Zhao Jiande

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Zhào Jiàndé
King of Nam Việt
Reign 112–111 BC
Predecessor Zhao Xing
Successor none
Full name
Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức;
Temple name
See Below
Dynasty Triệu Dynasty

Zhao Jiande (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Jyutping: Zīu6 Gīn3dek1, Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức, ?–111 BC) was the last king of Nanyue. His rule began in 112 BC and ended in the next year.

Life[edit]

Zhao Jiande was the eldest son of King Zhao Yingqi and a Yue woman. Zhao Yingqi was sent to the Han court by King Zhao Mo to serve as Emperor Wu's guard (宿衛, Sùwèi). In 135 BC, he married a Han Chinese woman called Jiushi (樛氏) there, and had his second son Zhao Xing.

After assuming the Nanyue kingship, Zhao Yingqi appointed Zhao Xing as Crown Prince instead of his eldest son Zhao Jiande. Zhao Yingqi died in 113 BC, Zhao Xing succeeded as king. Zhao Jiande was titled "Marquis of Shuyang" (術陽侯) by his younger brother.

During Zhao Xing's reign, Emperor Wu of Han sent missions to Nanyue to summon Zhao Xing to the Han court for an audience with the Emperor. Zhao Xing decided to submit to the Han court rule, but the prime minister Lü Jia (呂嘉), who held military power in Nanyue at that time, was opposed to this. So Emperor Wu dispatched Han Qianqiu (韓千秋) with 2000 soldiers to arrest Lü Jia. After hearing of these developments, Lü Jia conducted a coup d'état, killing Zhao Xing and all of his supporters in 112 BC. Zhao Jiande was crowned king of Nanyue, and declared war on Han China.

The 2000 men led by Han Qianqiu were attacked by Nanyue soldiers along the Han-Nanyue border, resulting in the near annihilation of the Han force, which greatly shocked and angered Emperor Wu. The Emperor then sent 100 thousand men to attack Nanyue and captured Panyu, its capital, the next year. Zhao Jiande and Lü Jia fled the city by boat, heading east to appeal for Minyue's aid, but the Han generals learned of their escape and sent troops after them. Both Zhao Jiande and Lü Jia were captured and executed and their heads were sent to the emperor.

Based on many temples of Lü Jia (Lữ Gia), his wives, and soldiers scattering in Red River Delta of northern Vietnam, the war might have lasted until 98 BC.[1][2]

After the fall of Panyu, Tây Vu Vương (the captain of Tây Vu area of which the center is Cổ Loa) revolted against the First Chinese domination from Western Han dynasty.[3] He was killed by his assistant Hoàng Đồng (黄同).[4][5]

Neither Shiji nor Hanshu had mentioned his Temple name, but his Posthumous name was mentioned in some Vietnamese historical texts. He was called Dương Vương (陽王) in Việt Nam sử lược, Thuật Dương Vương (術陽王) in Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, and Vệ Dương vương (衛陽王) in Đại Việt sử lược.

Legacy[edit]

His palace supposedly formed the grounds of Guangzhou's Guangxiao Temple.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lễ hội chọi trâu xã Hải Lựu (16-17 tháng Giêng hằng năm) Phần I (tiep theo)". 2010-02-03. Theo nhiều thư tịch cổ và các công trình nghiên cứu, sưu tầm của nhiều nhà khoa học nổi tiếng trong nước, cùng với sự truyền lại của nhân dân từ đời này sang đời khác, của các cụ cao tuổi ở Bạch Lưu, Hải Lựu và các xã lân cận thì vào cuối thế kỷ thứ II trước công nguyên, nhà Hán tấn công nước Nam Việt của Triệu Đề, triều đình nhà Triệu tan rã lúc bấy giờ thừa tướng Lữ Gia, một tướng tài của triều đình đã rút khỏi kinh đô Phiên Ngung (thuộc Quảng Đông – Trung Quốc ngày nay). Về đóng ở núi Long Động - Lập Thạch, chống lại quân Hán do Lộ Bác Đức chỉ huy hơn 10 năm (từ 111- 98 TCN), suốt thời gian đó Ông cùng các thổ hào và nhân dân đánh theo quân nhà Hán thất điên bát đảo." 
  2. ^ "List of temples related to Triệu dynasty and Nam Việt kingdom in modern Vietnam and China". 2014-01-28. 
  3. ^ Từ điển bách khoa quân sự Việt Nam, 2004, p564 "KHỞI NGHĨA TÂY VU VƯƠNG (lll TCN), khởi nghĩa của người Việt ở Giao Chỉ chống ách đô hộ của nhà Triệu (TQ). Khoảng cuối lll TCN, nhân lúc nhà Triệu suy yếu, bị nhà Tây Hán (TQ) thôn tính, một thủ lĩnh người Việt (gọi là Tây Vu Vương, "
  4. ^ Viet Nam Social Sciences vol.1-6, p91, 2003 "In 111 B.C. there prevailed a historical personage of the name of Tay Vu Vuong who took advantage of troubles circumstances in the early period of Chinese domination to raise his power, and finally was killed by his general assistant, Hoang Dong. Professor Tran Quoc Vuong saw in him the Tay Vu chief having in hands tens of thousands of households, governing thousands miles of land and establishing his center in Co Loa area (59.239). Tay Vu and Tay Au is in fact the same.
  5. ^ Book of Han, Vol. 95, Story of Xi Nan Yi Liang Yue Zhao Xian, wrote: "故甌駱將左黃同斬西于王,封爲下鄜侯"
Zhao Jiande
Died: 111 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zhào Xīng
(Triệu Hưng)
King of Nanyue
112–111 BC
Position abolished
Nanyue Kingdom was annexed by the Han Dynasty