Zhejiang University

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Zhejiang University
浙江大学
Zhejiang University Logo.svg
Other name
ZJU or Zheda
Former name
Qiushi Academy (1897-1902)
Chekiang University (1902-1903)
Chekiang Higher Institutes (1903-1914)
National Third Chungshan University (1927-1928)
Chekiang University (1928)
National Chekiang University (1928-1950)
Chekiang University (1950 - mid-1980s)
Motto求是创新[1]
Motto in English
Seeking Truth and Pursuing Innovation[2]
TypePublic
Established1897; 125 years ago (1897)
Academic affiliations
C9, APRU, WUN, IAU, GUNi, YDUA, BRICS Universities League
BudgetCN¥ 22.82 billion (2021)
PresidentWu Zhaohui
Party SecretaryRen Shaobo
Academic staff
4191
Students60,739[3]
Undergraduates29,209
Postgraduates31,531
Location,
China

30°15′49″N 120°07′15″E / 30.26361°N 120.12083°E / 30.26361; 120.12083Coordinates: 30°15′49″N 120°07′15″E / 30.26361°N 120.12083°E / 30.26361; 120.12083
Campus622 hectares (1,540 acres)
Academic termSemester
Colors   Blue & red
MascotQiushi Eagle 求是鹰[4]
Website(in Chinese)
zju.edu.cn
(in English)
zju.edu.cn/english
Zhejiang University Logotype.svg
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese浙江大学
Traditional Chinese浙江大學
PostalChekiang University

Zhejiang University (simplified Chinese: 浙江大学; traditional Chinese: 浙江大學; pinyin: Zhèjiāng Dàxué), colloquially called Zheda[5][6] (Chinese: 浙大; pinyin: Zhèdà [note 1]) or abbreviated as ZJU,[8] is a national public research university mainly based in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, with five urban campuses Zijingang, Yuquan, Xixi, Huajiachi, Zhijiang in downtown Hangzhou and three satellite campuses in Haining, Zhoushan and Ningbo, Zhejiang. The university is one of the most prestigious universities in China. Consistently ranked among top 5 academic institutions in mainland China, as of 2021, ZJU is ranked fifth in Asia and 45th globally by the QS University Rankings.[9][10][11][12][13]

ZJU is one of the oldest universities in China, with its root traced back to Qiushi Academy founded by Hangzhou mayor Lin Qi in 1897 as the first higher education institution in Zhejiang.[14] The university underwent frequent renaming and a 6-year closure after its foundation, until re-established in 1927.[14] In 1928, the university was named as National Chekiang University[14] (simplified Chinese: 国立浙江大学; traditional Chinese: 國立浙江大學; also romanised as National Zhejiang University[15] or simply Zhejiang University[16]). During the presidency of Chu Kochen from 1936 to 1949, despite relocation due to World War 2, the university adopted its current motto and anthem and became one of the famous four universities in China.[17] British biochemist Joseph Needham hailed the university as “Cambridge of the East” during his visit to the university's wartime campus in Meitan, Guizhou.[18][19][20] With the Communists coming to power in 1949, the university became subject to a national initiative of university rearrangement in 1952, with most of its departments and faculty dispatched to other academic institutions in China.[21] In 1998, ZJU merged with three other universities derived from former ZJU departments, i.e., Zhejiang Medical University, Hangzhou University, and Zhejiang Agricultural University to form the present-day ZJU.[21][22][16]

ZJU has been selected into several national plans to found world-class universities, including Double First Class University Plan,[23][24] Project 985 and Project 211.[25] ZJU is also a member of the elite C9 League, Yangtze Delta Universities Alliance, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities, the Worldwide Universities Network, the International Association of Universities, and the Global University Network for Innovation. In 2021, with a budget of 22.82 billion Chinese yuan, the university had the second largest budget in China after Tsinghua.[26] Regarding research output, the Nature Index 2020 ranks the university sixth in China, seventh in the Asia-Pacific and 18th in the world among the global academic universities.[27] In the fourth round of China University Subject Rankings by the Ministry of Education released in 2018, ZJU had 31 subjects rated A, the most among Chinese universities, among which 11 subjects were rated A+, the third most after Peking and Tsinghua.[28]

The university holds 7 faculties, 37 colleges, schools, and departments, offering more than 140 undergraduate and 300 graduate programs.[29] In memory of President Chu Kochen's contribution to the university history, Chu Kochen Honors College was founded as an elite undergraduate college within the university since 2000.[30][31][32] The university also includes 7 affiliated hospitals, 1 museum, 2 international joint institutes, and boasts over 200 student organizations.[33] The university is also deeply involved in and supports academic-industry collaboration and local industry innovations and development.[34][35][36]

Among the faculty of over 4,000 are 52 members from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 15 Distinguished Professors of Humanities, 101 Chang Jiang Scholars, and 154 recipients of the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars.[37] Notable ZJU alumni include political leader Chen Duxiu, physicists such as Tsung-Dao Lee, Chien-Shiung Wu and Qian Sanqiang,[38] and entrepreneurs such as Shi Yuzhu, Colin Huang[39] and Duan Yongping.

History[edit]

The history of Zhejiang University includes that of three academic institutions in Hangzhou, Zhejiang (formerly romanised as Hangchow, Chekiang). The three institutions each went through different traces of history and developed into National Che Kiang University, Chekiang Medical College and Hangchow University in the early 1950s. The 1952 readjustment of China's tertiary education system transformed the National Che Kiang University from a comprehensive university to an engineering-specialised Zhejiang University, which gave rise to Zhejiang Medical University, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou University by separating departments from National Che Kiang University and merging them with existing institutions. In 1998, Zhejiang University merged with Zhejiang Medical University, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Hangzhou University and formed the present-day Zhejiang university.[16][21][22]

Early development[edit]

Hangchow University[edit]

Divie Bethune McCartee, the founder of Hangchow University
Seal of Hangchow Christian College

In 1845, the American missionary Divie Bethune McCartee founded Ningpo Boy's Boarding School (simplified Chinese: 崇信义塾; traditional Chinese: 崇信義塾; lit. 'Worship Honesty Public School') at North Bank, Ningbo, a city of Zhejiang Province and one of the treaty ports to the according to the 1843 Treaty of Wanghia. Aiming to influence local Chinese with Christianity and making them assist the mission, the school provided training in religion, geography, history, mathematics, science, language and arts and crafts and recruited up to 30 students a year.[40]: 48–62 [41]

Student, faculty and alumni of Hangchow College at Main Building in 1917
Student, faculty and alumni of Hangchow College at Main Building in 1917
A trout
Main Building of Zhijiang Campus, Zhejiang University in 2018

With the land lease in Ningbo due in 1867, the school moved to Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang, and was renamed as Hangchow Presbyterian Boys' School (traditional Chinese: 育英義塾; simplified Chinese: 育英义塾; lit. 'Nurture Elite Public School').[40]: 48–62 [41] In 1897, it attained college rating, thus renaming itself to Hangchow Presbyterian College (traditional Chinese: 育英書院; simplified Chinese: 育英书院; lit. 'Nurture Elite College').[42] In 1911, the college moved to Qinwang Hill outside Hangzhou city centre, which is known as Zhijiang Campus of ZJU today. In 1914, it was renamed to Hangchow Christian College (simplified Chinese: 之江大学; traditional Chinese: 之江大學; lit. 'Hangchow River University' [note 2]).[42] The college ceased to operate due to the Nationalists' Northern Expedition in 1926–1927. With the foundation of new Nationalist government after the expedition, the college resumed operation in 1931, and was registered as the Private Hangchow College of Sciences and Humanities (simplified Chinese: 私立之江文理学院; traditional Chinese: 私立之江文理學院; lit. 'Private Zhejiang College of Humanities and Sciences'), because the college only had two branches, the sciences branch and the humanities branch.[42] During the Japanese invasion, the college moved to Tunxi, Shanghai, Shaowu, Guiyang and Chongqing sequently. In 1948, the college was promoted to Hangchow University (simplified Chinese: 之江大学; traditional Chinese: 之江大學; lit. 'Hangchow River University' [note 2]), thus recovering its Chinese name used from 1911 to 1931.[42]

As the Communists came to power in 1949, the American faculty left the Hangzhou campus. Except for the engineering sector that merged with Zhejiang University, the university was largely incorporated into a newly founded Chekiang Teachers College in 1952, which later became Hangzhou University (also spelled as Hangchow University[46] but different in Chinese) in 1958.

