Zhong Kui

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Zhong Kui
Zhong Kui the Demon Queller with Five Bats.jpg
A Ming painting of Zhong Kui the Demon Queller with Five Bats, with the five bats representing the five blessings as well as the vase, red coral, and fungi—held by demons—that also contain auspicious symbolism
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetChung Quỳ
Hán-Nôm鍾馗
Korean name
Hangul종규
Hanja鍾馗
Japanese name
Kanji

Zhong Kui (Chinese: 鍾馗; pinyin: Zhōng Kuí; Korean: 종규, romanizedJonggyu; Japanese: 鍾馗, romanizedShōki) is a deity in Chinese mythology, traditionally regarded as a vanquisher of ghosts and evil beings. He is universally depicted as a large man with a big black beard, bulging eyes and a wrathful expression. Zhong Kui is reputedly able to command 80,000 demons to do his bidding, and is often associated with the five bats of fortune. Worship and iconography of Zhong Kui later spread to other East Asian countries, and he can also be found in the folklores and mythologies of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.

In art, Zhong Kui is a frequent subject in paintings and crafts, and his image is often painted on household gates as a guardian spirit as well as in places of business where high-value goods are involved. He is also commonly portrayed in popular media.

Becoming the king of ghosts[edit]

According to folklore, Zhong Kui travelled with a friend from his hometown, Du Ping (杜平), to take part in the state-wide imperial examinations held in the capital city. Though Zhong Kui attained great academic success through his achievement of top honors in the major exams, his rightful title of "Zhuangyuan" (top-scorer) was stripped from him by the emperor because of his disfigured and ugly appearance. In anger and fury, Zhong Kui committed suicide by continually hurling himself against the palace gates until his head was broken, whereupon Du Ping had him buried and laid to rest. During the divine judgment after his death from suicide, Yama (the Chinese Hell King) saw much potential in Zhong Kui, intelligent and smart enough to score top honors in the imperial examinations but condemned to Hell because of the grave sin of suicide. Yama then gave him a title as the king of ghosts and tasked him to hunt, capture, take charge of and maintain discipline and order among all ghosts. After Zhong Kui became the king of ghosts in Hell, he returned to his hometown on Chinese New Year's eve. To repay Du Ping's kindness, Zhong Kui gave his younger sister in marriage to Du Ping.[1]

Popularization in later dynasties[edit]

Zhong Kui's popularity in folklore can be traced to the reign of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang China (712 to 756). According to Song Dynasty sources, once the Emperor Xuanzong was gravely ill and had a dream in which he saw two ghosts. The smaller of the ghosts stole a purse from imperial consort Yang Guifei and a flute belonging to the emperor. The larger ghost, wearing the hat of an official, captured the smaller ghost, tore out his eye and ate it. He then introduced himself as Zhong Kui. He said that he had sworn to rid the empire of evil. When the emperor awoke, he had recovered from his illness. So he commissioned the court painter Wu Daozi to produce an image of Zhong Kui to show to the officials. This was highly influential to later representations of Zhong Kui.[2][3]

Legacy[edit]

Zhong Kui and his legend became a popular theme in later Chinese painting, art, and folklore. Pictures of Zhong Kui used to be frequently hung up in households to scare away ghosts. His character was and still is especially popular in New Year pictures.[3]

In art[edit]

Temples[edit]

  • Zhong Kui Temple (钟馗庙) in Guanqiao, Hunan
  • Shuiwei Zhengwei Temple (水尾震威宮) in Xizhou, Changhua
  • Guang Lu Temple (光祿廟) in Zhuqi, Chiayi
  • Wu Fu Temple (五福宮) in Wanhua, Taipei
  • Zhong Nan Old Temple (終南古廟), Batu Pahat, Johor
  • Shōki Shrine (鍾馗神社) in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto

In popular culture[edit]

Gong Kai's Zhongshan Going on Excursion (13th or 14th century), depicting Zhong Kui and his sister setting out on a hunting expedition, with a retinue of subjugated demons carrying Zhong Kui's sword, household goods, pots of wine, and even smaller demons that they have captured

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nagendra Kumar Singh (1997). International encyclopaedia of Buddhism: India [11]. Anmol Publications. pp. 1372–1374. ISBN 978-81-7488-156-4. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  2. ^ Richard Von Glahn (2004). The Sinister Way: The Divine and the Demonic in Chinese Religious Culture. University of California Press. pp. 122–128. ISBN 978-0-520-92877-0. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b Dillon, Michael, ed. (1998). China: A Cultural and Historical Dictionary. London: Curzon Press. pp. 382. ISBN 0-7007-0439-6.

External links[edit]

  • Media related to 鍾馗 at Wikimedia Commons