Zheng Keshuang

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Zheng Keshuang
Prince of Yanping (延平王)
Duke Haicheng (海澄公)
Ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning
Reign March 1681 – 5 September 1683
Predecessor Zheng Kezang
Born (1670-08-13)13 August 1670
Chengtian Prefecture, Tungning
Died 22 September 1707(1707-09-22) (aged 37)
Beijing, Zhili Province, Qing Empire
Spouse Lady Feng
Issue

Zheng Anfu (鄭安福)

Zheng Anlu (鄭安祿)

Zheng Ankang (鄭安康)
Era name and dates
Yongli (永曆): March 1681 – 5 September 1683
House House of Zheng
Father Zheng Jing
Mother Lady Huang
Zheng Keshuang
Traditional Chinese 鄭克塽
Simplified Chinese 郑克塽
Shihong
(courtesy name)
Traditional Chinese 實弘
Simplified Chinese 实弘
Huitang
(art name)
Chinese 晦堂

Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping (Chinese: 鄭克塽; 13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name Shihong, art name Huitang, was the third and last ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century. He was the second son of Zheng Jing and a grandson of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong). He surrendered to the Qing dynasty of China in 1683 and lived the rest of his life in Beijing.

Life[edit]

Zheng Keshuang was born in Chengtian Prefecture (zh) of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan; the administrative centre of Chengtian Prefecture was at Fort Provintia. His father was Zheng Jing, the king of Tungning and the eldest son of Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong), the founder of Tungning. His biological mother was Lady Huang (黃氏), Zheng Jing's concubine.

When Zheng Jing was leading a campaign against the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China in the late 1670s, he designated his elder son, Zheng Kezang, as his heir apparent and put him in charge of Tungning's internal affairs. At the same time, he also arranged marriages between his two sons and the daughters of two of his most trusted officials: Zheng Kezang married the daughter of Chen Yonghua (zh), while Zheng Keshuang married the daughter of Feng Xifan.

Zheng Jing returned to Tungning in 1680 from a failed campaign against the Qing Empire. In the same year, Chen Yonghua died after he was ousted from the political arena by his rivals, Feng Xifan and Liu Guoxuan (劉國軒). Zheng Jing died a year later in Chengtian Prefecture. After Zheng Jing's death, Feng Xifan allied with Liu Guoxuan, Zheng Cong (鄭聰) and others to slander Zheng Kezang in front of Queen Dowager Dong, Zheng Jing's mother. They claimed that Zheng Kezang was not Zheng Jing's biological son, and launched a coup to kill Zheng Kezang and seize power. Following the coup, a 12-year-old Zheng Keshuang was installed on the throne as the ruler of Tungning under the title "Prince of Yanping" (延平王). After his accession to the throne, Zheng Keshuang rewarded the officials who supported him in the coup by granting them nobility titles. He also gave posthumous honorary titles to his ancestors.

In 1683, the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty ordered Shi Lang to lead a naval fleet to attack and conquer Tungning. Shi Lang and his fleet defeated the Tungning forces, led by Liu Guoxuan, at the Battle of Penghu. After the battle, the Tungning royal court split into two factions, with one advocating war and the other advocating surrender. The "war" faction was led by Zheng Dexiao (鄭得瀟), Huang Liangji (黃良驥), Xiao Wu (蕭武) and Hong Gongzhu (洪拱柱), while the "surrender" faction was led by Feng Xifan and Liu Guoxuan. Zheng Keshuang heeded Feng and Liu's advice.[1] On 5 July 1683, Feng Xifan ordered Zheng Dexiao to write a surrender document to the Qing Empire. About ten days later, Feng sent Zheng Keshuang to meet Shi Lang. On 13 August, Shi Lang entered Taiwan and received the official surrender.

Noble titles were given to the officers of the Zheng and the Zheng themselves.[2] Zheng Keshuang and his family were taken to the Qing imperial capital, Beijing, to meet the Kangxi Emperor.[3] The emperor made Zheng Keshuang a member of the Plain Red Banner and awarded him the hereditary title "Duke Haicheng" (海澄公; lit. "sea-quelling duke").[4][5] Some former Tungning military units, such as the rattan shield troops, were inducted into the Qing military and deployed in the battle against Russian Cossacks at Albazin.

Zheng Keshuang died of illness in 1707 in Beijing at the age of 37.[6] His younger brother, Zheng Kexue (鄭克壆), was ordered by the Qing government to bury the remains of Zheng Chenggong and Zheng Jing in Quanzhou, Fujian – the ancestral home of the Zheng family. Zheng Keshuang's mother, Lady Huang, tried to seek permission from the Qing government to return their family property to them, but was refused.

Zheng Keshuang was survived by three sons: Zheng Anfu (鄭安福), Zheng Anlu (鄭安祿), and Zheng Ankang (鄭安康).