The board of the former Hangchow University, along with other Christian universities in China, founded Chung Chi College in Hong Kong in 1951 as a continuation of tradition of Chinese Christian universities. The college later became part of the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1963. The seals of 13 former Chinese Christian universities were hung above the two sides of the altar of the Chung Chi College Chaplaincy, which is the only place to see them, including the seal of Hangchow University, in China.[47]

Qiushi Academy and Chekiang Higher Institutes[edit]

Puci Temple, the former site of Qiushi Academy and Chekiang Higher Institutes, remains in Hangzhou city centre. The road nearby was named Daxue Road, meaning the university road.
Lin Qi, the founder of Qiushi Academy

In 1897, then-mayor of Hangzhou, Lin Qi established the Qiushi Academy (traditional Chinese: 求是書院; simplified Chinese: 求是书院; pinyin: Qiúshì Shūyuàn; Wade–Giles: Ch'iu-shih-shu-yüan; also romanised as Ch'iu Shih Academy), which is the first higher education institution in Zhejiang and one of the first of its kind in China.[14]

Lin studied the Western higher education system and applied it to the Qiushi Academy. Due to the 1902 and 1904 education reforms in China,[48] the Qiushi Academy was renamed to Chekiang University (traditional Chinese: 浙江大學堂; simplified Chinese: 浙江大学堂; pinyin: Zhèjiāng Dàxuétáng) in 1902, and to Chekiang Higher Institutes (traditional Chinese: 浙江高等學堂; simplified Chinese: 浙江高等学堂) in 1903.[49] Due to controversy over the new planned reform of the Institutes under the new republican government after the 1911 revolution, the Institutes stopped recruiting students since 1912, and then was dismissed in 1914.[50]

Chekiang Medical College[edit]

Female students at Chekiang Provincial Medical & Pharmaceutical School doing morning exercises in July 1936

Following the 1911 Revolution, three alumni of Chekiang Higher Institutes, namely Li Suizhi, Han Qingquan, and Tang Erho, founded Chekiang Provincial Medical School in September 1912, which was the first modern medical school in China, with Han assuming the first president. Upon the request of the new government, Tang Erho left Zhejiang and later founded National Medical School in Beijing in October 1912.[51] In 1913, the School was renamed to Chekiang Provincial Medical & Pharmaceutical School.[52] In 1931, Chekiang Provincial Hospital was founded under the college.

In October 1937, due to Japanese invasion, the school first relocated Lingying and Yuquan near Hangzhou city centre to evade Japanese air strikes, and then evacuated with the provincial government to Chun'an in the western part of Zhejiang in November and then Jinyun in December. In the spring of 1938, the university retreated to Linhai. In August 1938, with the foundation of National Yingshi University named after Chen Qimei, the school became of part of the new wartime university. With further invasion of Japan in 1941 in Tiantai, the school retreated to Jinyun again. In 1943, due to objection from school alumni, the government re-grant the school the right to recruit students independently.

With the Chinese victory in 1945, the school returned to Hangzhou in 1946, with a new campus, which is later known as Hubin Campus, coming into use. In the summer of 1947, the school was promoted to Zhejiang Provincial College of Medicine. In 1949, Kwang-Chi Hospital, which was one of the earliest modern hospitals and medical schools in China and was run by the British Church Mission Society, was taken over by the college after the Communists seized the city. In 1952, the college merged with the medical school of Zhejiang University to form a new Chekiang Medical College, which later became Zhejiang Medical University in April 1960.

National Chekiang University[edit]

Jiang Menglin, the first president of National Chekiang University
The seal of National Chekiang University, with Qiushi Eagle in the centre and Chinese character Zheda (浙大) above the eagle.

With the nationalists coming to power after the Northern Expedition in July 1927, the provincial government of Zhejiang returned the properties of the former Chekiang Higher Institutes, with which the alumni of Chekiang and Qiushi re-established the university, with the name National Third Chungshan University (traditional Chinese: 國立第三中山大學; simplified Chinese: 国立第三中山大学),[53] by merging Chekiang Industrial College and Chekiang Agricultural College. On 1 April 1928, the university was renamed to Chekiang University (traditional Chinese: 浙江大學; simplified Chinese: 浙江大学) and again renamed to National Chekiang University (traditional Chinese: 國立浙江大學; simplified Chinese: 国立浙江大学) later the year.[22] The University of Chekiang,[54][55] Chekiang University,[53][56] and other English names were also used.

Jiang Menglin, who graduated from Chekiang in 1903 served as the first president of the re-established institute since July 1927, but he was appointed as the minister of education within the new nationalist government in May 1928. The presidency was soon assumed by Shao Peizi, who was a graduate of Qiushi, then a teacher at Chekiang and a major contributor to the re-establishment of Chekiang in 1927.[57] However, despite invitation from Chiang Kai-shek, Shao refused to join Kuomintang (KMT), which worsened his relationship with the Nationalist government, eventually leading to financial crisis of the university and causing him to resign in March 1932 as the ongoing Japanese invasion in Shanghai discontinued the public funding to the university.

Soon, Cheng Tien-fong, a KMT member, was appointed as the new president. During his presidency, the university became directly funded by the central government, rather than the provincial government.[58] Chiang also wrote a personal letter to the provincial government of Zhejiang to solve the financial issues of the university. In March 1933, Zing-Yang Kuo, a notable psychologist and also a loyal KMT member who was teaching at Chekiang, was appointed the new president. Kuo expanded university with a new campus, which later became known as the Huajiachi Campus. However, the Nationalist government became unpopular among the people with the escalation of the Sino-Japanese conflicts and the government's soft stance against invasion. During the December 9th Movement in 1935, the students expelled Kuo, accusing him for colluding with the police to arrest protesting students.[59] As a result, Chiang Kai-shek, the head of the government, came to the university in person and eventually compromised with the students and faculty.

Chu Kochen, the president of National Chekiang University during 1936-1949
Scientists working at ZJU during the war

Chu Kochen, a scholar who had never held any political position, was recommended to Chiang Kai-shek by Chiang's speechwrite and Chekiang alumni Chen Bulei and thus became the president of Chekiang in April 1936. Chu's oath was administered by Jiang Mengling, the first president of Chekiang and then president of Peking.[60] With strong financial support and full authority of political appointments within the university as promised by Chen Bulei, Chu Kochen thus recruited prominent figures in the Science Society of China as well as The Critical Review (simplified Chinese: 学衡; traditional Chinese: 學衡; also translated as Xueheng), which significantly boosted the academic reputation of Chekiang.

