Zhores Aleksandrovich Medvedev (Russian: Жоре́с Алекса́ндрович Медве́дев; born 14 November 1925 in Tbilisi, Georgia) is a Russian biologist, historian and dissident. His twin brother is the historian Roy Medvedev.
From 1926 until 1938, the Medvedev family lived in Leningrad. Medvedev's father, Aleksandr Romanovich Medvedev, was a professor at the Military-Political Academy with the military rank of brigade commissar. In August 1938, Aleksandr was arrested in a wave of political terror, charged as a "follower of Bukharin" and sentenced to eight years of forced labor. He died in March 1941 in one of the Kolyma Far Eastern camps. The rest of the family – Zhores, Roy and mother Yalia – moved to Rostov-on-Don. In September 1941, the family was evacuated to Tbilisi, shortly before the first German occupation of Rostov-on-Don.
In February 1943, Medvedev was drafted into the Soviet Army and sent as a foot soldier to the Taman front, where he was wounded and later discharged from the army. In 1944, Medvedev began studies at the K.A. Timiryazev Russian State Agricultural University. In December 1950, he was awarded a PhD degree (kandidat biologicheskikh nauk) for his research into sexual processes in plants. He became a Junior Research Scientist in the Agrochemistry and Biochemistry Department at Timiryazev Academy and he was promoted to Senior Research Scientist in 1954 and would remain at the academy until 1963.
Beginning in 1952, Medvedev had focused his attention on the problems of aging, concentrating on the turnover of proteins and nucleic acids. In 1961, he published the first paper suggesting that aging is the result of an accumulation of errors in the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids. In 1962, Medvedev wrote his book on the history of Soviet genetics (later published in the USA as "The Rise and Fall of T.D. Lysenko", Columbia Univ. Press, 1969), which was widely circulated in a manuscript typewritten version known as "samizdat" ("self-publishing").
In 1963, Medvedev moved to Obninsk to the Institute of Medical Radiology, where he was appointed head of the molecular radiobiology laboratory. He published two books, Protein Biosynthesis and Problems of Heredity Development and Ageing (1963; English translation 1965 Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh) and Molecular Mechanisms of Development (1966; English translation 1968, Plenum Press, New York). Medvedev was dismissed from his position in 1969 after the publication in the USA of his book The Rise and Fall of T.D. Lysenko.
Between 1968 and 1970, Medvedev wrote two more samizdat books: International Cooperation of Scientists and National Frontiers  and Secrecy of Correspondence is Guaranteed by Law (about postal censorship in the USSR). They were published in 1971 as Medvedev Papers by Macmillan in London. These works were widely circulated in the USSR among scientists, and this activity resulted in Medvedev's arrest and forced detention in the Kaluga psychiatric hospital in May 1970. However, this action produced many protests from prominent scientists (Academics Andrei Sakharov, Pyotr Kapitsa, Igor Tamm, Vladimir Engelgardt, Boris Astaurov, Nikolai Semyonov, and others) and well-known writers (Solzhenitsyn, Tvardovsky, Vladimir Tendryakov, Vladimir Dudintsev, etc.) which resulted in Medvedev's release (this experience was reflected in Zhores Medvedev's and Roy Medvedev's book A Question of Madness, published by Macmillan in London in 1971).
In 1971, Medvedev was given the job of Senior scientist of the Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Farm Animals in Borovsk, in the Kaluga region. In 1972, he was invited for one year's research by the National Institute for Medical Research in London at its new Genetic Division. While in London with wife Margarita and younger son, Medvedev was stripped of his Soviet citizenship and his passport was confiscated. He remained in London and worked as Senior Research Scientist at the National Institute for Medical Research until his retirement in 1991.
Medvedev published about 170 research papers and reviews, about sixty of them during his time in London. In 1973 he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto. In 1980, Medvedev received British citizenship. His Soviet citizenship was restored by decree of President Mikhail Gorbachev in 1990. He received the Aging Research Award from the United States Association of Biogerontology in 1984 and the Rene Schubert Prize in Gerontology in 1985.
Zhores Medvedev is famous for exposing the Kyshtym nuclear disaster, which occurred at Mayak near Kyshtym, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the Urals in 1957. He published the book The Nuclear Disaster in the Urals in 1979 (W.W. Norton, New York).
Medvedev was an early victim of official attempts to stifle opposition by detaining dissidents in mental institutions. In London, Medvedev continued to edit the samizdat journal XX Century jointly with his brother Roy. The two also coauthored Khrushchev: The Years in Power (1978) and several other books, the last one The Unknown Stalin (2007).
Medvedev had two sons, the elder of whom is deceased. The other, Dimitri, ran the Blue Bridge Café in Camden, London, before moving to Cornwall, where he owns a farm and has two children.
- "Zhores A. Medvedev, Mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo uchenykh i natsional 'nye granitsy 1969-1970". National Library of Medicine.
