Zimbabwe National Army
|Zimbabwe National Army|
National Army Flag
|Active|| 18 April 1980 – present|
(39 years, 7 months)
|Allegiance|| Zimbabwe Defence Forces|
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front
|Size||30,000 Active personnel |
22,000 Reserve personnel
|Part of||Joint High Command (1980–1981) |
Joint Operations Command (1981–present)
|Motto(s)||"Our swords are the shield of the nation"|
|Anniversaries||Defence Forces Day (12 August)|
|Engagements||Military history of Zimbabwe|
|President Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa|
|Commander of the National Army||Lieutenant general Edzai Absolom Chanyuka Chimonyo|
|Chief of Staff, General Staff||Major General David Sigauke|
|Chief of Staff, Administration Staff||Major General Paul Chima|
|Chief of Staff, Quartermaster Staff||Major General Hlanganani Dube|
|Peter Walls, Vitalis Musungwa Gava Zvinavashe, Solomon Mujuru, Constantino Guvheya Dominic Nyikadzino Chiwenga, Phillip Valerio Sibanda|
The Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA) is the primary branch of the Zimbabwe Defence Forces responsible for land-oriented military operations. It is the largest service branch under the Zimbabwean Joint Operations Command (JOC). The modern army has its roots in the Rhodesian Army, which was raised between 1963 and 1964 after the breakup of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. A Joint High Command created in March 1980 to oversee integration of the formerly belligerent Rhodesian Security Forces, Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) officially established the Zimbabwe National Army in late 1980, nearly a year after the end of the Rhodesian Bush War.
The mission statement of the army is "to defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and national interests of Zimbabwe and to contribute to international peace and security". It is considered an integral component of the JOC, and falls under the ultimate authority of the President of Zimbabwe. The ZNA is directed by a Chief of the Army, the senior official being an Army Chief of Staff. Zimbabwe's highest ranking army officer is currently Lt. Gen. Edzai Absolom Chanyuka Chimonyo . In 2011, Harare continued to maintain a statutory strength of 40,000 active personnel; actual numbers hover closer to 30,000. ZNA reserves claim another 21,800, putting the combined component strength total at approximately 51,800.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 2.1 Mozambique Civil War
- 2.2 Angola (United Nations Angola Verification Missions)
- 2.3 Angolan Civil War
- 2.4 Somalia (United Nations Operation in Somalia II)
- 2.5 Second Congo War, 1998 to 2002 (SADC Operation Sovereign Legitimacy)
- 2.6 Equatorial Guinea, 2015 to present
- 2.7 Operation Restore Legacy, 2017
- 3 Command and organisation
- 4 Personnel
- 5 Equipment
- 6 See also
- 7 Endnotes
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
The origins of the Zimbabwe National Army lie in the formation of the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers in 1898, a mounted corps supported by bicycles, a signal troop, and engineers. Raised by colonial authorities to suppress further uprisings after the Second Matabele War, it included a "Western division" and an "Eastern division" staffed by European volunteers. Field outings were conducted in concert with the British South Africa Police (BSAP).
In the 1890s, the nature of this force changed following the outbreak of the Second Boer War. In 1899, the Royal Rhodesia Regiment was founded, and by the time Salisbury joined the Central African Federation there were three battalions. As Southern Rhodesia was the dominant territory in the federation, its officers represented the senior commanders in charge of all federal units. During this period Southern Rhodesians served overseas on active duty for the British Empire, most notably in Malaya, Kuwait, and Aden.
When the federation was dissolved in 1963, Southern Rhodesia retained the personnel raised in its territory, including the largest proportion of white soldiers - some 3,400 of the 7,000 men who served in the defunct Federal Army. Over objections raised by newly independent African governments in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi), it also claimed the majority of armoured vehicles and the potent strike aircraft of the Royal Rhodesian Air Force.