In the latter half of 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out, and due to the invading Imperial Japanese Army, the university evacuated from Hangzhou to Yishan, Zunyi and eventually Meitan in the southwestern province of Guizhou. The students of Chekiang also carried historical collections of Zhejiang, including Siku Quanshu stored in the Wenlan Pavilion, to avoid them falling into Japanese hand. In Meitan, T. C. Hsu received postgraduate training by geneticist Tan Jiazhen, despite hardships during the war.[61] Consistently ranked as among top 3 in the nation during that time, the National Che Kiang University was praised as one of the four most Prominent Universities in the Republic of China, along with National Central University, National Southwestern Associated University, and National Wuhan University.[62][17] As the director of the Sino-British Science Co-operation Office in Chongqing, Joseph Needham visited the wartime campus of the university twice in 1944, during which he hailed the university as ""Cambridge of the East."[18][19][20]

On 5 March 1945, Fei Gong, a professor of politics at Chekiang who co-signed a declaration to call for an end to the one-party rule by Kuomintang in late February, was found missing, when we was visiting Fudan University in the wartime capital Chongqing. The event later became a cause célèbre. It is generally believed that Fei was kidnapped and killed by the Nationalist government. The release of Fei and political prisoners was one of the pre-conditions that the Communists proposed to Kuomintang during the peace negotiation later the civil war. As the World War 2 ended in 1945, the university returned to Hangzhou in early 1946 and founded its own medical school according to a government order in August 1945. An affiliated hospital was set up in March 1947. As the Nationalist government took over Taiwan, Chekiang professors Luo Zongluo, Su Buqing, Chen Jiangong and Cai Zhenghua were sent to Taipei to take over and re-organise the former Taihoku Imperial University. Thus, Luo Zongluo served as the first president of the National Taiwan University after re-organisation.

The dead body of Yu Zisan

The break-up of the Kuomintang-Communist coalition and peace negotiations in early 1946 was soon followed by a civil war, during which Chekiang was the centre of leftism hailed as "the fortress of democracy," due to President Chu's tolerance of leftist speech and protection for leftist students. In October 1947, Yu Zisan, the head of student union of Chekiang, was arrested for being a "communist bandit" and then died in the prison. The government's claim that Yu died of suicide was widely doubted, provoking a nationwide protest locally and nationwide, echoed by Tsinghua, Peking, Nankai, Xiamen and multiple other universities and schools in China.[63]

The Communists took control of most of mainland China and formed a new government by the end of 1949. Chu resigned as the president of Chekiang, upon request by the Nationalist government, but he didn't follow the government to flee to Taiwan, despite in-person request by Chiang Ching-kuo. More than 60 of the members of Academia Sinica decided to stay in the mainland, among them all five members at Chekiang didn't leave for Taiwan. Meanwhile, a lot of Chekiang alumni went to Taiwan with the Nationalist government, including Chang Chi-yun,[64] Tsen-cha Tsao,[65] Kan Chia-ming,[66] etc. In October 1950, the university was renamed as Chekiang University, removing "National" from its name, according to the order from the Ministry of Education of the new Communist government.[57] However, the name remain in use on rare occasions, e.g. National Chekiang University Alumni Association in North America.[67]

1952–1998[edit]

In 1952, the readjustment of China's tertiary education system transformed Zhejiang University from a national comprehensive university to an engineering-specialised university. Its sciences departments were sent to academic institutions including Fudan University, East China Normal University and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Its college of humanities merged with Hangchow University to form the Zhejiang Teachers College which later became Hangzhou University. Its medical school merged with Chekiang Medical College to became Zhejiang Medical University. Its agricultural and horticultural departments became an independent Zhejiang Agricultural University.[68] Later the year, the chemical engineering departments of Zhejiang University, and some the other technological parts went to former Hangzhou Chemical Engineering School, now known as Zhejiang University of Technology. And the dean Li Shouheng, who was one of the main founders of China's modern chemical engineering, was pointed to be the first president of the new university. The division of Zhejiang University was opposed by the faculty, among which Su Buqing and Tan Jiazhen once claimed to boycott the relocation.

During the cultural revolution, the universities across China ceased to teach students due to political chaos and the national examinations were no longer held until 1977. In the mid-1980s, with the general acceptance of Hanyu Pinyin, the postal romanisation of place names within the university names, became replaced by the Pinyin equivalents.[69] Hence, Chekiang became replaced by Zhejiang while Hangchow became replaced by Hangzhou, which led to changes in the universities' English names. From 1979 to 1989, with the liberalisation of China, students movements occurred, with more than 10 universities in Hangzhou participating in the movement.[70] With the economic reforms and strong local economic development, Zhejiang University and Hangzhou University have been a major hub for entrepreneurship,[71][72] which gave birth to entrepreneurs, such as Shi Yuzhu[73] and Song Weiping[74] among their alumni.

Zhejiang University[edit]

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Zhejiang University was led by its Vice President Liu Dan, who chose to construct a new campus near the Laohe Hill. The campus came into use in 1956, now known as the Yuquan Campus. The former campus of Zhejiang University at Huajiachi was then used by Zhejiang Agricultural University. In the same year, as decided by Vice President Liu, Zhejiang University again started to offer sciences education in addition to the remaining engineering education, despite the prevailing Soviet influence on higher education where specialised universities are preferred. However, the Anti-Rightist Campaign and the Great Famine undermined this effort.

A statue of Mao Zedong was set up at the Zhejiang University campus on 26 December 1969 as a result of Mao Zedong's cult of personality during the Cultural Revolution, which remains a major landmark at Yuquan Campus

In March 1960, Zhejiang University's metallurgy, geology and civil engineering departments was planned to merge with Zhejiang Institute of Textile, Zhejiang Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Zhejiang Institute of Electrical Engineering to form Hangzhou College of Engineering, which was cancelled and re-merged into Zhejiang University in September 1961, except for the textile department which became Zhejiang Institute of Textile, later known as Zhejiang Sci-Tech University. The government planned to merge Hangzhou College of Engineering with a metallurgy school in Deqing, yet the Great Chinese Famine stopped the relocation plan. The institutes of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering that merged into Zhejiang University separated from Zhejiang University in 1964 to form an independent Zhejiang School of Engineering, now known as Zhejiang Institute of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering.

In 1963, Zhejiang University was selected as a National Key University.[75] The Socialist Education Movement from 1963 to 1965 and the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976 made most of Zhejiang University faculty, including Liu Dan under attack, leading to a halt of most of teaching activities. Most of the faculty were prosecuted by self-organised students during the Cultural Revolution.

Lu Yongxiang was the president of Zhejiang University during 1988-1995

In 1966, the students of Zhejiang University protected the Lingying Temple from being destroyed by the Red Guards who were mostly high school students in Hangzhou. The event is known as the Lingyin Temple Incident. Zhejiang University students were echoed by local villagers and Hangzhou citizens, as well as the students of Hangzhou University and Zhejiang Lu Xun Academy of Art who then joined them to protect the temple. The event ended up with a direct order from Premier Zhou Enlai to the Red Guards to protect the temple.[76][77]

After the cultural revolution, Liu Dan was awarded as the honorary president of the university, the only one in the university's history. He joined three honorary presidents, i.e. Kuang Yaming of Nanjing University, Li Shusen of Tianjin University and Qu Bochuan of Dalian Institute of Technology to draft an advisory letter to the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, in which they advised the government to select 50 key universities in China for national investment in higher education. The letter was approved by Deng Xiaoping, but none of the four universities was selected. During the 1980s, Liu became an active advocate for the merger of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou University, Zhejiang Agricultural University and Zhejiang Medical University after hearing from Zhejiang alumni overseas.

In 1989, the students at Zhejiang University held demonstrations at Wulin Square, Hangzhou with more than 10 other universities in Hangzhou to support the democracy movement in Beijing. On hearing the massacre in Beijing, the protesting students blocked the railway at Nanxingqiao Railway Station with their bodies for three days, before negotiating with Vice Governor Chai Songyue. At least 60 passage trains and 166 cargo trains were blocked during the protest.[78]

Since 1988 to 1995, Lu Yongxiang assumed the president of Zhejiang University, during which he made "pursuing innovation" part of the university motto and reformed teaching and research systems, including introduction of the programme of Advanced Honor Class of Engineering Education. The alumni association considers Lu to be the second greatest president after Chu Kochen.

Hangzhou University[edit]

In September 1958, Zhejiang Teachers College, located in a newly constructed Xixi campus, merged with the Zhejiang Party School, located in the former Hangchow University campus, now known as the Zhijiang Campus, and formed Hangzhou University as a university specialised in social sciences. Thus, its mathematics, physics, chemistry departments was proposed to go into the Zhejiang College of Engineering and its biology to be incorporated into Zhejiang Agricultural University in July 1960, which didn't come true due to objection from the universities.[79] In 1960, Hangzhou University became wholly based at Xixi, as the Zhijiang campus became taken by Zhejiang University, where Zhejiang set up three new departments.

