Zhao Jiande

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Zhào Jiàndé
King of Nam Việt
Reign 112–111 BC
Predecessor Zhao Xing
Successor none
Full name
Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức;
Temple name
See Below
Dynasty Triệu Dynasty

Zhao Jiande (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhào Jiàndé; Jyutping: Zīu6 Gīn3dek1, Vietnamese: Triệu Kiến Đức, ?–111 BC) was the last king of Nanyue. His rule began in 112 BC and ended in the next year.

Zhao Jiande was the eldest son of King Zhao Yingqi and a Yue woman. Zhao Yingqi was sent to the Han court by King Zhao Mo to serve as Emperor Wu's guard (宿衛, Sùwèi). In 135 BC, he married a Han Chinese woman called Jiushi (樛氏) there, and had his second son Zhao Xing.

After assuming the Nanyue kingship, Zhao Yingqi appointed Zhao Xing as Crown Prince instead of his eldest son Zhao Jiande. Zhao Yingqi died in 113 BC, Zhao Xing succeeded as king. Zhao Jiande was titled "Marquis of Shuyang" (術陽侯) by his younger brother.

During Zhao Xing's reign, Emperor Wu of Han sent missions to Nanyue to summon Zhao Xing to the Han court for an audience with the Emperor. Zhao Xing decided to submit to the Han court rule, but the prime minister Lü Jia (呂嘉), who held military power in Nanyue at that time, was opposed to this. So Emperor Wu dispatched Han Qianqiu (韓千秋) with 2000 soldiers to arrest Lü Jia. After hearing of these developments, Lü Jia conducted a coup d'état, killing Zhao Xing and all of his supporters in 112 BC. Zhao Jiande was crowned king of Nanyue, and declared war on Han China.

The 2000 men led by Han Qianqiu were attacked by Nanyue soldiers along the Han-Nanyue border, resulting in the near annihilation of the Han force, which greatly shocked and angered Emperor Wu. The Emperor then sent 100 thousand men to attack Nanyue, and captured Panyu (番禺, modern Guangzhou), the capital of Nanyue, in the next year. Zhao Jiande and Lü Jia fled the city by boat, heading east to appeal for Minyue's aid, but the Han generals learned of their escape and sent troops after them. Both Zhao Jiande and Lü Jia were captured and executed and their heads were sent to the emperor.

Neither Shiji nor Hanshu had mentioned his Temple name, but his Posthumous name was mentioned in some Vietnamese historical texts. He was called Dương Vương (陽王) in Việt Nam sử lược, Thuật Dương Vương (術陽王) in Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, and Vệ Dương vương (衛陽王) in Đại Việt sử lược.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Zhao Jiande
Died: 111 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zhào Xīng
(Triệu Hưng)
King of Nanyue
112–111 BC
Position abolished
Nanyue Kingdom was annexed by the Han Dynasty