Recruitment and training for an insurgent campaign against the colony's administration by rival African nationalists from the Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) began in 1963, and intensified after Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965. The Rhodesian Bush War, which lasted roughly fifteen years until late 1979, resulted in the creation of two major insurgent armies, expansion of the Rhodesian Army, and militarisation of local society. By 1980 there were an estimated 150,000 Zimbabweans with military training or experience, access to arms, and allegiance to an established political organisation. Conscription had been introduced in 1955, and the National Service Act in 1976 provided for 12 months of full-time military service regardless of rank. Three-year reservist obligations for white, Coloured, and Asian males also continued. Personnel strength of the regular army peaked at 20,000 active members (half of them whites) and 2,300 with the air force. The paramilitary BSAP had 11,000 police and a reserve of 35,000. These uniform commands and others - including 20,000 Security Force Auxiliaries loyal to interim politicians and a 3,500-man Guard Force for securing protected villages - fell under the authority of Combined Operations (ComOps), headed by Lieutenant-General Peter Walls.
The Zimbabwe National Army was formed in 1980 from elements of the Rhodesian Army, integrated to a greater or lesser extent with combatants from the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) guerrilla movements (the armed wings of, respectively, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) and Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU).
Following majority rule in April 1980 and the cantonment of the ZANLA and ZIPRA under Operation Agila, British Army trainers (the British Military Advisory and Training Team, BMATT) oversaw the integration of guerrilla fighters into one unified army. A battalion structure was overlaid on the existing Rhodesian Army. For the first year a system was followed where the top-performing candidate became battalion commander. If he or she was from ZANLA, then his or her second-in-command was the top-performing ZIPRA candidate, and vice versa. This ensured a balance between the two movements in the command structure. From early 1981 this system was abandoned in favour of political appointments, and ZANLA/ZANU fighters consequently quickly formed the majority of battalion commanders in the ZNA.
The ZNA was originally formed into four brigades, 1 Brigade, Matabeleland, 2 Brigade, Mashonaland, 3 Brigade, Manicaland, and 4 Brigade, Masavingo. These comprised a total of 29 battalions. The brigade support units were composed almost entirely of specialists of the former Rhodesian Army, while unintegrated battalions of the Rhodesian African Rifles were assigned to the 1st, 3rd and 4th Brigades. A 5th was formed in 1981 and deployed primarily against ex-ZIPRA dissidents until 1987. The unit was later implicated in an extrajudicial purge of suspected dissidents and their supporters, known as Gukurahundi.
The ZNA is under the command of Lt General Edzai Absolom Chanyuka Chimonyo, who took over from General Philip Valerio Sibanda following his elevation to the post of Commander Zimbabwe Defence Forces in December 2017
Mozambique Civil War
Raids on Gorongosa
Some Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO) elements had crossed from Mozambique into Zimbabwe several times, had robbed some shops along the border and had burned down a timber factory. After several meetings with Mozambican officials it was agreed that the ZDF could pursue into Mozambique any RENAMO elements that might have raided Zimbabwe. This was the basis on which the ZDF started planning follow-up operations which took them deep into Mozambique culminating in occupation of former RENAMO bases at Gorongosa.
The first of these Zimbabwe Defence Forces (ZDF) follow-up operations was launched from Katiyo and Aberdeen in northern Manicaland, code-named Operation Lemon. The operation lasted from 5–9 December 1984. It comprised elements of 3 Infantry Brigade, the Special Forces of Zimbabwe the 1 Parachute Regiment , Zimbabwe Special Air Service (SAS), and was supported by the Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ). Bad weather conditions and the difficult mountainous terrain reduced the use of aircraft, and all the trooping had to be done by helicopters. The movement of troops on the ground was also difficult. Four contacts were made and two RENAMO bases were destroyed. However, most RENAMO elements in the bases managed to escape and only eight were captured.
The ZDF considered this operation as a major failure and the code word Lemon was co-opted to mean any failure in all subsequent operations. It was further established that there were no other permanent bases in the area, only some advance posts and temporary bases used by RENAMO as launching pads for food raids into Zimbabwe. It was also revealed for the first time that the main RENAMO bases were at Messinse, Chito, Nyazonia, Buetoni, Gorongosa Central Base and Casa Banana.
