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The Zhengdian (Chinese: 政典; Wade–Giles: Chengtien; literally: "Political Institutions") was a 35-volume Chinese political treatise in historical form which was written approximately in 742 by Liu Zhi, son of esteemed historical critic Liu Zhiji.[1] The book did not survive, but it was further expanded and borrowed by Du You in his Tongdian.


  1. ^ Robert Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It p. 244 from Twitchett, Official History under the T'ang 104-107


  • Yang, Xumin. Lun Liu Zhi (On Liu Zhi). Huaihai Wenhui. 2002.2. p. 32-36.
  • Robert G. Hoyland (1998). Seeing Islam as others saw it : a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian writings on early Islam. Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press. ISBN 978-0-87850-125-0.