Zika virus vaccine

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A Zika virus vaccine is designed to prevent the symptoms and complications of Zika virus infection in humans. As Zika virus infection of pregnant women may result in congenital defects in the newborn, the vaccine will attempt to protect against congenital Zika syndrome during the current or any future outbreak.[1] As of April 2019, no vaccines have been approved for clinical use, however a number of vaccines are currently in clinical trials.[2][3][4] The goal of a Zika virus vaccine is to elicit protective antibodies against the Zika virus to prevent infection and severe disease. The challenges in developing a safe and effective vaccine include limiting side effects such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, a potential consequence of Zika virus infection. Additionally, as dengue virus is closely related to Zika virus, the vaccine needs to minimize the possibility of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.[5][6][7] [8]

DNA Vaccine[edit]

As of March 31, 2017 a DNA vaccine has been approved for Phase 2 clinical trials in humans.[9] The vaccine consists of a DNA plasmid encoding the E and PrM proteins which make up the outer protein coat of the Zika virus virion.[10] Based on a previous platform used to develop a West Nile virus vaccine, the DNA vaccine is designed to assemble protein particles that mimic Zika virus and trigger the body's immune response.

Purified Inactivated Vaccine (ZPIV)[edit]

A purified inactivated vaccine is currently under development by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research.[11] This vaccine is based on the same technology used to develop a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis Virus. As the ZPIV vaccine contains inactivated Zika particles, virus cannot replicate and cause disease in humans. U.S. Army researchers agreed to give Sanofi permission to develop the technology, but protest in Congress halted the venture. Initial results at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and at other hospitals involved in the early clinical trials were considered to be promising.[12][13]

Live Attenuated Vaccine[edit]

A live attenuated vaccine, in which the virus is genetically altered as to not cause disease in humans, is undergoing phase 1 clinical trials. This vaccine is based on the dengue vaccine Dengvaxia, which has been approved for use in humans.[14]

mRNA Vaccine[edit]

A modified mRNA vaccine developed in collaboration with Moderna Therapeutics containing the E and PrM proteins is undergoing concurrent phase 1 and 2 clinical trials.[15][16]

Viral Vector Based Vaccines[edit]

Multiple vaccines are also being developed using safe, non-pathogenic, viruses as vectors for immunogenic Zika virus proteins. One phase 1 trial is using the Measles virus as a vector and was completed in April 2018 [17]. Another vaccine platform makes use of Adenovirus as a vector and phase 1 studies will be complete in 2019. [18] Adenoviruses have been previously used as a vaccine platform for HIV and elicit a strong immune response. [19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zika virus vaccine product development". World Health Organization.
  2. ^ Abbink, P; Stephenson, KE; Barouch, DH (19 June 2018). "Zika virus vaccines". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 16 (10): 594–600. doi:10.1038/s41579-018-0039-7. PMC 6162149. PMID 29921914.
  3. ^ Fernandez, E; Diamond, MS (19 April 2017). "Vaccination strategies against Zika virus". Current Opinion in Virology. 23: 59–67. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2017.03.006. PMC 5576498. PMID 28432975.
  4. ^ "Zika Virus Vaccines | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases". www.niaid.nih.gov.
  5. ^ Barouch, DH; Thomas, SJ; Michael, NL (21 February 2017). "Prospects for a Zika Virus Vaccine". Immunity. 46 (2): 176–182. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2017.02.005. PMC 5357134. PMID 28228277.
  6. ^ Saiz, JC; Martín-Acebes, MA; Bueno-Marí, R; Salomón, OD; Villamil-Jiménez, LC; Heukelbach, J; Alencar, CH; Armstrong, PK; Ortiga-Carvalho, TM; Mendez-Otero, R; Rosado-de-Castro, PH; Pimentel-Coelho, PM (2017). "Zika Virus: What Have We Learnt Since the Start of the Recent Epidemic?". Frontiers in Microbiology. 8: 1554. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2017.01554. PMC 5572254. PMID 28878742.
  7. ^ Priyamvada, L; Hudson, W; Ahmed, R; Wrammert, J (10 May 2017). "Humoral cross-reactivity between Zika and dengue viruses: implications for protection and pathology". Emerging Microbes & Infections. 6 (5): e33. doi:10.1038/emi.2017.42. PMC 5520485. PMID 28487557.
  8. ^ Ghaffar, KA; Ng, LFP; Renia, L (21 November 2018). "Fast Tracks and Roadblocks for Zika Vaccines". Vaccines. 6 (4). doi:10.3390/vaccines6040077. PMID 30469444.
  9. ^ "Phase 2 Zika Vaccine Trial Begins in U.S., Central and South America | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases". www.niaid.nih.gov.
  10. ^ Dowd, KA; Ko, SY; Morabito, KM; Yang, ES; Pelc, RS; DeMaso, CR; Castilho, LR; Abbink, P; Boyd, M; Nityanandam, R; Gordon, DN; Gallagher, JR; Chen, X; Todd, JP; Tsybovsky, Y; Harris, A; Huang, YS; Higgs, S; Vanlandingham, DL; Andersen, H; Lewis, MG; De La Barrera, R; Eckels, KH; Jarman, RG; Nason, MC; Barouch, DH; Roederer, M; Kong, WP; Mascola, JR; Pierson, TC; Graham, BS (14 October 2016). "Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for Zika virus". Science. 354 (6309): 237–240. Bibcode:2016Sci...354..237D. doi:10.1126/science.aai9137. PMC 5304212. PMID 27708058.
  11. ^ "Testing of Investigational Inactivated Zika Vaccine in Humans Begins | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases". www.niaid.nih.gov.
  12. ^ Reuters. Steenhuysen, Julie and Chang, Richard. (4 December 2017). "Trial results of Zika vaccine Sanofi dropped show promise". WIBQ website Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  13. ^ Modjarrad, Kayvon; Lin, Leyi; George, Sarah L.; et al. (4 December 2017). "Preliminary aggregate safety and immunogenicity results from three trials of a purified inactivated Zika virus vaccine candidate: phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials." The Lancet DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33106-9 | Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Zika Virus Vaccines | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases". www.niaid.nih.gov.
  15. ^ "Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of mRNA-1325 in Healthy Adult Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov".
  16. ^ Fernandez, E; Diamond, MS (19 April 2017). "Vaccination strategies against Zika virus". Current Opinion in Virology. 23: 59–67. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2017.03.006. PMC 5576498. PMID 28432975.
  17. ^ "Zika-Vaccine Dose Finding Study Regarding Safety, Immunogenicity and Tolerability - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov".
  18. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Ad26.ZIKV.001 in Healthy Adult Volunteers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov".
  19. ^ Baden, LR; Karita, E; Mutua, G; Bekker, LG; Gray, G; Page-Shipp, L; Walsh, SR; Nyombayire, J; Anzala, O; Roux, S; Laher, F; Innes, C; Seaman, MS; Cohen, YZ; Peter, L; Frahm, N; McElrath, MJ; Hayes, P; Swann, E; Grunenberg, N; Grazia-Pau, M; Weijtens, M; Sadoff, J; Dally, L; Lombardo, A; Gilmour, J; Cox, J; Dolin, R; Fast, P; Barouch, DH; Laufer, DS; B003-IPCAVD004-HVTN091 Study, Group. (1 March 2016). "Assessment of the Safety and Immunogenicity of 2 Novel Vaccine Platforms for HIV-1 Prevention: A Randomized Trial". Annals of Internal Medicine. 164 (5): 313–22. doi:10.7326/M15-0880. PMC 5034222. PMID 26833336.