|c. 3rd century BC|
|Literal meaning||"[The Writings of] Zhuangzi"|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||"True Scripture of Southern Florescence"|
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The Zhuangzi (pronounced [ʈʂwáŋtsɨ̀]; Chinese: 莊子; Wade–Giles: Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (3rd century BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage. Named for its traditional author, "Master Zhuang" (Zhuangzi), the Zhuangzi is one of the two foundational texts of Daoism—along with the Dao De Jing (Laozi)—and is generally considered the most important of all Daoist writings.
The Zhuangzi is composed of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature. Its main themes are of spontaneity in action and of freedom from the human world and its conventions. The fables and anecdotes in the text attempt to illustrate the falseness of human distinctions between good and bad, large and small, life and death, and human and nature. While other philosophers wrote of moral and personal duty, Zhuangzi promoted carefree wandering and becoming one with "the Way" (Dào 道) by following nature.
Though primarily known as a philosophical work, the Zhuangzi is regarded as one of the greatest literary works in all of Chinese history, and has been called "the most important pre-Qin text for the study of Chinese literature." A masterpiece of both philosophical and literary skill, it has significantly influenced writers for more than 2000 years from the Han dynasty to the present. Many major Chinese writers and poets in history—such as Sima Xiangru and Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, Ruan Ji and Tao Yuanming during the Six Dynasties, Li Bai during the Tang dynasty, and Su Shi and Lu You in the Song dynasty—were influenced by the Zhuangzi.
- 1 History
- 2 Content
- 3 Themes
- 4 Influence
- 5 Notable translations
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Zhuangzi is named for and attributed to Zhuang Zhou—"Master Zhuang" (Chinese: "Zhuangzi" 莊子)—a man generally said to have been born around 369 BC at a place called Meng (蒙) in the state of Song (near modern Shangqiu, Henan Province), and died around 301, 295, or 286 BC. Almost nothing is concretely known of Zhuangzi's life. He is thought to have spent time in the southern state of Chu, as well as in Linzi, the capital of the state of Qi. Sima Qian's monumental history Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji 史記) has a biography of Zhuangzi, but most of it seems to be drawn from anecdotes in the Zhuangzi itself. East Asia scholar and Zhuangzi translator Burton Watson has noted, "Whoever Zhuang Zhou was, the writings attributed to him bear the stamp of a brilliant and original mind."
Even though the text is generally treated as a single whole, scholars have recognized since at least the Song dynasty that some parts of the book could not have been written by Zhuangzi himself. Since ancient times, however, the first 7 chapters (the nèi piān 內篇 "inner chapters") have been considered to be the actual work of Zhuangzi, and most modern scholars agree with this view. How much, if any, of the remaining 26 chapters (the wài piān 外篇 "outer chapters" and zá piān 雜篇 "miscellaneous chapters") was written by Zhuangzi has long been debated. It is generally accepted that the middle and later Zhuangzi chapters are the result of a subsequent process of "accretion and redaction" by later authors "responding to the scintillating brilliance" of the inner chapters. All of the 33 surviving chapters are accepted as compositions from the 4th to 2nd centuries BC.
Details of the Zhuangzi's textual history prior to the Han dynasty are largely unknown. The Records of the Grand Historian, completed around 104 BC, refers to a 100,000-word Zhuangzi work and references several chapters that are still in the text. The Book of Han (Han shu 漢書), finished in AD 111, lists a Zhuangzi in 52 chapters, which many scholars believe to be the original form of the work. A number of different forms of the Zhuangzi survived into the Tang dynasty, but a shorter and more popular 33-chapter form of the book prepared by Guo Xiang around AD 300 is the source of all surviving editions. In 742, an imperial proclamation from Emperor Xuanzong of Tang awarded the Zhuangzi the honorific title True Scripture of Southern Florescence (Nanhua zhenjing 南華真經), a name still used in certain formal contexts.
Portions of the Zhuangzi have been discovered among bamboo slip texts from Warring States and Han dynasty tombs, particularly at the Shuanggudui and Zhangjiashan Han bamboo texts sites. One of the slips from the Guodian texts, which date to around 300 BC, contains what appears to be a short fragment from the "Ransacking Coffers" ("Qu qie" 胠篋) chapter.
A large number of Zhuangzi fragments dating from the early Tang dynasty were discovered among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by Aurel Stein and Paul Pelliot. They collectively form about twelve chapters of Guo Xiang's version of the Zhuangzi, and are preserved mostly at the British Library and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Among the Japanese national treasures preserved in the Kōzan-ji temple in Kyoto is a Zhuangzi manuscript from the Muromachi period. The manuscript has seven complete chapters from the "outer" and "miscellaneous" chapters, and is believed to be a close copy of an annotated edition written in the 7th century by Daoist master Cheng Xuanying (成玄英; fl. AD 630–660).