From 1966 to 1976, the Cultural Revolution impacted the university, with at least ten killed due to political prosecution.[80][81] Upon request of Hangzhou University professors Song Yunbin, Wang Jiawu and president Chen Jiangong, Zhou Enlai ordered to protect the Wenlan Pavilion, where the Siku Quanshu was protected from being destroyed by the Red Guards.[77]

As the national examination for college entrance was resumed in 1977, the university welcomed a new cohort of Class of 1981. Among around 70 graduates of the department of history class of 1981, there were at least 10 real estate tycoons including Song Weiping, Zhou Qingzhi and Xu Guangyue, and a Mao Dun Literature Prize laureate Wang Xufeng.[82] In 1989, the students at Hangzhou University held demonstrations with Zhejiang University at Wulin Square, Hangzhou, to support the democracy movement in Beijing.[78]

Zhejiang Medical University[edit]

Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital building

In 1952, the college merged with the medical school of Zhejiang University to form Zhejiang Medical University, also spelled as Chekiang Medical University and located in the site of former Chekiang Provincial Medical College.[83][84][85] The first affiliated hospital of Chekiang University became the first affiliated hospital of the new medical college. Kwang-Chi Hospital became the second affiliated hospital. Chekiang Provincial Hospital became the affiliated hospital traditional Chinese medicine.

In August 1955, the college was further divided, with 278 students sent to Sichuan Medical College, Shanghai First Medical College and Beijing Medical College, as well as 45 faculty members sent to Nanjing College of Pharmacy, Shenyang College of Pharmacy, Shanghai First Medical College and Sichuan Medical College. In 1958, the Second Zhejiang Medical College, later named as Wenzhou Medical College, was established in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, with the help of Zhejiang Medical College staff. In April 1960, the college was promoted to Zhejiang Medical University. Since 1966, teaching activity was stopped due to the impact of the Cultural Revolution. Since 1968, the university began to offer one-year training for barefoot doctors in Xinchang.[86]

The "Red Building" of Hubin Campus, the only remaining building of the former Zhejiang Medical University campus

In July 1970, Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine was merged into the university. In November 1970, the university restarted to recruit students. In 1973, Zhejiang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine was again separated from the university, along with the affiliated hospital of traditional Chinese medicine. In 1988, the university became among the first batch of 15 medical universities to offer 7-year medical education. In 1989, Hong Kong tycoon Sir Run Run Shaw donated a new, superb western style hospital hospital to Zhejiang, his home province. The hospital was named after him and became an affiliated hospital of Zhejiang Medical University, with Loma Linda University Health providing training for local doctors. The hospital came into use in 1994 and remains among top hospitals in China.[87][88][89] In 1998, the university was merged into Zhejiang University.[22] Most of the campus of Zhejiang Medical University was demolished in January 2007.[90][91]

Zhejiang Agricultural University[edit]

In 1952, the College of Agriculture was separated from Zhejiang University to become an independent Zhejiang College of Agriculture, located in Huajiachi, Zhejiang University's old campus. In 1960, the college was promoted to Zhejiang Agricultural University. During the cultural revolution, despite extensive political chaos and prosecutions, the faculty of the university continued research such as rice breeding in Hangzhou, Fujian and Hainan. After the culture revolution, the university restarted recruiting undergraduate and postgraduate students and built new research buildings and labs.[92]

1998–present[edit]

Zhejiang University Library at Zijingang campus

The call for merger of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou University, Zhejiang Agricultural University and Zhejiang Medical University began since Zhejiang University was split in the 1950s. Major champions of the merger included the leaders of the universities, such as Liu Dan and Lu Yongxiang of Zhejiang University, Zheng Su of Zhejiang Medical University, Zhu Zuxiang of Zhejiang Agricultural University, Chen Li of Hangzhou University.[68]: 94  In 1997, four prominent scientists who formerly worked at National Chekiang University in the 1930s and 1940s, i.e. Wang Ganchang and Bei Shizhang in Beijing, plus Su Buqing and Tan Jiazhen in Shanghai, wrote a joint letter to the then-president of China Jiang Zemin to advise an merger of the four universities.[68]: 94  In 1998, with the approval of the State Council, the new Zhejiang University was established as a combination of four major universities.[22] The new Zhejiang University, with over 30,000 students and 10,000 staff was considered to be the largest higher education institution in Asia.[93] Zhang Junsheng was appointed as the party secretary of the university to be in charge of the merger.[94]

In December 2002, the Centre of Mathematical Sciences was set up and headed by Fields Medalist Shing-Tung Yau. Shiing-Shen Chern and Su Buqing were honoured as honorary director of the centre.[95][96] In October 2003, a genomics institute was founded at the university's Zhijiang campus, named after Nobel laureate and discoverer of DNA's structure James D. Watson.[97] In 2005, the university set up Zhejiang University Holding Group, later renamed as Zhejiang University Yuanzheng Holding Group. As of 2022, there are several companies affiliated to the group have been publicly listed, including Insigma Technology, United Mechanical & Electrical, and Shenghua Land.[98]

In October 2005, the Hubin campus was sold at the price of 2.46 billion Chinese yuan to Kerry Properties for commercial complex development.[99] The schools of medicine and pharmacology were relocated to Zijingang in August 2006. The "Red Building" of the campus, which was the site of the High Court of Zhejiang and the Local Court of Hang County before World War 2, was reserved and transformed into Hangzhou Urban Construction Exhibition Hall.[100][101] The remaining campus buildings were demolished in January 2007.[90][91] In 2010, 5 members of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference of Hangzhou led by its chairperson Sun Zhonghuan advised that Hangzhou Normal University be renamed as Hangzhou University, which led to objection from the alumni of Zhejiang University and former Hangzhou University.[102]

Zhoushan campus, the campus for the Ocean College, which came into use in 2015

In June 2012, Zhejiang University founded the Ocean College in collaboration with Zhoushan municipal government. The collaboration involves a new campus in Zhoushan for the new college. The college started recruiting students in 2013. The college and its first batch of students moved to the new Zhoushan campus in September 2015.[103] The new campus is expected to accommodate 4000 students after 2025.[104][105][106]

Haining Campus, ZJU's base for international collaborations, which came into use in 2016

In February 2013, the university decided to build an international campus domestically and an overseas campus. In June, it began to collaborate with the local government of Haining to construct a new campus as the base for international collaborations.[107][108] In December 2014, the university signed an agreement with the University of Edinburgh to form a joint institute at the Haining campus.[109] In July 2015, another agreement to build a joint institute was signed with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.[110] In September 2016, the new Haining campus came into use, which was expected to accommodate 8000 students in the future.[107][108]

In April 2013, 53 alumni co-signed a petition against the appointment of Lin Jianhua as Zhejiang University's new president. An open letter by the alumni says, "Zhejiang University needs an upright and capable academic leader, not a mediocre chief executive."[111] In November 2013, Chu Jian, vice president of the university who was rumoured to be behind the rare petition, was arrested for bribery,[112] yet he was not tried until 2017 and was soon released after he was sentenced to 3 years in jail which had almost been fulfilled by the time of trial.[113] In September 2013, amid extensive objection from local Hangzhou people and Zhejiang University alumni, part of Huajiachi campus was sold at the price of 13.67 billion Chinese yuan (approximately 2.22 billion US dollars), making the land the most expensive in the city's history.[114]

In July 2020, the university came under intense criticism for allowing an ethnic minority student convicted of rape to remain enrolled.[115][116][117] The public questioned whether the university's decision was too lenient for sexual harassments.[118][116] The overwhelming public opinions made the university review the case, and eventually expelled the student.[119][120][121]

In November 2020, the university founded its new Ningbo campus, where the School of Software Technology and the Polytechnic Institute of the university offers postgraduate education. The Ningbo Institute of Technology, which used to be an ZJU affiliated independent technical college, was transformed into NingboTech University that is independent from ZJU, but remains in the Ningbo campus of ZJU.[122] In 2019, the Institute of Hainan were founded in Sanya, Hainan. In 2021, new institutes were founded in Quzhou, Jinhua, Wenzhou, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Shaoxing and Taizhou within Zhejiang. In March 2021, tech tycoon Colin Huang donated $100 million to support the university's Shanghai Institute for Advanced Study.[123]

Campuses[edit]

A replica of Qiushi Academy within the Zijingang Campus; Qiushi or seeking truth is the motto of the university

Current campuses[edit]

With seven campuses, namely Zijingang, Yuquan, Xixi, Huajiachi, Zhijiang, Zhoushan, International campus in Haining and Ningbo, Zhejiang University encompasses an area of 6.22 square kilometers with school buildings covering 3.67 million square meters of floor space.