Operation Grape Fruit
The report for Operation Lemon was taken seriously by the commanders of the ZDF, and in July 1985 preparations for major offensive operations were started. Rehearsals for a Fireforce operation were carried out at Inkomo Barracks near Harare. Three infantry brigades were mobilised together with the Parachute Group, One Commando Battalion and the AFZ. Men and equipment were moved to Chimoio in Mozambique, with a Forward Replenishment Point (FRP) being established at Grand Reef near Mutare.
Intelligence sources had indicated that RENAMO's main regional base in Manica province was at Muxamba and that Casa Banana was the national stronghold of RENAMO. Both bases had to be attacked and Muxamba was targeted first, being only 70 kilometres south of Chimoio. The most important consideration however, was the hope that activities around Muxamba might divert RENAMO's attention from monitoring too closely the movement of the three heavily armed Zimbabwean infantry battalions marching from Chimoio towards the Gorongosa Mountains.
Muxamba was believed to hold at least 400 RENAMO elements commanded by Major General Mabachi. The attack on Muxamba was launched on 20 August 1985 by elements of 3 Brigade, supported by the Parachute Group and the AFZ. The operation went on for four days with minor problems for the ZDF. One helicopter was riddled with small arms fire but managed to return to Chimoio.
Raid on Cassa Banana
Intelligence sources had indicated that Cassa Banana, RENAMO's national headquarters had a strength of 400 elements. However, the organisation maintained a string of other smaller bases along the Gorongosa Mountains, which were considered as part of the main base. This raised the total estimated strength in the area to 1,000 elements. During the night of 27 August 1985, three Zimbabwe infantry battalions were established in their Form Up Points (FUP) with the help of the SAS and Commando elements. At Chimoio a Fireforce was being given final briefing, and five AFZ planes were given orders for a first light take-off for Gorongosa on the morning of 28 August.
Although the RENAMO elements captured at Katiyo had given a grid reference for Cassa Banana, further intelligence had cast some doubt as to which of the several RENAMO bases scattered on all sides of the Gorongosa Mountains was the actual headquarters of RENAMO. It was because of this uncertainty that the Fireforce was divided into three sections each with one helicopter gunship, two transport helicopters and two transport aircraft with paratroopers.
Each Fireforce section was detailed to attack specific suspected RENAMO positions around the Gorongossa Mountains. It was during this three pronged attack that one helicopter flew overhead Cassa Banana airstrip and the pilot noticed a green pickup truck disappearing into some bushes. It was then that the pilot recognised the place as that given at the briefing as Cassa Banana. The jets from Thornhill, which were already in place overhead a predetermined Initial Point (IP), were then talked on to the target, and the raid on Cassa Banana began.
The aircraft attacked the target, knocking out several Anti-Aircraft gun positions. Two helicopter gunships continued to hit suspected strategic positions and managed to flash out several pockets of resistance. A third helicopter was directing the dropping of the first wave of paratroopers. When the paratroopers had entered the base, the infantry battalions, which were close by, were ordered to move in and occupy strategic positions. The Fireforce then moved on to deal with the several pockets of resistance from the smaller RENAMO bases all along the Gorongosa Mountains. It took the whole day to silence all of these pockets of resistance.
There is no official Zimbabwean record of the number of casualties on the first raid on Cassa Banana. However, considering the amount of effort, the numbers of troops involved on both sides, and the time it took to capture the base, there must have been a lot of deaths and injuries on both sides.
Operation Lifeline-Tete Corridor
This corridor is a tarred 263-kilometre road running from Nyamapanda on the Zimbabwean border through the Mozambican city of Tete to Zobue on the Malawi border. After UDI in 1965, this route carried Rhodesian goods to and from Malawi, which had not applied United Nations sanctions against the Smith regime. After the independence of Mozambique in 1975, the bulk of Malawi's trade with South Africa went through Rhodesia by road via Tete. It was only in 1984 that trade via this route declined because of RENAMO attacks.