Almost all of the 33 surviving Zhuangzi chapters contain fables and allegories. Most Zhuangzi stories are fairly short and simple, such as "Lickety" and "Split" drilling seven holes in "Wonton" (chapter 7) or Zhuangzi being discovered sitting and beating on a basin after his wife dies (chapter 18), although a few are longer and more complex, like the story of Master Lie and the magus (chapter 14) and the account of the Yellow Emperor's music (chapter 14). Unlike the other stories and allegories in other pre-Qin texts, the Zhuangzi is unique in that the allegories form the bulk of the text, rather than occasional features, and are always witty, emotional, and are not limited to reality.
Unlike other ancient Chinese works, whose allegories were usually based on historical legends and proverbs, most Zhuangzi stories seem to have been invented by Zhuangzi himself. Some are completely whimsical, such as the strange description of evolution from "misty spray" through a series of substances and insects to horses and humans (chapter 18), while a few other passages seem to be sheer playful nonsense which read like Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky". The Zhuangzi is full of quirky and fantastic characters, such as "Mad Stammerer", "Fancypants Scholar", "Sir Plow", and a man who believes his left arm will turn into a rooster, his right arm will turn into a crossbow, and his buttocks will become cartwheels.
A master of language, Zhuangzi sometimes engages in logic and reasoning, but then turns it upside down or carries the arguments to absurdity to demonstrate the limitations of human knowledge and the rational world. Some of Zhuangzi's reasoning, such as his renowned argument with his philosopher friend Huizi (Master Hui) about the joy of fish (chapter 17), have been compared to the Socratic and Platonic dialogue traditions, and Huizi's paradoxes near the end of the book have been termed "strikingly like those of Zeno of Elea."
"The Butterfly Dream"
The best known of all Zhuangzi stories – "Zhuang Zhou Dreams of Being a Butterfly" (Zhuāng Zhōu mèng dié 莊周夢蝶) – appears at the end of the second chapter, "On the Equality of Things".
The striking image of Zhuangzi wondering if he was a man who dreamed of being a butterfly or a butterfly dreaming of being a man is so well known that whole dramas have been written on its theme. In it Zhuangzi "[plays] with the theme of transformation", illustrating that "the distinction between waking and dreaming is another false dichotomy. If [one] distinguishes them, how can [one] tell if [one] is now dreaming or awake?"
"Cook Ding Cuts Up an Ox"
In the story of "Cook Ding Cuts Up an Ox" (Páo Dīng jiě niú 庖丁解牛), from the "Secrets for Nurturing Life" chapter, Zhuangzi famously uses the image of a skilled butcher to illustrate the "mindlessness" characteristic of one who has mastered Daoist principles by completely following nature.
"The Death of Wonton"
Another well known Zhuangzi story—"The Death of Wonton" (Hùndùn zhī sǐ 渾沌之死)—illustrates the dangers Zhuangzi saw in going against the innate nature of things.
Zhuangzi believed that the greatest of all human happiness could be achieved through a higher understanding of the nature of things, and that in order to develop oneself fully one needed to express one's innate ability. In this anecdote, Zhuangzi humorously and absurdly uses "Wonton" – a name for both the Chinese conception of primordial chaos and, by physical analogy, wonton soup – to demonstrate what he believed were the disastrous consequences of going against things' innate natures.
"Drumming On a Tub and Singing"
Another well-known Zhuangzi story – "Drumming On a Tub and Singing" (Gǔ pén ér gē 鼓盆而歌) – describes how Zhuangzi did not view death as something to be feared.
Zhuangzi seems to have viewed death as a natural process or transformation, where one gives up one form of existence and assumes another. His writings teach that "the wise man or woman accepts death with equanimity and thereby achieves absolute happiness."
