Six Frontier Towns. Later on, Yuyi (御夷, in present Chicheng and Guyuan ) was added. In 523, an uprising happened in Huaihuang, thus starting the Rebellion of Six Frontier Towns, an anti-Sinicization movement among northern peoples. In 525, Du Luozhou (杜洛周) led Shanggu Uprising, leading to many similar uprising to respond, including Gao Huan's. Next year, Du Luozhou broke through Juyong Pass and occupied You Prefecture.[5]:23

Tang-Song Era[edit]

In 645, Taizong of Tang had a north march in Jiming Mountain (鸡鸣山) during his campaign against Xueyantuo. In 822, Tang established Longmen County (龍門縣份) and Huai'an County (懷安縣), thus the first appearance of Huai’an. In 866. Tang established Xinzhou (新州), the administrative center located to the west of Zhuolu. In 877, Li Keyong, the grandfather of Li Cunxu, later the emperor of Later Tang, was serving as the deputy commander of the Shatuo troops and stationed in Yuzhou, turning this place into his base for future struggles. In 899, Wuzhou (武州) was established with its administrative center in Xuanhua. Meanwhile, Wende County (文德縣) was established, the administrative center in present Xuanhua.

During the period of Five Dynasties, Zhangjiakou area, like other places in northern China, underwent repeated changes of rules of different dynasties. In 937, in order to enlist the help from Khitan people to defeat Later Tang, Shi Jingtang of Later Jin (Five Dynasties) agreed to cede Sixteen Prefectures to Khitan, later Liao Dynasty, in which Xinzhou (新州, present Zhuolu), Weizhou (妫州, Huailai), Wuzhou (武州), Yuzhou (蔚州) were included. The Sixteen Prefectures held strategic locations in the north and because the Great Wall was across Zhangjiakou area, the cession left China in a vulnerable position against the invasions from the north. In 951, Yelu Ruan, the Emperor Shizong of Liao intended to attack Later Zhou in the south despite the reluctance of many subordinate tribes. While passing Huoshendian (火神淀), the west of Xinzhou, a rebellion broke out and Yelu Gecha (耶律察割) and Yelu Pendu (耶律盆都) assassinated the drunken emperor. The rebellion was put down very soon by Shizong's successor, Yelu Jing, the Emperor Muzong of Liao.

During the reign of Emperor Jingzong of Liao, the empress Xiao Yanyan often took part in politics and war. She often stationed troops in Yanzicheng (燕子城present Zhangbei), the name of which is believed to derive from Xiao Yanyan in preparations for the War against Song. Attracted by the beautiful scenery in Zhangjiakou area, she built two royal gardens, Shanghuayuan (上花園; 'Upper Garden') and Xiahuayuan (下花園; 'Lower Garden', in present Xiahuayuan District). Xiao resided there often and enlisted many talent in his war with Song dynasty.

In 1168, the Emperor Shizong of Jin traveled to Helihudongchuan (曷里滸東东川). Seeing the fully blossoming yellow flowers, he named the yellow flowers Jinlianhua (金蓮花) and the place became Jinlianchuan (金蓮川; 'River of Golden Lotus').

Yuan-Ming-Qing Era[edit]

Battle of Yehuling of 1211, the decisive battle between Mongols and Jin dynasty, leading to the ultiamte conquest of northern China.

In August 1211, during the Battle of Yehuling, Genghis Khan's 90,000 strong force destroyed the 450,000 strong Jin dynasty army. In 1251, Möngke Khan became the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. He put Kublai, his brother, in charge of affairs of northern China. Kublai established Jinlianchuan Mufu (金蓮川幕府), enlisting many talent of Han people like Liu Bingzhong to assist his governance. Kublai regularly consulted them and discussed politics, religion ranging from Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism.