- "World: Protesting Spiritual Murder". Time. 29 June 1970. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Humanist Manifesto II". American Humanist Association. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- Protein Biosynthesis and Problems of Heredity,Development and Ageing. Plenum Press, New York, 1966. Oliver & Boyd Ltd, Edinburgh, 1966.
- Unknown Stalin: His Life, Death, and Legacy (with Roy Medvedev, Ellen Dahrendorf - Translator) (Overlook Press, 2005) ISBN 1-58567-644-6
- Legacy of Chernobyl (W W Norton & Co Inc, 1992) ISBN 0-393-30814-6
- Soviet Agriculture (W W Norton & Co Inc, 1988) ISBN 0-393-02472-5
- Gorbachev (W W Norton & Co Inc, 1987) ISBN 0-393-30408-6
- Andropov (W W Norton & Co Inc, 1983) ISBN 0-393-01791-5
- Nuclear Disaster in the Urals (1980) ISBN 0-394-74445-4
- Gorbachev (1986) ISBN 0-631-14782-9
- Molecular-Genetic Mechanisms of Development (1970) ISBN 0-306-30403-1
- Medvedev Papers: Fruitful Meetings between Scientists of the World (1971) ISBN 0-333-12520-7
- Ten Years after Ivan Denisovich (1974) ISBN 0-394-71112-2
- Hazards of Nuclear Power (with Alan Roberts) (1977) ISBN 0-85124-211-1
- Secrecy of Correspondence Is Guaranteed by Law (1975) ISBN 0-85124-128-X
- Soviet Science (1978) ISBN 0-393-06435-2
- Stalin and the Jewish Question: New Analysis (2003, in Russian) ISBN 5-7712-0251-7
- Solzhenitsyn and Sakharov: Two Prophets (with Roy Medvedev) (2004, in Russian) ISBN 5-94117-065-3
- Rise & Fall Of Trofim D. Lysenko ISBN 0-231-03183-1
- Medvedev Papers: The Plight Of Soviet Science ISBN 3-331-25207-7
- A Question Of Madness (with Roy Medvedev) ISBN 0-14-003783-7
- Nuclear Disaster In The Urals (Trans George Saunders) ISBN 0-207-95896-3
- Khrushchev: The Years In Power (with Roy Medvedev) ISBN 0-8357-0154-9
- National Frontiers & International Scientific Cooperation (Medvedev Papers) Spokesman Books, 1975: ISBN 0-85124-127-1
- Nutrition and Longevity (2011, In Russian) Publ. "Vremya" Moscow ISBN 978-5-9691-0513-3
- Nutrition and Longevity (in Russian) 2007 ISBN 978-5-7712-0380-5
- Polonium in London (in Russian) 2008 Molodaya Gvardia, Moscow:ISBN 978-5-235-03160-9
- Articles on poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.
- Only in Krasnoyarsky Rabochy! "Polonium in London", editorial, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 22 February 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 1. Sickness without a diagnosis, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 1 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 2. The trace leads to Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 7 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 4. The neighbour of Akhmed Zakayev, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 15 March 2007, (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 6. The problems for Scotland Yard, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 22 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 8. From consultations to blackmailing, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 29 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 10. The verdict of "free" press, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 5 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 12. The group poisoning, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 12 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 13. Yet another hypothesis, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 19 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: 14. The case did not proceed to laying charges, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 26 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London. A year and a half later, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy, 22 May 2008 (computer translation)
- Sickness without a diagnosis, Gazeta 2000, №7 (354) 16–22 February 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London, Gazeta 2000, №8 (355) 23 February - 1 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Berezovsky's and Goldfarb's «Civil Liberties Fund», Gazeta 2000, №10 (357) 9–15 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Scotland Yard detectives follow the radioactive trace, Gazeta 2000, №11 (358) 16–22 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Litvinenko in London. The fateful business consultation, Gazeta 2000, №12 (359) 23–29 March 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Litvinenko in London. From consultations to blackmailing, Gazeta 2000, №13 (360) 30 March - 5 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Why Scotland Yard ceased investigation, Gazeta 2000, №14 (361) 6–12 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Who killed Litvinenko? The verdict of "free" press, Gazeta 2000, №15 (362) 13–19 April 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Litvinenko in London. Documents trade or blackmailing, what is more dangerous?, Gazeta 2000, №16 (363) 20–26 April 2007 (computer translation)
- The group poisoning by Polonium-210. Litvinenko was one of the victims, Gazeta 2000, №17 (364) 27 April - 2 May 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium in London: Who poisoned Litvinenko and Kovtun? A hypothesis, Gazeta 2000, №18-19 (365) 11–17 May 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium-210 as a radio toxin, Gazeta 2000, №20 (366) 18–24 May 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium-210 in London: Three radioactive biographies, Gazeta 2000, №21 (367) 25–31 May 2007 (computer translation)
- Polonium-210 in London: a year and a half later, Gazeta 2000, №21 (415) 23–29 May 2008 (computer translation)