Zijingang Campus[edit]

Zijingang Campus, the main campus of ZJU, which came into use in 2002

Zijingang campus (simplified Chinese: 紫金港校区; traditional Chinese: 紫金港校區) serves as the main campus of Zhejiang University and is located in the northwest of Hangzhou. There are two libraries in the campus, i.e. the Basic Library next to the east gate and the Library of Agriculture and Medicine in the southeast corner and Library of Ancient Books in the south of the campus. The first floor of the Basic Library is an English corner every Tuesday and Thursday night.[124] The campus is served by Sanba station and Xialongwei station of Hangzhou Metro to the east of the campus and Zijingang Campus Zhejiang University station on the south side.[125]

The South Gate of the campus is linked to the Zijingang Campus Zhejiang University station with bridges over the Yuhangtang River, which were opened in February 2022.[126] The gigantic, five-arched South Gate was built with donations from alumni, but widely regarded unfit for the purpose among ZJU students.[127] In a public poll in 2021, the South Gate was voted as the ugliest building in China.[128][129]

Zijingang Campus boasts a large assortment of academic departments and schools, including College of Media and International Culture, School of International Studies, School of Art and Archaeology, School of Economics, College of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Medicine, College of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, College of Animal Sciences, College of Life Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, School of Management, and School of Public Affairs etc.

Shaw Science Hall at Yuquan Campu, the first donation of Sir Run Run Shaw in mainland China[130]

Yuquan Campus[edit]

Yuquan campus (simplified Chinese: 玉泉校区; traditional Chinese: 玉泉校區) is the campus of engineering, computer science, and the physical sciences. Most students at the Yuquan campus are graduate students within these academic disciplines. The Yuquan campus was the main campus of Zhejiang University until the Zijingang campus was built in 2002. The campus will be served by Gudang and Huanglong Sports Center stations of Hangzhou Metro in mid-2022.

Zheda Road that stretches from the main gate of the campus to the High School Attached to Zhejiang University was known for its road greening landscape design.[131] Alongside the road is a compound named Zheda Qiushi Village, also known as Qiushi Village, which was the residential area for Zhejiang University faculty and their family. Qiushi Primary School, also known as the Primary School Attached to Zhejiang University, and Hangzhou No. 15 Middle School, also known as the Junior High School Attached to Zhejiang University, are located near the compound.[132] The Yuquan 1897 cafe within the campus is an English corner every Wednesday evening.[124]

Xixi Campus[edit]

Xixi campus (simplified Chinese: 西溪校区; traditional Chinese: 西溪校區) was previously the site of the former Hangzhou University before it merged into Zhejiang University in 1998. The campus hosts Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, School of Art and Archaeology, and Zhejiang University Press. The library is located in the centre of campus. Between the library and the south gate of the campus is a large meadow. The campus is next to Xuejun High School. Xuejun used to be the affiliated high school of Hangzhou University, and is among top two high schools in Hangzhou, hence a major source of students admitted into Zhejiang University. Due to the location, the university canteen at Xixi was often overloaded with high school students.[133]

Huajiachi Campus[edit]

The Huajiachi campus (simplified Chinese: 华家池校区; traditional Chinese: 華家池校區) was previously Zhejiang Agricultural University before merging with Zhejiang University and served as the old Huajiachi Campus for the National Chekiang University before the early 1950s.[114] The campus is home to the departments of dentistry and agriculture, plus the College of Continuing Education. The Huajiachi campus is Zhejiang University's oldest campus. The Huajiachi initially refers to a lake within the campus, hence the name of the campus. The library is located on the east shore of the Huajiachi. The university made a plan to move out from the campus in 2007. As part of the plan, one fourth of the campus had been sold in 2013. In the plan, the campus will be transformed into a lakeside park that reserves most of the campus' old buildings.[114][134]

The Bell Tower of Zhijiang Campus was donated by Shi Liangcai, whose son studied at the campus in the 1930s. The building is now home to the Institute for Advanced Study in Humanities and Social Sciences.

Zhijiang Campus[edit]

The Zhijiang campus (simplified Chinese: 之江校区; traditional Chinese: 之江校區) is home to Guanghua Law School. Before being acquired by Zhejiang University in 1952, the Zhijiang campus served as the main campus of Hangchow University, and is located on the Yuelun Hill next to the Qiantang River and the Liuhe Pagoda. The campus is now home to James D. Watson Institute of Genome Sciences, Guanghua Law School and the Institute for Advanced Study in Humanities and Social Sciences.[135] The Library of Guanghua Law School is located to the north of the Main Teaching Building. Several buildings in the campus are listed as the Major Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the National Level.[135] The 2010 movie Aftershock made the campus a popular tourist destination within the city, as the movie was shot on location within the campus to mimic a Chinese university life in the 1980s.[135]

Zhoushan Campus[edit]

Zhoushan campus (simplified Chinese: 舟山校区; traditional Chinese: 舟山校區) is a campus that opened in 2015 and serves as the campus for the Ocean College. It is located in Lincheng, Dinghai District, Zhoushan City on the Zhoushan Island.[136] The Library of the Ocean College is located in the north of the campus. Between the library and the south gate is a meadow. The university's only training ship, named Zijingang, is deployed at the campus.[137] Only third-year and fourth-year undergraduate students of the Ocean College and postgraduate students studied at the campus, while first-year and second-year students of the college receive education at Zijingang before moving to the campus in their third year.[136]

Haining International Campus[edit]

Qiushi Auditorium at the centre of Haining Campus

Haining International Campus (simplified Chinese: 海宁国际校区; traditional Chinese: 海寧國際校區) is located in the Zhejiang city of Haining.[138] Clusters of international cooperative partners and institutions reside at this campus, which opened in 2016 as part of Zhejiang University.[107][108] Student studying at the campus are also enrolled in the residential college. The first master of the college is Professor Lap-Chee Tsui.[139][140][141] The International Campus Library is a three-storey octagonal building located on the northeast shore of the central lake of the campus.[142] The campus is served by International Campus, ZJU station of Hangzhou–Haining intercity railway,[143] which opened on 28 June 2021.[144][145]

Zhejiang University International Business School (ZIBS),[146][147] the Zhejiang University-University of Edinburgh Institute (ZJE),[148][147] the Zhejiang University-University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Institute (ZJUI) and the Imperial College-Zhejiang University Joint Applied Data Science Lab are located within the campus.[149][147]

Ningbo Campus[edit]

The campus of NingboTech as well as ZJU's Ningbo Campus

The Ningbo campus was initiated as a collaboration with Ningbo city government in September 2017, with the campus' administration founded in September 2019. It was based on the campus of the former Ningbo Institute of Technology (NIT) of Zhejiang University (now NingboTech University). Zhejiang University library has not set up a branch library in the campus, yet its resources are available at NingboTech's library. The campus is served by South Higher Education Park Station of Ningbo Rail Transit.[150] The Polytechnic Institute of Zhejiang University started a branch in the campus since October 2016. Later, the Institute of Ningbo was founded in June 2018 within the campus of Ningbo Institute of Technology (NIT), Zhejiang University. In January 2020, the NIT was made independent from Zhejiang University and renamed as NingboTech University, but remains in the campus. The campus is also home to the School of Software Technology, Zhejiang University.[151][152]