List of chapters
|1||"Carefree Wandering"||Xiāoyáo yóu 逍遙遊|
|2||"On the Equality of Things"||Qí wù lùn 齊物論|
|3||"Essentials for Nurturing Life"||Yǎng shēng zhǔ 養生主|
|4||"The Human World"||Rén-jiān shì 人間世|
|5||"Symbols of Integrity Fulfilled"||Dé chōng fú 德充符|
|6||"The Great Ancestral Teacher"||Dà zōng shī 大宗師|
|7||"Responses for Emperors and Kings"||Yìng dì wáng 應帝王|
|8||"Webbed Toes"||Piān mǔ 駢拇|
|9||"Horses' Hooves"||Mǎ-tí 馬蹄|
|10||"Ransacking Coffers"||Qū qiè 胠篋|
|11||"Preserving and Accepting"||Zài yòu 在宥|
|12||"Heaven and Earth"||Tiān-dì 天地|
|13||"The Way of Heaven"||Tiān dào 天道|
|14||"Heavenly Revolutions"||Tiān yùn 天運|
|15||"Ingrained Opinions"||Kè yì 刻意|
|16||"Mending Nature"||Shàn xìng 繕性|
|17||"Autumn Floods"||Qiū shuǐ 秋水|
|18||"Ultimate Joy"||Zhì lè 至樂|
|19||"Understanding Life"||Dá shēng 達生|
|20||"The Mountain Tree"||Shān mù 山木|
|21||"Sir Square Field"||Tián-zǐ fāng 田子方|
|22||"Knowledge Wanders North"||Zhī běi yóu 知北遊|
|23||"Gengsang Chu"||Gēngsāng Chǔ 庚桑楚|
|24||"Ghostless Xu"||Xú wú-guǐ 徐無鬼|
|25||"Sunny"||Zé yáng 則陽|
|26||"External Things"||Wài wù 外物|
|27||"Metaphors"||Yù yán 寓言|
|28||"Abdicating Kingship"||Ràng wáng 讓王|
|29||"Robber Footpad"||Dào zhí 盜跖|
|30||"Discoursing on Swords"||Shuō jiàn 說劍|
|31||"An Old Fisherman"||Yú fù 漁父|
|32||"Lie Yukou"||Liè Yùkòu 列禦寇|
|33||"All Under Heaven"||Tiānxià 天下|
|"Inner chapters" (Nèi piān 內篇)|
|"Outer chapters" (Wài piān 外篇)|
|"Miscellaneous chapters" (Zá piān 雜篇)|
The stories and anecdotes of the Zhuangzi embody a highly unique set of principles and attitudes, including living one's life with natural spontaneity, uniting one's inner self with the cosmic "Way" (Dao), keeping oneself distant from politics and social obligations, accepting death as a natural transformation, showing appreciation and praise for things others view as useless or aimless, and stridently rejecting social values and conventional reasoning. These principles form the core ideas of philosophical Daoism. The other major philosophical schools of ancient China—such as Confucianism, Legalism, and Mohism—were all concerned with concrete social, political, or ethical reforms designed to reform people and society and thereby alleviate the problems and suffering of the world. However, Zhuangzi believed that the key to true happiness was to free oneself from the world and its standards through the Daoist principle of "inaction" (wúwéi 無為)—action that is not based on any purposeful striving or motives for gain—and was fundamentally opposed to systems that impose order on individuals.
The Zhuangzi interprets the universe as a thing that changes spontaneously without a conscious God or will driving it, and argues that humans can achieve ultimate happiness by living equally spontaneously. It argues that because of humans' advanced cognitive abilities, they have a tendency to create artificial distinctions—such as good versus bad, large versus small, usefulness versus uselessness, and social systems like Confucianism—that remove themselves from the natural spontaneity of the universe. In order to illustrate the mindlessness and spontaneity he felt should characterize human action, Zhuangzi most frequently uses the analogy of craftsmen or artisans. As Burton Watson writes, "the skilled woodcarver, the skilled butcher, the skilled swimmer does not ponder or ratiocinate on the course of action he should take; his skill has become so much a part of him that he merely acts instinctively and spontaneously and, without knowing why, achieves success." The term "wandering" (yóu 遊) is used throughout the stories of the Zhuangzi to describe how an enlightened person "wanders through all of creation, enjoying its delights without ever becoming attached to any one part of it."
The Zhuangzi vigorously opposes formal government, which Zhuangzi seems to have felt was problematic at its foundation "because of the opposition between man and nature." The text tries to show that "as soon as government intervenes in natural affairs, it destroys all possibility of genuine happiness." It is unclear if Zhuangzi's positions were "tantamount to anarchy, and he was by no means in favor of violence." The political references in the Zhuangzi are more concerned with what government should not do rather than what kind of government should exist.
Western scholars have long noticed that the Zhuangzi is often strongly anti-rationalist. Mohism, deriving from Zhuangzi's possible contemporary Mozi, was the most logically sophisticated school in ancient China. Whereas reason and logic became the hallmark of Greek philosophy and then the entire Western philosophical tradition, in China philosophers preferred to rely on moral persuasion and intuition. The Zhuangzi played a significant role in the traditional Chinese skepticism toward rationalism, as Zhuangzi frequently turns logical arguments upside-down to satirize and discredit them. However, Zhuangzi did not entirely abandon language and reason, but "only wished to point out that overdependence on them could limit the flexibility of thought."