It was in the wake of these developments that in June 1984 the governments of Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe formed a joint security committee 13. The aim of the committee was to monitor operations on a day-to-day basis and to attempt to remove all security threats along the Tete Corridor. Zimbabwe's First Mechanised Battalion was ordered to move into Mozambique and they established their headquarters in Tete thereby securing the strategic bridge crossing the Zambezi River. In 1985, President Samora Machel of Mozambique formally requested the governments of Tanzania and Zimbabwe to contribute troops for "the restoration of law and order" in Mozambique. This led to the deployment of Tanzanian troops north of the Zambezi river and Zimbabwean troops to the south.
The decision to send Zimbabwean troops to help restore law and order in Mozambique was partly influenced by Zimbabwe's close relationship with the Mozambican government which dates back to FRELIMO's assistance during Zimbabwe's war of liberation. There was also the underlying fact that FRELIMO and ZANU shared a common Marxist ideology of scientific socialism. The South Africa-backed RENAMO professed to be an anti-communist movement, as did Jonas Savimbi's UNITA movement, which was fighting against the Marxist MPLA government of Angola. There was thus an ideological alliance of the Maputo - Harare - Luanda axis, with support for these governments from the Soviet Union. The fact that the United States of America was providing covert and overt support to opposition movements such as UNITA in Angola and RENAMO in Mozambique reflected the extension of the Cold War to Southern Africa.
Angola (United Nations Angola Verification Missions)
There were three United Nations Missions to Angola under UNAVEM. UNAVEM I (January 1989 to June 1991) and UNAVEM II (May/June 1991 to February 1995) involved small numbers of unarmed military observers. Brigadier Michael Nyambuya of Zimbabwe was Chief Military Observer of UNAVEM II between December 1992 and July 1993. During UNAVEM III a Zimbabwean battalion was deployed to eastern Angola, based in the town of Saurimo. Nine Zimbabwean peacekeepers died during the UNAVEM deployments.
Angolan Civil War
After several hints, some of which the Zimbabwean Government denied, for the first time the ZDF Commander, General Constantine Chiwenga, acknowledged ZNA involvement in the Angolan Civil War.
It was reported that Zimbabwe had more than 2,000 combat troops, including 20 military intelligence officers, deployed in Angola whose presence has helped the Angolan Armed Forces to overrun Jonas Savimbi's strongholds, according to reports reaching the Zimbabwe Independent.
Somalia (United Nations Operation in Somalia II)
Zimbabwe deployed a national contingent to UNOSOM II on 15 January 1993. The initial deployment comprised an infantry company group of 163 personnel under Major Vitalis Chigume. By June 1993 the deployment had built up to a full battalion of 939 soldiers. This battalion was rotated every six months until October 1994, when new deployments ceased, and the last Zimbabweans were finally withdrawn in early 1995.
Second Congo War, 1998 to 2002 (SADC Operation Sovereign Legitimacy)
Equatorial Guinea, 2015 to present
In January 2015 a contingent of Zimbabwe Defence Forces and Zimbabwe Republic Police personnel, reportedly including the Commando Anti-Terrorism Unit, were deployed to Equatorial Guinea to provide security and support during the Africa Cup of Nations tournament. The deployment followed a bi-lateral agreement between the two countries' heads of state and was code named Restoring African Pride. Equatorial Guinea had agreed to host the prestigious tournament at the last minute after the original host country, Morocco, pulled out.
This initial deployment to Equatorial Guinea was followed from November 2015 by an ongoing training mission. When one ZDF training contingent returned to Harare in January 2017, following a year-long deployment to Equatorial Guinea, it was suggested by senior ministers that was "not the end of the mission".
In June 2018, after Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe had been replaced by President Emmerson Mnangagwa, it was reported that the ZDF training mission to Equatorial Guinea was continuing. A photograph published at the time shows Zimababwean soldiers wearing AU brassards, suggesting the training mission had African Union endorsement.