In 1307, Külüg Khan or the Emperor Wuzong of Yuan began the construction of Yuan Zhongdu (元中都) in Onggachatu (旺兀察都, north to present Zhangbei) where the court was moved. However, before full completion, Emperor Wuzong died soon and his successor Wuzong's brother, Emperor Renzong of Yuan called it off. In August 1329, during Tianli Incident following the War of the Two Capitals, the new emperor Khutughtu Khan Kusala was poisoned to death by El Temür in Zhongdu. Zhongdu was later destroyed in 1357 during the Red Turban Rebellion as the rebels marched towards Shangdu.

In 1370, Zhu Yuanzhang ordered his general, Tang He, to occupy Xuande (宣德), later changed to Xuanfu (宣府), Hua Yunlong to occupy Yunzhou (雲州), seated in the north of Chicheng. Xuanfu was one of the Nine Garrisons of the Ming dynasty. In order to defend China proper from invasions from the north, Ming emperors, especially Yongle Emperor (who sent the fleet of Zheng He journeying as far as East Africa) put great emphasis on the building of defensive forces in northern China, where most troops were deployed in Xuanfu, reaching 151 thousand during 1403 to 1424. Fighting Mongols, Yongle Emperor's campaigns against the Mongols mainly took place to the north of Zhangjiakou. In 1429, the construction of Zhangjiakoubu (張家口堡; 'Castle of Zhang Family's (Mountain) Pass') was started. The castle was one defensive stronghold in the Great Walls.

Tumu Crisis

In September 1, 1449, while retreating from the campaign against Mongols (Oirats), the 500,000-man army was defeated and the Emperor Yingzong of Ming was captured by chasing Mongolian troops in Huailai County, which was later called Tumu Crisis. The Emperor was sent back next year but only restored his throne in 1457. In 1529, local officer Zhang Zhen (张珍) built a small gate to north, which was strengthen in 1574 and 1581. Zhangjiakoubu enjoyed a paramount strategic position, thus being called Wuheng (武城; 'Martial Town'). Therefore, Zhangjiakoubu was the origin and starting point of modern-day Zhangjiakou City.[5]:29–31

In 1514 and 1517, Dayan Khan led Mongol troops to invade China, causing great damage. He built forts in Xuanhua and Datong and stationed 15000 troops on Ming territory. Culminating in the Battle of Yingzhou (應州大捷) in 1517, Dayan Khan was killed in the battle. From 1545, Xuanda Governor Weng Wanda (宣大總督翁萬達) began building Xuanfu Great Wall, reaching 462 li (231 km) next year. In 1545, he built Great Walls again, reaching 169 li (84.5 km), effectively defending the area of Mongol cavalry's invasion.[5]:115

The water-scarce city was historically the chief northern gate in the Great Wall to China for Europeans travelling along the Northern Tea Road (such as Ivan Petlin (1619)[7] or Nicolae Milescu), often through the Juyong Pass.

View of Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in 1698

In 1571, Altan Khan of Mongols received the title "Prince of Shunyi" (Obedient and Righteous Prince) from the Longqing Emperor, thus reaching an agreement of lasting peace with Ming. Since then, the city of Zhangjiakou was transformed from a military base to an important horse market for Mongolian mounts imported into China.[5]:40 From 1727 it was an important station for the Kyakhta trade between Russia and China. In early autumn long lines of camels would come in from all quarters for the conveyance of the tea chests from "Kalgan" (Zhangjiakou) to Kyakhta across the Gobi Desert. Each caravan usually made three journeys in the winter. In the 19th century some Russian merchants had permanent residences and warehouses just outside the gate.

Modern History[edit]

Two trains passing the Qinglongqiao Station on the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway

In October 1909, Zhangjiakou was connected with Beijing by Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway, the first railway solely designed and built by Chinese people. Zhan Tianyou was the chief engineer. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica noted that, in Kalgan, "the ordinary houses have an unusual appearance, from the fact that they are mostly roofed with earth and become covered with green-sward" and that "on the way to Peking the road passes over a beautiful bridge of seven arches, ornamented with marble figures of animals". Following Xinhai Revolution, Zhangjiakou was incorporated into Chahar Special Administrative Region, later changed to Chahar Province in 1928, after the success of Northern Expedition of Kuomingtang.