Zheng's descendants served as Bannermen in Beijing until 1911 when the Xinhai revolution broke out and the Qing dynasty's fell, after which they moved back to Anhai and Nan'an in southern Fujian. They still live there to this day.[7]

One of his descendants, the poet Zheng Chouyu (鄭愁予; born 1933) was born in Shandong province in China.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] Zheng Xiaoxuan 鄭曉嵐 the father of Zheng Chouyu, fought against the Japanese invaders in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Zheng Chouyu was born in Shandong in mainland China and called himself a "child of the resistance" against Japan and he became a refugee during the war, moving from place to place across China to avoid the Japanese. He moved to Taiwan in 1949 and focuses his work on building stronger ties between Taiwan and mainland China.[31] Zheng Chouyu was born in mainland China, he identified as Chinese and he felt alienated after he was forced to move to Taiwan in 1949 which was previously under Japanese rule and felt strange and foreign to him.[32]

In fiction[edit]

Zheng Keshuang appears as one of the antagonists in the novel The Deer and the Cauldron by Louis Cha.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hung, “Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662 – 1683"
  2. ^ Jonathan D. Spence (1991). The Search for Modern China. Norton. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-0-393-30780-1.
  3. ^ Jonathan Clements (24 October 2011). Coxinga and the Fall of the Ming Dynasty. History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-7382-6.
  4. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 62.
  5. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/CHENG_CHING.html
  6. ^ Manthorpe, Jonathan (2008). Forbidden Nation: A History of Taiwan. New York City: St. Martin's Press. p. 108. ISBN 0230614248.
  7. ^ Xing Hang (5 January 2016). Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620–1720. Cambridge University Press. pp. 239–. ISBN 978-1-316-45384-1.
  8. ^ Li-hua Ying (1 April 2010). The A to Z of Modern Chinese Literature. Scarecrow Press. pp. 277–. ISBN 978-1-4617-3187-0.
  9. ^ Li-hua Ying (22 December 2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Chinese Literature. Scarecrow Press. pp. 277–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7081-9.
  10. ^ Karen Thornber (2 March 2012). Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures. University of Michigan Press. pp. 642–. ISBN 0-472-11806-4.
  11. ^ Europe: revue littéraire mensuelle. Les Éditions Denoël. 2004. p. 356.
  12. ^ C. Lupke (25 December 2007). New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-0-230-61014-9.
  13. ^ Joshua S. Mostow; Kirk A. Denton; Bruce Fulton (2003). The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. Columbia University Press. pp. 566–. ISBN 978-0-231-11314-4.
  14. ^ Charles J. Alber (2004). Embracing the Lie: Ding Ling and the Politics of Literature in the People's Republic of China. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 215–. ISBN 978-0-275-97236-3.
  15. ^ Renditions. Research Centre for Translation, Chinese University of Hong Kong. 1989. p. 20.
  16. ^ Pang-Yuan Chi; David Der-wei Wang (22 September 2000). Chinese Literature in the Second Half of a Modern Century: A Critical Survey. Indiana University Press. pp. 19–. ISBN 0-253-10836-5.
  17. ^ Phyllis T. Wang; Cathy Chiu (1997). Ying yi Zhong wen xin shi suo yin 1917-1995. Hanxue Yanjiu Zhongxin. p. 324. ISBN 978-957-678-225-1.
  18. ^ Wilt L. Idema; Lloyd Haft (1997). A Guide to Chinese Literature. University of Michigan Press. pp. 374–. ISBN 978-0-89264-123-9.
  19. ^ Dewei Wang; David Der-wei Wang; Carlos Rojas (24 January 2007). Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Duke University Press. pp. 392–. ISBN 0-8223-3867-X.
  20. ^ Rayne Kruger (30 December 2003). All Under Heaven: A Complete History of China. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-86533-0.
  21. ^ Chouyu Zheng (1979). Zheng Chouyu shi ji.
  22. ^ C. Lupke (25 December 2007). New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Palgrave Macmillan US. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-0-230-61014-9.
  23. ^ Joseph S. M. Lau; Howard Goldblatt (2007). The Columbia Anthology of Modern Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-0-231-13841-3.
  24. ^ Li-hua Ying (1 April 2010). The A to Z of Modern Chinese Literature. Scarecrow Press. pp. 397–. ISBN 978-1-4617-3187-0.
  25. ^ Li-hua Ying (22 December 2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Chinese Literature. Scarecrow Press. pp. 397–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7081-9.
  26. ^ Karen Thornber (2 March 2012). Ecoambiguity: Environmental Crises and East Asian Literatures. University of Michigan Press. pp. 642–. ISBN 0-472-11806-4.
  27. ^ Pang-Yuan Chi; David Der-wei Wang (22 September 2000). Chinese Literature in the Second Half of a Modern Century: A Critical Survey. Indiana University Press. pp. 19–. ISBN 0-253-10836-5.
  28. ^ Shu-mei Shih (25 December 2012). Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. Columbia University Press. pp. 426–. ISBN 978-0-231-52710-1.
  29. ^ Chung-To Au (2008). Modernist Aesthetics in Taiwanese Poetry Since The 1950s. BRILL. pp. 61–. ISBN 90-04-16707-2.
  30. ^ Chung-kuo Hsien Tai Wen Hsüeh. San Francisco State University Center for the Study of Modern Chinese Literature. 1993. p. 56.
  31. ^ "詩人鄭愁予:我是個抗戰兒童". 中國新聞網. 2015-07-16.
  32. ^ Chung-To Au (2008). Modernist Aesthetics in Taiwanese Poetry Since The 1950s. BRILL. pp. 154–. ISBN 90-04-16707-2.
  33. ^ Louis Cha; Yong Jin (27 March 2003). The deer and the cauldron: a martial arts novel. Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-19-590327-0.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hung, Chien-chao (1981). Taiwan Under the Cheng Family, 1662–1683: Sinicization After Dutch Rule (Ph.D. dissertation). Georgetown University. OCLC 63232462.
Zheng Keshuang
Born: 13 August 1670 Died: 22 September 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zheng Jing
Prince of Yanping
March 1681 – 5 September 1683
Office abolished
surrendered to the Great Qing
New title Prince of Chao
Unknown – 5 September 1683
Office abolished
surrendered to the Great Qing
Political offices
Preceded by
Zheng Kezang
Ruler of the Tungning
March 1681 – 5 September 1683
Succeeded by
Zhou Chang (as Taixia Dao)