Zilupe is a town of a few hundred inhabitants in Latvia, by the Zilupe River, on the border with Russia. Zilupe's railway station is the final station for the Riga-Zilupe train route, which is one of the longest passenger rail routes in Latvia. The town first began to take shape during construction of the Ventspils- Moscow railway line in 1900, the station taking the name Rozenova, after the former landowner. Near the station small settlement of merchants and railroad workers formed. In 1908 there were already Police department, school and post office in Rozenova.
Further development of settlement was interrupted by First World war. In 1918 railway bridge over Zilupe River was destroyed. From 1918 until 1920 Rozenova like all of Eastern Latvia was under soviet rule. In January 1920 Rozenova was liberated by Latvian army in the final stage of Latvian War of Independence. After becoming part of Republic of Latvia settlement was renamed after river- Zilupe. In the interwar period Zilupe was important centre in the region. In 1925 it was granted status of the village but in 1931 town rights. Inhabitants of Zilupe was mainly involved in trade and agriculture. In 1930s there were water mill, sawmill in Zilupe and also small hospital and around 120 shops.
After the Second World war several big enterprises opened their divisions in Zilupe. For example metal fabricating workshop, small textile factory and bakery.
The town is near the A12 road, that after the border crossing into Russia turns into M9, both of which are part of European route E22.