In 1937, the Japanese occupied the region and made Kalgan the capital of the autonomous Cha-nan (South Chahar) Province. The Federated Mengjiang Commission was set up to supervise the economic affairs, banking, communications, and industry of Japanese-occupied Inner Mongolia (Mengjiang).

In the early 1960s, at the height of Sino-Soviet tensions, Zhangjiakou was considered one of the most important cities in China for military strategy reasons. Zhangjiakou was aptly nicknamed, "Beijing's Northern Door", because whoever controlled Zhangjiakou was in a good position to either attack (in the case of the Soviets) or defend (in the case of the Chinese) Beijing.

Zhangjiakou will host some of the events in the 2022 Winter Olympics.[8]

Tourism[edit]

Dajingmen, a gate of Great Wall built around 1644

Lying in between the Mongolian Plateau and the North China Plain, Zhangjiakou has a somewhat rugged topography characterized by high mountains, deep valleys, and rocky pathways. As a result, it serves as a perfect natural screen for Beijing, which has made it a strategic priority militarily since ancient times. It is called "The Gateway to Beijing" and "The Mountain City beyond the Great Wall". The grand Yan Mountain, the towering Taihang Mountain, the vast grasslands, and the meandering Sangyang River converge here. The city government has regarded tourism as a major driving force of the city's economy and continues to develop the industry.[citation needed]

As a place where water resources for Beijing is located, ecological and sustainable development have been emphasized by local government. Due to its less impact on environment than heavy industry, tourism figures significantly in local policies of development. Possessing diverse landforms, such as plains, hills, mountains, basins and grasslands, Zhangjiakou is an ideal place for holidays, entertainment sightseeing for neighbour middle class and can provide tourists with a variety of experiences. In the area, there are significant differences in different seasons. In winter, tourists can ski in Chongli Mountains; in spring, they can visit historical sites; in summer, visitors can sleep in Mongolian yurts on Zhangbei Grassland, where annual musical events were held and taste fresh mutton; while in autumn, visitors can taste Huailai wine and take a bath in nearby hot springs.[4]:155

In today's Zhangbei county a major attraction are the ruins and museum of the former Yuan capital Zhongdu.[9]

Geography and climate[edit]

Zhangjiakou is located in the northwest part of Hebei province, and is defined by mostly rough terrain created by the Yin Mountains, with elevations increasing from southeast to northwest. The east of the prefecture marks the Yan Mountains The bordering prefectures in the province are Chengde to the northeast and Baoding to the south. It also borders Shanxi to the west and southwest and Inner Mongolia to the northwest. The prefecture's latitude ranges from 39° 30' to 42° 10' N, or 289.2 kilometres (179.7 mi), while its longitude spans 113° 50' to 116° 30' E, or 216.2 kilometres (134.3 mi).

Zhangjiakou City is divided into three topographical regions: plateau, mountains, and basin. The former has elevations generally above 1,400 metres (4,600 ft), and consists of all of Guyuan and Kangbao Counties as well as part of Shangyi and Zhangbei Counties. This area is part of the southern end of the Inner Mongolia Plateau (内蒙古高原) and accounts for one-third of the prefecture's area.[10] The basin area has elevations of 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) and supports a few rivers.

The urban area of Zhangjiakou is surrounded by mountains on three sides. The Qingshui River passes through the city, dived the city into two districts, Qiaodong District and Qiaoxi District.[11]

Zhangjiakou has a monsoon-influenced, continental semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, dry, and windy winters due to the Siberian anticyclone, and hot, humid summers driven by the East Asian monsoon; in between spring and autumn are dry and brief. Conditions are much cooler than in Beijing due in part to the elevation. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −8.3 °C (17.1 °F) in January to 23.7 °C (74.7 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 8.81 °C (47.9 °F).