Operation Restore Legacy, 2017
Between 13 November and 18 December 2017 the Zimbabwe Defence Forces deployed in a dramatic intervention in domestic politics to force the resignation of long-time President Robert Mugabe. The operation was stated to have the objective of removing criminal elements that had surrounded the President, 'resulting in anxiety and despondency among the public'. This referred to a number of politicians from the ruling ZANU-PF party that supported President Mugabe's wife and seemed intent on manoeuvering her into the Presidency once her aging husband could no longer fulfil that role. Senior members of the defence forces and ZANU-PF reportedly saw this group as a threat to their authority and their own plans, and believed the group did not represent the generation that had suffered during the liberation war of 1966−1980. The defence forces arrested several members of the group and, while showing respect to the President, placed Mugabe under effective house arrest until he agreed to resign from the Presidency. Emmerson Mnangagwa, a former vice-president and senior ZANU-PF member, was later appointed as President and senior generals were rewarded with promotion or political appointment.
Command and organisation
- Commander in Chief - Emmerson Dambudzo Mnangagwa
- Commander of the National Army - Lieutenant general Edzai Absolom Chanyuka Chimonyo
- Chief of Staff, General Staff - Major General David Sigauke
- Chief of Staff, Administration Staff - Major General Paul Chima
- Chief of Staff, Quartermaster Staff - Major General Hlanganani Dube
The Zimbabwe National Army has eight brigade-sized formations, plus two district commands. These are 1 to 5 Infantry Brigades, Presidential Guard Brigade, Mechanised Brigade and Artillery Brigade, Harare District and Bulawayo District.
- 1 Infantry Brigade, Khumalo Barracks, Bulawayo (Brig. Gen. Augustine Chiperwe)
- 2 Infantry Brigade, Kaguyi Barracks (formerly Old Cranborne Barracks), Harare (Brig. Gen. Fidelis Mhonda)
- 3 Infantry Brigade, Herbert Chitepo Barracks, Mutare (Brig. Gen. Eliah Bandama, until his death on 11 July 2014)
- 4 Infantry Brigade, Gava Musungwa Zvinavashe Barracks, Masvingo (Brig. Gen. Exesbios Tshuma)
- 5 Infantry Brigade, Ngezi Barracks, Kwekwe (Brig. Gen. Justin Mujaji, from 1 March 2012) Deputy Commander to February 2014 was Col. Morgan Mzilikazi  Current Deputy Commander may be Col. Svitswa.
- Presidential Guard Brigade, Dzivarasekwa Barracks, Harare (Brig. Gen. Anselem Sanyatwe)
- Mechanised Brigade, Inkomo Barracks, Harare (Maj. Gen. Paul Chima, Deputy Brigade Commander Col. Charles Shumba)
- Artillery Brigade, Domboshava (Brig. Gen. Stanley Mangena), Deputy Brigade Commander Col. Everson Nyamangodo.
- Harare District. Deputy Commander in 2014 was Lt. Col. Posani Matsaka.
- Bulawayo District. (Col. Exsebios Vusa Tshuma, although he is more recently reported as promoted to 4 Inf Bde commander).
One, now dated, web publication gave the infantry brigade organisation as:
- Three Combat Groups with 35 APCs each
- Reconnaissance Company (12 EE-9 Cascavel)
- Signals Company
- Mortar Battery (6 81/82-mm or 120-mm)
- SAM 3 Advanced battery
- Engineer company
- Supply and transport
- Medical units
- 1 Parachute Battalion (or Parachute Regiment) - Inkomo Barracks, Nyabira (Lt. Col. Jameson Bishi). Formed in 1981 and distinguished by maroon berets.
- 1 Commando Battalion (or Commando Regiment) - Charles Gumbo Barracks, Harare (Lt. Col. Enock Chivhima). Formed in 1981 and distinguished by 'tartan green' berets.
- Special Air Service (Lt. Col. Casper Nyagura)
- Mounted Infantry Regiment - Amoth Norbert Chingombe Barracks, Inkomo
- 1 Presidential Guard Battalion - State House, Harare. Distinguished by yellow berets.
- 2 Presidential Guard Battalion - Dzivarasekwa Barracks, Harare. Distinguished by yellow berets.