Off-campus research centres[edit]

The university also has several research institutes off its campuses within Zhejiang, which include the Innovation Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine,[153] Zhejiang University Innovation Institute International,[154] Innovative Institute of Basic Medical Sciences of Zhejiang University[155] in Hangzhou, the Institute of Wenzhou,[156] Research Institute of Zhejiang University - Taizhou,[157] Institute of Quzhou,[158] Institute of Jinhua,[159] Institute of Huzhou,[160] International Institutes of Medicine in Yiwu,[161] the Institute of Shaoxing,[162] and the Ocean Research Center of Zhoushan.[163]

The institutes and research centres outside the province include the Institute of State System Research (Beijing Research Center),[164] Shanghai Institute for Advanced Study,[165] Hainan Institute of Zhejiang University,[166] the Institute of Shenzhen,[167] Suzhou Industrial Technology Research Institute,[168] and Changzhou Industrial Technology Research Institute,[169] and Zhongyuan Institute in Zhengzhou.[170]

Historical and proposed campuses[edit]

Wartime Campuses[edit]

Wartime campuses from 1937 to 1946
1
Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (original campus)
2
Chanyuan Temple, Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (September - November 1937)
3
Jiande County, Zhejiang Province (November - December 1937)
4
Qingyuan Mountain, Ji'an County, Jiangxi Province (January - February 1938)
5
Dayuan College, Taihe County, Jiangxi Province (February - September 1938)
6
Yishan County, Guangxi Province (October 1938 - January 1940)
7
Fangye Village, Longquan County, Zhejiang Province (June 1939 - June 1946)
8
Meitan County, Guizhou Province (November 1939 - June 1946)
9
Zunyi City, Guizhou Province (January 1940 - June 1946)
10
Yongxing Town, Meitan County, Guizhou Province (February 1940 - June 1946)

During the World War 2, the university left its campus in Hangzhou to evade Japanese invasion. During the wartime relocation, the university also temporarily used the campuses in Jiande in 1937, Ji'an, Taihe Yishan in 1938, before it finally arrived in Meitan and Zunyi, Guizhou in southwest China in early 1940. The university operated there for seven years until the war ended. In June 1939, the university set up an satellite campus headed by Zheng Xiaocang in Longquan, Zhejiang.[171]

In 2016, Dr. Ye Yongfei of the central committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang suggest that the university restore the Meitan campus to support economic development in western China, which was echoed by the local government of Zunyi who set up a committee to gather support in 2018. In March 2018, the university responded that it had no substantial plan to restore the Meitan campus.[172]

Former Hubin Campus[edit]

The university had a Hubin campus, which was the former site of Zhejiang Medical University. Most of the campus was demolished in January 2007 and turned into the Kerry Centre, a modern commercial complex connected with Fengqi Road station of Hangzhou Metro, except for the former site of the High Court of Zhejiang and the Local Court of Hang County reserved as Hangzhou Urban Construction Exhibition Hall.[90][91]

University identity and culture[edit]

Chu Kochen is regarded as the greatest president of Zhejiang University, who served the role during 1936-1949

Motto[edit]

During the University Council meeting held in Yishan, Guangxi on 19 November 1938, "seeking truth" (Chinese: 求是; pinyin: Qiúshì) was made the motto of the university, upon President Chu Kochen's advice. Qiushi is an excerpt of the famous quote in Yangmingism, "A Gentleman learns only to know what is right. (Chinese: 君子之學,唯求其是)" It was made the name of the former body Qiushi Academy in 1897, which means seeking truth and has the same pronunciation as truth in English. According to Chu,

Seeking truth is not limited to studying hard or doing experiments in the lab. As Doctrine of the Mean says, seeking truth is 'to study extensively, inquire prudently, think carefully, distinguish clearly, and practice earnestly.'

In May 1988, "pursuing innovation" was added to the university motto by the university council, to adapt the motto to the times of reforms and opening up. President Lu Yongxiang explained in 1992,

Strictly speaking, pursuing innovation is included in seeking truth, [...] but people often regard seeking truth as being practical, emphasising the acknowledgement and application of the existing body of knowledge and the objective analysis and knowledge of the reality, with no emphasis on being creative and innovative.

Anthem[edit]

External video
video icon Zhejiang University Anthem

During the 19 November 1938 university council meeting, the neo-Confucianism scholar Ma Yifu, who was teaching at Chekiang was invited by President Chu to be the lyric writer of the university anthem, upon Chu's advice. However, as the lyric by Ma was written in Classical Chinese and thus difficult-to-understand, the anthem wasn't composed until Professor Ying Shangneng at National Conservatory of Music was invited to compose the anthem in the summer of 1941. In 2014, the Zhejiang University Anthem was ranked the most popular university anthem, according to an online survey by the news office of the Ministry of Education.[173]

An installation art work of Qiushi eagle for 120th Anniversary of Zhejiang University at Yuquan Campus in 2017

Mascot, logo and flag[edit]

Seal of National Chekiang University (1920s and 1930s)
A trout
Logo of Zhejiang University (since 1991)

The university's mascot is Qiushi eagle, which was first portrayed within its seal used by National Chekiang University during the 1920s and 1930s and then reintroduced in the 1990 logo of Zhejiang University.[174] The Qiushi eagle also appears in the logos of NingboTech University and Zhejiang University City College,[175][176] which was formerly affiliated institutions of Zhejiang University turned independent in December 2019.[174]

The current logo of Zhejiang University was introduced by the university council meeting in January 1991. The logo was officially digitised in May 2017.[177] The Chinese character calligraphy in the logo is taken from Mao Zedong's writing.[178] A combination of the calligraphy and logo in red or blue if using a blank flag or in white if using a blue or red flag is used as the flags of the university.[179]

Quotes of Chu Kochen[edit]

Chu Kochen, who served as the president of National Chekiang University from 1936 to 1949, is credited with a major impact on the guiding spirit of Zhejiang University.[180] His two open questions for the freshmen who enrolled in 1936 has been inscribed in the stone next to the main gate of the Zijingang Campus as well as multiple sites within the university, which says,[181]

You have two questions to ask yourself: First, what do you want to do at Zheda? Second, when you graduate, what kind of people do you want to be?

In another quote that is often displayed in the campus, Chu Kochen talks about the aim of university education, where he says,[182]

The aim of university education is not to nurture experts such as engineers and doctors, but to build leaders that are just, patriotic, fortitudinous and persistent, that take major roles, that lead trends, and that change the destiny of this nation.

