Zig (programming language)

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Zig
Zig logo 2020.svg
ParadigmsMulti-paradigm: imperative, concurrent, procedural, functional
Designed byAndrew Kelley
First appeared8 February 2016; 5 years ago (2016-02-08)[1]
Preview release
0.8.1[2] Edit this on Wikidata / 7 September 2021; 11 days ago (7 September 2021)
Typing disciplineStatic, strong, inferred, structural, generic
Platformx86-64, ARM, MIPS, IA-32, WebAssembly, RISC-V
OSCross-platform
LicenseMIT License
Filename extensions.zig, .zir
Websiteziglang.org
Influenced by
C, C++, LLVM IR, Go, Rust, JavaScript

Zig is an imperative, general-purpose, statically typed, compiled system programming language designed by Andrew Kelley.[3][4] The language is designed for "robustness, optimality and maintainability"[5] [6] , supporting compile-time generics and reflection, cross-compilation and manual memory management.[7] A major goal of the language is to improve upon the C language,[8][9] while also taking inspiration from Rust,[10][11] among others.

Zig has many features for low-level programming, notably: packed structs (structs without padding between fields), arbitrary width integers[12] and multiple pointer types.[13]

The stage 1 compiler is written in Zig and C++, using LLVM 11[14] as a back-end,[15][16] supporting many of its native targets.[17] The compiler is free and open source software under the MIT License.[18]

The Zig compiler exposes the ability to compile C and C++ similarly to Clang with the commands "zig cc" and "zig c++",[19] providing many headers including libc and libcxx for many different platforms, allowing Zig's cc and c++ sub-commands to act as cross compilers out of the box.[20][21]

Zig development is funded by the Zig Software Foundation (ZSF), a non-profit corporation with Andrew Kelley as president, which takes in donations and hires multiple full-time employees.[22][23][24]

Examples[edit]

Hello World[edit]

const std = @import("std");

pub fn main() !void {
    const stdout = std.io.getStdOut().writer();
    try stdout.print("Hello, {}!\n", .{"world"});
}

Generic linked list[edit]

pub fn main() void {
    var node = LinkedList(i32).Node {
        .prev = null,
        .next = null,
        .data = 1234,
    };

    var list = LinkedList(i32) {
        .first = &node,
        .last = &node,
        .len = 1,
    };
}

fn LinkedList(comptime T: type) type {
    return struct {
        pub const Node = struct {
            prev: ?*Node,
            next: ?*Node,
            data: T,
        };

        first: ?*Node,
        last:  ?*Node,
        len:   usize,
    };
}

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kelley, Andrew. "Introduction to the Zig Programming Language". andrewkelley.me. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  2. ^ "0.8.1 Release Notes".
  3. ^ "Zig has all the elegant simplicity of C, minus all the ways to shoot yourself in the foot". JAXenter. 2017-10-31. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  4. ^ "Tired of C? New programming language Zig aims to be more pragmatic and readable". 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  5. ^ Yegulalp, Serdar (2016-08-29). "New challenger joins Rust to topple C language". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  6. ^ "Zig language and C". Sina Corp. 2020-07-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
  7. ^ "The Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  8. ^ "Mozilla's Observatory, the Zig programming language, and uSens' VR/AR SDK—SD Times news digest: Aug. 29, 2016". SD Times. 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  9. ^ "The Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  10. ^ Company, Sudo Null. "Sudo Null - IT News for you". SudoNull. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  11. ^ Kelley, Andrew. "Unsafe Zig is Safer Than Unsafe Rust". andrewkelley.me. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  12. ^ Tim Anderson 24 Apr 2020 at 09:50. "Keen to go _ExtInt? LLVM Clang compiler adds support for custom width integers". www.theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  13. ^ "Documentation - The Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  14. ^ "SD Times news digest: C++20 concepts in Visual Studio 2010 version 16.3, Bootstrap to drop IE support, and Zig 0.60 released". SD Times. 2020-04-14. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
  15. ^ "A Reply to _The Road to Zig 1.0_". www.gingerbill.org. 2019-05-13. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  16. ^ ziglang/zig, Zig Programming Language, 2020-02-11, retrieved 2020-02-11
  17. ^ "The Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  18. ^ "ziglang/zig". GitHub. Retrieved 2020-02-11.
  19. ^ "0.6.0 Release Notes · The Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
  20. ^ "'zig cc': a Powerful Drop-In Replacement for GCC/Clang - Andrew Kelley". andrewkelley.me. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  21. ^ "Zig Makes Go Cross Compilation Just Work". DEV Community. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  22. ^ "https://twitter.com/kubkon/status/1377146321136537602". Twitter. Retrieved 2021-05-28. External link in |title= (help)
  23. ^ "Announcing the Zig Software Foundation ⚡ Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  24. ^ "Sponsor ZSF ⚡ Zig Programming Language". ziglang.org. Retrieved 2021-05-28.

External links[edit]