- Armoured Regiment - Nkomo Barracks, Harare
- 1 Mechanised Battalion - Inkomo (Lt. Col. Colleen Mafika, from January 2018)
- 2 Mechanized Battalion - Darwendale.
- 11 Combat Group - Induna Barracks, Bulawayo (Lt. Col. Oscar Tshuma) Note: Video footage of 1 Brigade colours on parade shows the correct titles of units are '11 Combat Group' and '12 Infantry Battalion'.
- 12 Infantry Battalion - Hwange
- 13 Reserve Force Battalion - Plumtree?
- 21 Combat Group - Mutoko
- 22 Infantry Battalion (Lt Col Terryson Marufu) - Mudzi
- 23 Combat Group - Magunje
- 31 Combat Group - Mutare
- 32 Combat Group - Tsanzaguru, Rusape.
- 33 Combat Group - Changadzi Barracks, Mutare (or Chipinge)
- 41 Combat Group - Masvingo Barracks, Masvingo
- 42 Combat Group - Mupandawana, Gutu
- 43 Infantry Battalion (Combat Group? Buffalo Range, Chiredzi Rutenga (or Masvingo)
- 51 Infantry Battalion (Combat Group?) - Dadaya, Zvishavane (or Battlefields, Ngezi)
- 52 Infantry Battalion (Combat Group?) - Battlefields, Ngezi
- 53 Infantry Battalion - Battlefields, Ngezi
- 1 Field Regiment (Lt. Col. Chitungo) - Alphida Farm, Domboshawa 
- 2 Field Regiment - Alphida Farm, Domboshawa 
- 1 Air Defence Artillery Regiment(Lt. Col Last Sithole) - Redcliff Barracks (formerly Ponderossa Barracks), Redcliff
- 1 Engineer Regiment - Pomona Barracks, Harare
- 2 Engineer Regiment - Pomona Barracks, Harare
- Engineering Construction Regiment - Pomona Barracks, Harare.
- National Demining Squadron
- 3 Brigade Engineers (Maj. Chamunorwa Gambiza)
- 4 Brigade Engineer Squadron (Maj. Fikilephi Dube)
- 5 Brigade Engineers - Kwekwe
- Boat Squadron (part of the Special Forces of Zimbabwe) - Nyami-Nyami, Kariba
- Central Ammunition Depot (CAD) - Darwendale
- Bulawayo Ordnance (Lt. Col. W. Mushawarima)
- Zimbabwe National Defence University - Harare
- Zimbabwe Staff College - Josiah Magama Tongogara Barracks, Harare
- Zimbabwe Military Academy (ZMA) - Gweru
- Zimbabwe School of Infantry (Z S Inf) - Mbalabala
- All Arms Battle School (AABS) - Nyanga
- Recruit Training Depot (RTD) - Imbizo Barracks, Bulawayo
- Field Artillery Training School (Lt. Col I Chitungo)- Ngezi Barracks, Battlefields
- Zimbabwe School of Military Engineering (ZSME) - Pomona Barracks, Harare.
- Armour Training School - Inkomo Barracks, Nyabira
- Bomb Range Training Camp - Esigodini
- Lazy Nine Training Ground - Shurugwi
- Katanga Range - Kwekwe
- Godhlwayo Training Area - Matabeleland North
- Wafa-Wafa Commando Training Grounds - Kariba.
- 1.2 Battalion Satellite Training Centre - Hwange.
- 2.3 Combat Group Satellite Training Centre - Magunje.
- 53 Infantry Battalion Recruit Satellite Training Centre - Battlefields.
- School of Signals
- School of Military Intelligence
- Instructors Training School
- Military School of Music
- Medical Training School
- Ordnance and Transport Training School
- School of Military Police
- Information Technology Training School
- School of Logistics
- Pay Corps Training School
- Army School of Physical Training and Sports (Commandant: Lt. Col. Camble Sithole)
These are the Zimbabwe National Army ranks authorised for use today and their equivalent Commonwealth designations. The ranking order is largely based on the British system, with the Air Force of Zimbabwe maintaining separate titles inherited from the Rhodesian Air Force.