Administration and organisation[edit]

Governance[edit]

The university is organised according to Zhejiang University Chapter approved by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. The current chapter was approved in September 2014. According to the chapter, the university is a national university managed by the Ministry of Education and jointly funded by the central government and Zhejiang government. The university is operated by the Communist Party Committee of the university with the president taking the responsibility of decision making. The committee is required to ensure rule of law, academic freedom and democracy at the university.[183] Since 2000, the president and party secretary of the university are appointed by the central government, and the appointees are automatically considered as vice-ministerial level officials.[184] The party committee elects the members of the standing committee, which decide major issues at the university jointly with the party committee. The president hosts university council meeting to decide on teaching and learning, scientific research and administrative issues. The faculty can review and advise on university decisions via the faculty representative meeting.[183] The current party secretary of the university is Dr. Ren Shaobo. The president of the university is Professor Dr. Wu Zhaohui.[185]

Administrative departments[edit]

In the university has an administrative system that consists of 17 administrative departments. Among them, the Office of the Presidents set the strategic priorities for the university to maintain the university's leading position, while the Development and Planning Office is in charge of planning for the implementation of the strategic priorities. The Office of Global Engagement and the Division of Domestic Relations are responsible for implementing the university's strategy and promoting the university domestically and globally. The Human Resources Department recruits and provides services for the faculty, while the Undergraduate School and the Graduate School organise and supervise teaching, learning and degree awarding. The Administration of Continuing Education further provides training and supervision for continuing education programmes. The research and development programmes are supervised by the Sci-Tech Academy and the Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences, depending on the subject. The university research facilities and device are purchased, maintained, and evaluated by the Office of Laboratory and Equipment Management. The Department of General Affairs and the Office of Capital Construction are responsible for the management and construction of the university properties. The Medical Management Office manages the affiliated hospitals.[186]

Academic Structure[edit]

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine was ranked as tenth best hospital in China by the Institute of Hospital Management, Fudan University.[187]

The academic disciplines at the university are divided into seven faculties, which each has different schools. Each faculty, school and department has its own academic committee and different rules of procedures. The committee is organised by the faculty, with a restriction on the percentage of people who serve administrative roles. Selection of the members are based on recommendations within the faculty. The university is a key comprehensive university whose fields of study cover eleven branches of learning, namely philosophy, literature, history, education, science, economics, law, management, engineering, agriculture, and medicine.[188] Below is the list of academic faculties, schools and colleges of the university:[189]

Faculty of Arts and Humanities[edit]

  • School of Humanities
  • School of International Studies
  • College of Media and International Culture
  • School of Art and Archaeology

Faculty of Social Sciences[edit]

  • School of Economics
  • Guanghua Law School
  • College of Education
  • School of Management
  • School of Public Affairs
  • School of Marxism

Faculty of Science[edit]

The Faculty of Science was a combination of the sciences departments at Hangzhou University and Zhejiang University

  • School of Mathematical Sciences
  • Department of Physics
  • Department of Chemistry
  • School of Earth Sciences
  • Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences

Faculty of Engineering[edit]

  • School of Mechanical Engineering
  • School of Material Science and Engineering
  • College of Energy Engineering
  • College of Electrical Engineering
  • College of Civil Engineering and Architecture
  • College of Chemical and Biological Engineering
  • Ocean College
  • School of Aeronautics and Astronautics
  • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering

Faculty of Information[edit]

The Faculty of Information consists of most key departments of Zhejiang University before the 1998 merger. The School of Software Technology was founded in 2001 and is located in both Hangzhou and Ningbo. Entry into the College of Computer Science and Technology is considered to be one of the most competitive in China. Its computer science department specialises in computer graphics, computer vision, and artificial intelligence, which are the computer science domains where Zhejiang University is ranked among top 5 worldwide according to CSranking.[190] In the fourth round of CUSR, among the subjects that the faculty offers, Optical Engineering, Control Science and engineering, Computer Science and technology, and Software Engineering were rated A+, and Biomedical Engineering was rated A-.[28]

  • College of Optical Science and Engineering
  • College of Information Science and Electronic Engineering
  • College of Control Science and Engineering
  • College of Computer Science and Technology
  • School of Software Technology
  • College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science

Faculty of Agriculture, Life and Environment Science[edit]

The Faculty of Agriculture, Life and Environment Science (FALE) consists of most departments of Zhejiang Agricultural University before the 1998 merger. In the fourth round of CUSR, among the subjects that the faculty offers, Agricultural Engineering, Horticulture, Agricultural Resources and environment, and Plant protection wer rated A+, Environmental Science and Engineering, and Pharmacy were rated A, Food Science and engineering, Crop Science, Animal Science were rated A-. It has the most subjects rated A-/A/A+ across all faculties at the university.[28]

  • College of Life Sciences
  • College of Biosystem Engineering and Food Science
  • College of Environmental and Resource Sciences
  • College of Agriculture and Biotechnology
  • College of Animal Sciences

Faculty of Medicine[edit]

The Faculty of Medicine consists of most departments of Zhejiang Medical University before the 1998 merger, with their roots dating back to Chekiang Provincial Medical School founded in 1912, the Pharmaceutical Department of National Chekiang University founded in 1944 and the Medical School of National Chekiang University founded in 1945. The faculty used to be based at Hubin Campus until it is relocated to Zijingang in 2007. The School of Medicine is also among the 45 Chinese medical schools to offer English teaching Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) programmes.[191] It also recruits medical doctoral students from prestigious Chu Kochen Honors College in a programme named Ba Denian Medical Program. The School of Basic Medical Sciences offers a joint undergraduate programmes in biomedicine and bioinformatics at International Campus. Under the School of Medicine, there are seven top-level hospitals. In the fourth round of CUSR, its clinical medicine, pharmacy and basic medicine are rated A+, A and A-, respectively.[28]

  • College of Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • School of Medicine

Under the School of Medicine, there are seven affiliated hospitals, including:[192]

  • First Affiliated Hospital (as the first teaching hospital)
  • Second Affiliated Hospital (as the second teaching hospital)
  • Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (as the third teaching hospital)
  • Fourth Affiliated Hospital (also called Yiwu Hospital, as the fourth teaching hospital)
  • Women's Hospital
  • Children's Hospital
  • Stomatology Hospital (also called Zhejiang Provincial Stomatology Hospital)

Finances[edit]

According to the University Chapter, the university is largely funded by the government.[183] The university has been selected into several national plans to nurture world-class universities, including Double First Class University Plan,[23][24] Project 985 and Project 211.[25] In 2021, with a budget of 22.82 billion Chinese yuan, the university had the second largest budget in China after Tsinghua.[26] The university also raises money through income from its affiliations, government subsidy, donations and other legal sources of income.[183] Zhejiang University consistently stands among top receivers of alumni donations in China. In 2021, it received 2.38 billion Chinese yuan, the fourth most after Tsinghua, Peking and Wuhan.[193] On September 21, 2006, Chinese billionaires Duan Yongping (Zhejiang University alumnus) and Ding Lei (Zhejiang native) donated together a one-time endowment of 40 million US dollars to Zhejiang University. US$30 million was from Duan with 10 million from Ding. It was the largest private one-off endowment to a university in Mainland China.[194] In 2017, the university received a donation of 1.1 billion Chinese yuan (circa.160 million US dollars), again breaking the record for highest alumni donation.[195]

Academics[edit]

Teaching and learning[edit]

The academic departments are responsible for teaching and assessments of various courses and draft the details of degree programmes, which needs to be approved by the Undergraduate and Graduate Schools before start; the detailed method may differ according to the course and the programme. Teaching is supervised and regulated by the Undergraduate School and the Graduate School for quality control, while teaching at Chu Kochen Honors College and international dual degree programmes at Haining are supervised and regulated by their own responsible committees.

Degree awarding is based on academic credits requirement for compulsory and elective courses, which a student must both fulfill to graduate. To earn academic credits, the student can choose and pass a combination of courses at his or her will, as long as the course is available for enrolment,[196] yet some courses may be competitive for enrolment due to class size limits.[197]

Qiushi College[edit]

Qiushi College was founded in July 2008, as a residential college and part of the School of Undergraduate. It managed the student dormitories including the Danyang-Qingxi Hall, the Ziyun-Bifeng Hall, and the Lantian Hall. It offers liberal arts education for freshmen and supports student organisations and activities. It also provides students with aids for academic affairs such as college major choices and team building.[198] Upon enrolment into the university, undergraduates join a hall of Qiushi College at Zijingang mostly according to their faculties of study. In the student military training and education for all Chinese national freshmen, the students are organised according to their halls within the college. In the first year of study, the major of the student may be unspecified as they are recruited according to academic faculties rather than specific academic subjects. They are considered to be a student of the Hall but not of an academic department then. The student may later apply to study a major later or transfer to another major during the study, yet the application to popular majors are highly competitive and additional requirements may apply. The college is responsible for providing assistance to the student.[199]

Chu Kochen Honors College[edit]