Climate data for Zhangjiakou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
18.2
(64.8)
22.6
(72.7)
31.5
(88.7)
36.8
(98.2)
37.7
(99.9)
39.2
(102.6)
36.0
(96.8)
33.5
(92.3)
27.7
(81.9)
20.4
(68.7)
14.0
(57.2)
39.2
(102.6)
Average high °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
1.5
(34.7)
8.4
(47.1)
17.9
(64.2)
24.8
(76.6)
28.5
(83.3)
29.4
(84.9)
27.7
(81.9)
23.2
(73.8)
16.3
(61.3)
6.6
(43.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
15.1
(59.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.3
(17.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
2.0
(35.6)
10.9
(51.6)
17.8
(64.0)
22.1
(71.8)
23.7
(74.7)
22.0
(71.6)
16.6
(61.9)
9.6
(49.3)
0.5
(32.9)
−6.2
(20.8)
8.8
(47.9)
Average low °C (°F) −12.9
(8.8)
−10.0
(14.0)
−3.6
(25.5)
4.6
(40.3)
11.2
(52.2)
16.0
(60.8)
18.7
(65.7)
17.2
(63.0)
11.2
(52.2)
4.3
(39.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−10.5
(13.1)
3.5
(38.4)
Record low °C (°F) −24.6
(−12.3)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−16.5
(2.3)
−7.7
(18.1)
−1.3
(29.7)
5.1
(41.2)
12.5
(54.5)
7.2
(45.0)
1.1
(34.0)
−9.1
(15.6)
−17.5
(0.5)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−24.6
(−12.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.0
(0.08)
4.1
(0.16)
9.1
(0.36)
14.0
(0.55)
33.1
(1.30)
60.6
(2.39)
109.9
(4.33)
100.5
(3.96)
45.0
(1.77)
16.9
(0.67)
6.3
(0.25)
2.1
(0.08)
403.6
(15.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.7 2.5 4.6 4.8 7.6 10.2 13.4 12.8 9.1 4.3 2.6 1.7 75.3
Source: Weather China[12]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map including Zhangjiakou (labeled as CHANG-CHIA-K'OU (KALGAN) 張家口) (AMS, 1963)
Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Districts
Qiaoxi District 桥西区 Qiáoxī Qū 230,000 141 1,631
Qiaodong District 桥东区 Qiáodōng Qū 260,000 113 2,301
Xuanhua District 宣化区 Xuānhuà Qū 590,000 2,371 248
Xiahuayuan District 下花园区 Xiàhuāyuán Qū 70,000 315 222
Wanquan District 万全区 Wànquán Qū 220,000 1,158 190
Chongli District 崇礼区 Chónglǐ Qū 120,000 2,326 52
Counties
Zhangbei County 张北县 Zhāngběi Xiàn 370,000 4,232 87
Kangbao County 康保县 Kāngbǎo Xiàn 280,000 3,365 83
Guyuan County 沽源县 Gūyuán Xiàn 230,000 3,601 64
Shangyi County 尚义县 Shàngyì Xiàn 190,000 2,621 72
Yu County 蔚县 Yù Xiàn 460,000 3,216 143
Yangyuan County 阳原县 Yángyuán Xiàn 280,000 1,834 153
Huai'an County 怀安县 Huái'ān Xiàn 250,000 1,706 147
Huailai County 怀来县 Huáilái Xiàn 340,000 1,793 190
Zhuolu County 涿鹿县 Zhuōlù Xiàn 330,000 2,799 118
Chicheng County 赤城县 Chìchéng Xiàn 280,000 5,238 53

Economy[edit]

Rongchen Century Building in downtown Zhangjiakou

The vicinity of Zhangjiakou is rich in coal and iron ore, making it an ideal location for developing iron and steel industry. Apart from metallurgy, the city is home to one of China's most important grape wine industries, with the Great Wall Wine Company being located in Shacheng, Huailai County.[13]

Due to its comparatively late implementation Reform and Opening policies, the scale of foreign investment in Zhangjiakou is not quite large. Currently, there are approximately 130 foreign companies settled. The amount of investment reached 820 million US dollars. The largest one is Zhangjiakou Volvo Motor Company with investment amounting to 3.1 billion RMB, and value of output exceeding 1 billion RMB.[4]:168

Due to several factors including the hosting of 2022 Winter Olympic Games with its concomitant expansion of infrastructure, the opening of high-speed railway in December 2019, the national strategy of coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the ratification of building a national demonstration zone of renewable energy by State Council of the People's Republic of China, Zhangjiakou economy is expected to undergo unprecedented advance in the coming years.[4]:168

Transportation[edit]

Military[edit]

Zhangjiakou is headquarters of the 65th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that comprise the Beijing Military Region responsible for defending China's capital.