The ZNA lost many of its best trained and experienced officers in the early 1990s, failing to recruit or instruct enough personnel to make up for the imbalance caused by death, emigration, or retirement. By the outbreak of the Second Congo War, only a handful of the officer corps had seen action. An interim measure was the rapid promotion of troops from non-combat units, often selected for their political connections rather than leadership competence. Theoretically, promotions continue to be based on the pre-independence system, which dictates officers below the rank of lieutenant colonel pass a proficiency examination to qualify for advancement. In times of downscaling, those with poorer marks must retire or accept an immediate demotion.
|OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||OF(D) & Student officer|
|General||Lieutenant General||Major General||Brigadier||Colonel||Lieutenant Colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||2nd lieutenant|
- Previous Army Commanders
- Lt. Gen. Philip Valerio Sibanda (January 2004 to December 2017)
- Lt. Gen. Constantine Guveya Chiwenga (July 1994 to 31 December 2003)
- Lt. Gen. Vitalis M. 'Fox' Gava Zvinavashe (1992 to 1994)
- Gen. T. R. Solomon Mujuru (1981 to 1992)
- Lt. Gen. Alistair ‘Sandy’ C. L. Maclean (18 April 1980 to 1981)
|No equivalent||No insignia|
|Regimental sergeant major||Warrant Officer Class 1||Warrant Officer Class 2||Staff Sergeant||Sergeant||Corporal||Lance Corporal||Private|
At its formation in 1980, the ZNA was overburdened with a surplus of arms due to having inherited the inventories of the former Rhodesian Army as well as the two constituent insurgent factions of the Patriotic Front. Especially problematic was the integration of Soviet and Chinese weapons with the Rhodesian NATO standard arms, which had different gauges and calibers. The Zimbabwean government initially ordered that the guerrillas' Soviet or Chinese arms be placed into storage, hoping to simplify maintenance and logistics by re-issuing only former Rhodesian weapons and ammunition. This decision was later overturned when it became clear that the Rhodesian era weapons were insufficient to equip the ZNA, especially after a significant percentage of its 7.62×51mm NATO ammunition stockpiles were destroyed in a sabotage action around 1981. The guerrillas' former arms were brought out of storage and re-issued to individual units, being supplemented by additional supplies of Soviet-style arms from North Korea. Serious logistical difficulties resulted from the use of such a menagerie of disparate equipment within individual battalions, forcing the ZNA to standardize equipment on the battalion and later the brigade level. Unfortunately this resulted in additional problems, such as the use of separate communications equipment in certain brigades which were otherwise incompatible with those of other units.
The People's Republic of China emerged as the ZNA's largest external supplier of arms during the 1980s. Most of the new artillery, tanks, and APCs accepted into service after 1981 were of Chinese origin. Nevertheless, the ZNA continued to look to a number of diverse suppliers to meet its needs, including member states of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Domestic production of small arms and ammunition, including multiple rocket launchers, small arms ammunition, artillery shells, and hand grenades, commenced for the ZNA in the mid-1980s through Zimbabwe Defence Industries (ZDI).
The operational readiness and serviceability rate of the army's weapons systems began undergoing a decline during the Second Congo War, due to an inability to source new parts and ammunition at a pace sufficient to keep up with wartime wear. Development loans to the Zimbabwean government by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were suspended when the ZNA was accused of diverting the money into the war effort. The ZNA was also badly affected by a subsequent arms embargo imposed by the EU due to allegations of human rights abuses. One consequence of the embargo was that the ZNA was forced to retire much of its technical equipment, namely radios, of Western origin. The logistics problem was further exacerbated during the collapse of the Zimbabwean dollar against major world currencies, which led to further budgetary restraints. Over half the army's tanks and armoured vehicles were rendered unserviceable due to a lack of funds to source spare parts, fuel, or training ammunition. To raise funds, the ZNA was forced to auction off much of its trailers, ammunition trucks, and engineering vehicles. Army ammunition continued to be sourced from ZDI, but the latter suspended operations in 2015 when the ZNA defaulted on its payments.