Chu Kochen Honors College (CKHC) was founded in May 2000 in honour of Chu Kochen, a former president of the university and is typically chaired by the current president of Zhejiang University. Its predecessor the Mixed Class of Engineering was launched in 1984. It offers a collection of programmes including the Experimental Class of Engineering, the Mixed Class, the Experimental Class of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Qiushi Sciences Class, the Experimental Class of Medicine, the Shennong Class.[200] Entry into the college is highly selective and competitive and its selection questions are known to be creative but difficult.[201][202] Notable alumni of the college include entrepreneur Colin Huang and the current president of Zhejiang University Wu Zhaohui.[200] Its teaching and learning are supervised by a special committee headed by the president. During the programme, 15-20 percentile of the CKHC students in term of GPA will be transferred to non-CKHC programmes.[182]

International Campus[edit]

The dual degree programmes at the International Campus are supervised and regulated by the joint institute to fulfill academic requirements of both Zhejiang University and the partner institutes. For example, the University of Edinburgh regulations on progression and degree classification also applies to its joint institute at the campus, although they are not part of Zhejiang University regulations. The campus only provides a limited number of elective courses and allows students to elect a course that is not offered at his or her own institute. However, transfer from a Sino-foreign programme to a purely ZJU program or between two programmes of different joint institutes are not allowed. Transfer within the joint institute is allowed, yet its approval may be subject to the class size.

Research[edit]

Zhejiang University is a comprehensive research university. Research at Zhejiang University spans 12 academic disciplines: agriculture, art, economics, education, engineering, history, law, literature, management, medicine, natural sciences, and philosophy.

Among its approximate 4,191 standing faculty[203] members, more than 1,893 faculty members hold the title of professor. The faculty includes: 26 members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 27 members of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 164 Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) Award winners, and 154 recipients of the awards from the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars. Zhejiang University also has prominent foreign faculty members. Zhejiang University has 11 State Key Laboratories, as one of the universities with most SKLs in China, which include:

  • Rice Biology, State Key Lab of
  • Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of
  • Modern Optical Instrumentation, State Key Lab of
  • Industrial Control Technology, State Key Lab of
  • Fluid Power Transmission and Control, State Key Lab of
  • CAD and Computer Graphics, State Key Lab of
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Lab of
  • Clean Energy Utilization, State Key Lab of
  • Silicon Materials, State Key Lab of
  • Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, State Key Lab of
  • Modern Optical Instrumentation, State Key Lab of

The university also has three State Specialized Labs, including the State Specialized Lab of Secondary Resources Chemical Engineering, the State Specialized Lab of Power Electronics, and the State Specialized Lab of Biomedical Sensor. Besides, the university has three labs of the Ministry of Education (MOE), including the MOE Key Lab of Soft Soils and Geoenvironmental Engineering, the MOE Key Lab of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered Wildlife and the MOE-Microsoft Key Lab of Visual Perception.

Library system[edit]

The library system has a total library collection of more than 7.9 million volumes,[204] which is one of China's largest academic collections.[205] The system has 6 branch libraries, namely Yuquan Campus Library, Basic Library of Zijingang Campus, Library of Agriculture and Medicine of Zijingang Campus, Library of Ancient Books of Zijingang Campus,[206] Xixi Campus Library and Hujiachi Campus Library,[207] plus 3 branch libraries within different colleges, namely Guanghua Law School Library, International Campus Library, Ocean College Library.[208] Zijingang Campus is the only campus to have three library.[207] One can reserve a book at any library for collection of a book that may belong to another library in the system.[209]

Rankings and reputation[edit]

University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[210]52 (2021)
QS World[211]45 (2022)
QS Employability[212]35 (2020)
THE World[213]75 (2022)
THE Reputation[214]50 (2021)
Regional – Overall
QS Asia[215]5 (2021)
QS BRICS[216]5 (2019)
THE Asia[217]12 (2021)
THE Emerging Economies[218]3 (2020)
National – Overall
BCUR National[219]3 (2019)
CUAA National[220]4 (2020)
Wu Shulian National[221]3 (2020)

General rankings[edit]

Zhejiang University is consistently ranked among China's top universities.[222] Typically, Zhejiang University is consistently ranked among the top universities in the Asia-Pacific according to major international university rankings.[9][223][224][225]

As of 2021, the QS World University Rankings ranked Zhejiang University 45th in the world and fifth in Asia.[10] The Academic Ranking of World Universities, also known as the "Shanghai Ranking", placed Zhejiang University 52th in the world, seventh in the whole of Asia & Oceania region and third in China.[223] Zhejiang University was among the top 50 most reputation universities in the world by the Times Higher Education World Reputation Rankings.[226]

Research performance[edit]

As of 2021, it was ranked tenth among universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.[227] The 2021 CWTS Leiden Ranking ranked Zhejiang University at third in the world based on their publications for the time period 2016–2019.[228] Regarding research output, the Nature Index 2020 ranks the university sixth in China, seventh in the Asia-Pacific and 18th in the world among the global academic universities.[27]

Subjects rankings[edit]

In the Essential Science Indicator (ESI) rankings of 22 disciplines, Zhejiang University ranks among the top 1% in 15 disciplines and is listed in the top 100 of the world's academic institutions in 4 disciplines. As of 2021, the U.S. News & World Report placed "Agricultural Sciences", "Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology", "Chemical Engineering", "Chemistry", "Civil Engineering", "Computer Science", "Condensed Matter Physics", "Electrical and Electronic Engineering", "Energy and Fuels", "Engineering", "Food Science and Technology", "Material Science", "Mechanical Engineering", "Nanoscience and Nanotechnology", "Optics", "Physical Chemistry", "Pharmacology and Toxicology", "Plant and Animal Science" and "Polymer Science" at Zhejiang University in the global Top 50 universities. [5] In the fourth round of China University Subject Rankings by the Ministry of Education released in 2018, ZJU had 31 subjects rated A, the most among Chinese universities, among which 11 subjects were rated A+, the third most after Peking and Tsinghua.[28] Below is the list of A+/A/A- subjects of ZJU.

Rating Subjects
A+


Ecology  • Optical Engineering  • Control Science and Engineering  • Computer Science and Technology  • Agricultural Engineering  • Software Engineering  • Horticulture science  • Agricultural Resource and Environment Sciences  • Plant protection  • Clinical Medicine

A

Chinese Language and Literature  • Foreign Language and Literatures  • Mechanical Engineering  • Materials Science and Engineering  • Power Engineering and Engineering Thermophysics  • Civil Engineering  • Chemical Engineering and Technology  • Environmental Science and Engineering  • Management Science and Engineering  • Pharmaceutical Science  • Public Administration

A+

Theoretical Economics  • Theory of Marxism  • Science of Law  • Education  • Mathematics  • Physics  • Chemistry  • Biology  • Electrical Engineering  • Electronic Science and Technology  • Biomedical Engineering  • Food Science and Engineering  • Animal Science  • Crop Science  • Basic Medicine  • Business Administration  • Design

Student life[edit]

Student body[edit]

In 2020, there were a total of 60,739 full-time students enrolled at Zhejiang University, including 29,209 undergraduates, 18,046 master's candidates and 13,485 doctoral candidates. In 2020, there were 5,596 international students studying at Zhejiang University.

Notable people[edit]

Students[edit]

See List of Zhejiang University alumni

Faculty[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ According to an online survey,[7] 17% of the people mispronounced 浙大 as Zhédà, which is the second most popular pronunciation after the formal pronunciation.
  2. ^ a b Zhijiang (之江) is an alternative name to Zhejiang (浙江) in Chinese.[43] Literally, Zhejiang refers to the Qiantang River, formerly known as the Hangchow River in English, which winds its way across Hangzhou City, the capital of Zhejiang Province, which later becomes the names of the province.[44] According to Junius Herbert Judson who founded the college, the college was named so in Chinese as it provided a bird's-eye view of the Hangchow River from its location.[45]

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