Virtually every major Chinese writer or poet in history, from Sima Xiangru and Sima Qian during the Han dynasty, Ruan Ji and Tao Yuanming during the Six Dynasties, Li Bai during the Tang dynasty, to Su Shi and Lu You in the Song dynasty were "deeply imbued with the ideas and artistry of the Zhuangzi."
Traces of the Zhuangzi's influence in late Warring States period philosophical texts such as the Guanzi, Han Feizi, Huainanzi, and Lüshi Chunqiu suggest that Zhuangzi's intellectual lineage was already fairly influential in the states of Qi and Chu in the 3rd century BC. However, during the Qin and Han dynasties—with their state-sponsored Legalist and Confucian ideologies, respectively—the Zhuangzi does not seem to have been highly regarded. One exception is Han dynasty scholar Jia Yi's 170 BC work "Fu on the Owl", the earliest definitively known fu rhapsody, which does not reference the Zhuangzi by name but cites it for one-sixth of the poem.
After the collapse of the Han dynasty and the subsequent chaos of the Three Kingdoms period, both the Zhuangzi and Zhuang Zhou began to rise in popularity and acclaim. The 3rd century AD poets Ruan Ji and Xi Kang, both members of the famous Seven Worthies of the Bamboo Grove, were ardent Zhuangzi admirers, and one of Ruan's essays, entitled "Discourse on Summing Up the Zhuangzi" (Dá Zhuāng lùn 達莊論), is still extant. This period saw Confucianism temporarily surpassed by a revival of Daoism and old divination texts, such as the Classic of Changes (I Ching 易經), and many early medieval Chinese poets, artists, and calligraphers were deeply influenced by the Zhuangzi.
Daoism and Buddhism
The Zhuangzi has been called "the most important of all the Daoist writings", and its "inner chapters" embody the core ideas of philosophical Daoism. In the fourth century AD, the Zhuangzi became a major source of imagery and terminology for a new form of Daoism known as the "Highest Clarity" (Shangqing 上清) school that was popular among the aristocracy of the Jin dynasty. Highest Clarity Daoism borrowed notable Zhuangzi terms, such as "perfected man" (zhen ren 真人), "Great Clarity" (Tai Qing 太清), and "fasting the mind" (xin zhai 心齋), and though they are used somewhat differently than in the Zhuangzi itself, they still show the important role the Zhuangzi played at the time.
The Zhuangzi was very influential in the adaptation of Buddhism into Chinese culture after Buddhism's introduction to China in the 1st century AD. Zhi Dun, China's first aristocratic Buddhist monk, wrote a prominent commentary to the Zhuangzi in the mid-4th century. The Zhuangzi also played a significant role in the formation of Chan ("Zen") Buddhism, which grew out of "a fusion of Buddhist ideology and ancient Daoist thought." Among the traits Chan/Zen Buddhism borrowed from the Zhuangzi are a distrust of language and logic, an insistence that "the Dao" can be found in everything, even dung and urine, and a fondness for dialogues based on riddles or paradigm-challenging statements known as gong'an (公案; Japanese kōan).
Outside of China, the Zhuangzi lags far behind the Dao De Jing in general popularity, and is rarely known by non-scholars. In the introduction to his 1994 translation of the Zhuangzi, the noted sinologist Victor H. Mair wrote: "I feel a sense of injustice that the Dao De Jing is so well known to my fellow citizens while the Zhuangzi is so thoroughly ignored, because I firmly believe that the latter is in every respect a superior work."
- Giles, Herbert (1889), Chuang Tzu, Mystic, Moralist and Social Reformer, London: Bernard Quaritch; 2nd edition, revised, Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh (1926), rpt. London: George Allen and Unwin (1961).
- Legge, James (1891), The Texts of Taoism, in Sacred Books of the East, vols. XXXIX, XL, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Fung, Yu-lan (1933), Chuang Tzu, a new selected translation with an exposition on the philosophy of Kuo Hsiang, Shanghai: Shang wu (only translates first 7 "inner" chapters).
- (Japanese) Fukunaga, Mitsuji 福永光次 (1966). Sōshi 荘子 (Zhuangzi). 3 vols. Tokyo: Asahi.
- Watson, Burton (1964), Chuang tzu: Basic Writings, New York: Columbia University Press; 2nd edition (1996); 3rd edition (2003) converted to pinyin.