Education[edit]

Zhangjiakou is home to Hebei North University. The university has been improving its international network and many foreign students are now studying there. Another university Hebei University of Architecture is located in Qiaodong District. Zhangjiakou No.1 Middle School is the most famous secondary school in Zhangjiakou. Beijing No.101 Middle School was a branch of Zhangjiakou No.1 Middle School in the past.

Sports[edit]

Location of the 2022 Winter Olympics clusters

Zhangjiakou will host Freestyle and Nordic skiing and snowboarding excluding big air for the 2022 Winter Olympics. The events will be held in a venue in Taizicheng, a village in Chongli District.[17] The ski resort earned over 1.54 billion yuan (US$237.77 million) in tourism during the 2015–16 snow season for a 31.6% growth over the previous season. In 2016, it was announced that Chongli received 2.185 million tourists, an increase of 30% from the previous season, during the first snow season after winning the Olympic bid. The snow season lasted for five months from November, during which Chongli has hosted thirty-six competitions and activities, such as Far East Cup and Children Skiing International Festival. A total of twenty-three skiing camps have also been set up, attracting the participation of 3,800 youths. All venue construction started in November 2016 and will be finished by the end of 2020 to enable the city to hold test events.[18]

Venues currently being constructed are:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ "Zhangjiakou pronunciation". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  3. ^ 张家口市教育科研研究所 (2003-08-01). 张家口地理. Hainan Press (海南出版社).
  4. ^ a b c d Merker, Peter; Zhao, Zhanhua (July 2016). Zhangjiakou Through the Eyes of Foreigners. Beijing China: Xiandai Chubanshe. ISBN 9787514337976.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j An, Junjie; Han, Xiangrui; Chen, Xiying; Wang, Xiaoxuan (2011-08-01). Zhangjiakou Shidian (Zhangjiakou Encyclopedia). Baoding China: Hebei Daxue Chubanshe. ISBN 9787810979436.
  6. ^ Yü, Ying-shih (1986). "Han Foreign Relations". The Cambridge History of China, Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. - A.D. 220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  7. ^ "A Relation of two Russe Cossacks travailes, out of Siberia to Catay, and other Countries adjoyning thereunto. Also a Copie of the last Patent from the Muscovite. A Copie of a Letter written to the Emperor from his Governors out of Siberia". Published as Chapter XI in: Samuel Purchas, Haklutyus Posthumus (or, Purchas His Pilgrimes), vol. XIV, p. 280. 1625. Full Text on archive.org. The city name reported by Petlin appears in Purchas' English translation as "Shirokalga".
  8. ^ "Beijing and Zhangjiakou launch a joint bid to host the 2022 Winter Olympic Games". Insidethegames.biz. 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
  9. ^ Zhou, Raymond (2016-09-05). "A lost capital haunted by ghosts and history". China Daily. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  10. ^ 地理环境 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on July 7, 2009.
  11. ^ 陈剑, ed. (2017). 京张历史文化与当代发展 (in Chinese). Beijing: 国家行政学院出版社. p. 19. ISBN 978-7-5150-1909-3.
  12. ^ 张家口城市介绍以及气候背景分析 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 2013-04-29.
  13. ^ [1] Archived September 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "Railway Gazette: News in Brief". Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  15. ^ "COALWorld". Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  16. ^ 何凡 (2019-12-30). 京张高铁张家口站正式运营 张家口全面跨入高铁时代. Xinhua. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Beijing announces gym layout for 2022 Winter Olympics". People's Daily Online. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  18. ^ gaiazhang. "Beijing 2022 Games Ski Venue Receives Over 2 Million Tourists". Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.

External links[edit]