- – – – (1968), The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, New York: Columbia University Press.
- (Japanese) Akatsuka, Kiyoshi 赤塚志 (1977), Sōshi 荘子 (Zhuangzi), in Zenshaku kanbun taikei 全釈漢文大系 (Fully Interpreted Chinese Literature Series), vols. 16-17, Tokyo: Shūeisha.
- Graham, A.C. (1981), Chuang-tzu, The Seven Inner Chapters and Other Writings from the Book Chuang-tzu, London: George Allen and Unwin. Translation notes published separately in 1982 as Chuang-tzu: textual notes to a partial translation, London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
- Mair, Victor H. (1994), Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu, New York: Bantam Books; Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press (1997).
- Roth (1993), p. 56.
- Idema & Haft (1997), p. 90.
- Mair (1998), p. 21.
- Mair (1994), p. xliii.
- Mair (1998), p. 20.
- Mair (1998), pp. 22-23.
- Mair (1994), p. xxxi.
- Knechtges (2014), p. 2314.
- Wilkinson (2012), p. 697.
- Mair (1994), p. xxxi-xxxiii.
- Watson (2003): 3.
- Knechtges (2014), p. 2315.
- Kern (2010), p. 74.
- Roth (1993), p. 57.
- Roth (1993), p. 58.
- Roth (1993), p. 61-62.
- Roth (1993), p. 62.
- Mair (1998), p. 23.
- Mair (1998), p. 23-24.
- Mair (1998), p. 24.
- Mair (1994), p. xl.
- Graham (1981), p. 21-22.
- Watson (2003 ): 6.
- Watson & Graham (1999), pp. 103-4.
- Mair (1994), p. xxxix.
- Mair (1994), p. 71.
- Watson (2003 ), p. 115.
- Mair (1994), p. xxxiv.
- Translations from Mair (1998): pp. 21-22.
- Watson (2003 ): 3.
- Kern (2010), p. 75.
- Puett (2001), pp. 76-77.
- Puett (2001), p. 77.
- Mair (1994), p. xli.
- Mair (1994), p. xlii.
- Mair (2000), p. 33.
- Mair (1998), p. 22.
- Mair (2000), p. 34.
- Works Cited
- Graham, A. C. (1981). Chuang-tzu, The Seven Inner Chapters and other writings from the book Chuang-tzu. London: George Allen and Unwin. ISBN 0-04-299013-0.
- Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd (1997). A Guide to Chinese Literature. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan. ISBN 0-89264-123-1.
- Kern, Martin (2010). "Early Chinese literature, Beginnings through Western Han". In Owen, Stephen. The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature, Volume I: To 1375. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–115. ISBN 978-0-521-85558-7.
- Knechtges, David R. (2014). "Zhuangzi 莊子". In Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping. Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature: A Reference Guide, Part Four. Leiden: Brill. pp. 2314–23. ISBN 978-90-04-27217-0.
- Mair, Victor H. (1994). Wandering on the Way: Early Taoist Tales and Parables of Chuang Tzu. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-37406-0. (Google Books)
- ——— (1998). "Chuang-tzu". In Nienhauser, William. The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature, Volume 2. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 20–26. ISBN 0-253-33456-X. (Google Books)
- ——— (2000). "The Zhuangzi and its Impact". In Kohn, Livia. Daoism Handbook. Leiden: Brill. pp. 30–52. ISBN 978-90-04-11208-7.
- Puett, Michael (2001). "Philosophy and Literature in Early China". In Mair, Victor H. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 70–85. ISBN 0-231-10984-9.
- Roth, H. D. (1993). "Chuang tzu 莊子". In Loewe, Michael. Early Chinese Texts: A Bibliographical Guide. Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Berkeley. pp. 56–66. ISBN 1-55729-043-1.
- Watson, Burton (2003) . Zhuangzi: Basic Writings. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231129599.
- ———; Graham, A. C. (1999). "The Way of Laozi and Zhuangzi — Transformation and Transcendence in the Zhuangzi". In de Bary, Wm. Theodore; Bloom, Irene. Sources of Chinese Tradition, Vol. 1: From Earliest Times to 1600 (2nd ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 95–111. ISBN 978-0-231-10939-0.
- Wilkinson, Endymion (2012). Chinese History: A New Manual. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard-Yenching Institute; Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 978-0-674-06715-8.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Zhuangzi Bilingual Chinese-English version (James Legge translation)
- Selection from The Zhuangzi, translated by Patricia Ebrey
- The Complete Works Of Chuang Tzu, translated by Burton Watson