In February 2017, Zimbabwean officials revealed that the army and air force were heavily in debt with Chinese creditors due to defaulting on payments for Chinese arms. The government granted a number of domestic platinum claims to a Chinese defence contractor, Norinco, to help cover the existing debt.
|Browning Hi-Power||Semi-automatic pistol||Belgium|
|TT pistol||Semi-automatic pistol||Soviet Union|
|PPSh-41||Submachine gun||Soviet Union|
|Sterling||Submachine gun||United Kingdom|
|Uzi||Submachine gun||Israel||Some manufactured under licence.|
|SKS||Semi-automatic rifle||Soviet Union|
|AK-47||Assault rifle||Soviet Union||Standard service rifle of the ZNA.|
|AKM||Assault rifle||Soviet Union|
|Type 56||Assault rifle||China|
|FN FAL||Battle rifle||Belgium||Used by special forces.|
|Heckler & Koch G3||Battle rifle||Germany|
|Dragunov SVD||Sniper rifle||Soviet Union|
|RPD||Light machine gun||Soviet Union|
|RPK||Light machine gun||Soviet Union|
|FN MAG||General-purpose machine gun||Belgium|
|Ultimax 100||General-purpose machine gun||Singapore|
|PK||Medium machine gun||Soviet Union||Standard squad automatic weapon.|
|Browning M2||Heavy machine gun||United States|
|SG-43 Goryunov||Heavy machine gun||Soviet Union|
|M20||Recoilless rifle||United States||Superseded the M40 in ZNA service in 1980.|
|B-11||Recoilless rifle||Soviet Union|
|Type 69||Rocket-propelled grenade||China|
|RPG-7||Rocket-propelled grenade||Soviet Union||Standard platoon anti-tank weapon.|
|HJ-8||Anti-tank guided missile||China|
|ZU-23-2||Anti-aircraft gun||Soviet Union||45 in service.|
|61-K||Anti-aircraft gun||Soviet Union||39 in service.|
|ZPU||Anti-aircraft gun||Soviet Union||36 ZPU-1, ZPU-2, and ZPU-4 in service.|
|9K38 Igla||Surface-to-air missile||Soviet Union|
|9K32 Strela-2||Surface-to-air missile||Soviet Union||Up to 200 in storage.|
|Type 60||Field gun||China||18 in service.|
|Type 54||Howitzer||China||12 in service.|
|D-30||Howitzer||Soviet Union||4 in service.|
|Ordnance QF 25-pounder||Howitzer||United Kingdom||18 in service.|
|BL 5.5-inch Medium Gun||Medium Gun||United Kingdom||8 in service.|
|ZiS-3||Field gun||Soviet Union||34 in service. Relegated to ceremonial roles.|
|Type 63||Multiple rocket launcher||China||16—18 in service. Acquired from North Korea.|
|RM-70||Multiple rocket launcher||Czechoslovakia||6 operational; 58 may have once been in service.|
|120-PM-43||Heavy mortar||Soviet Union||4 in service.|
|82-BM-37||Infantry mortar||Soviet Union||200 in service.|
|L16||Infantry mortar||United Kingdom|
|Type 59||Main battle tank||China||22—25|
|Type 69||Main battle tank||China||10|
|T-54/55||Main battle tank||Soviet Union||16||status uncertain.|
|EE-9 Cascavel||Armoured car||Brazil||80||Refurbished in 2014.|
|Eland||Armoured car||South Africa||20 in service|
|Ferret||Scout car||United Kingdom||4 in service|
|Armoured personnel carriers|
|Type 63||APC||China||30 in service|
|VTT-323||APC||North Korea||22 in service|
|Type 89||APC||China||In service as of 2017.|
|ACMAT TPK 420 BL||APC||France||55 in service|
|UR-416||APC||Germany||14 in service||Unlicensed variant produced locally.|
|EE-11 Urutu||APC||Brazil||7 in service|
|Crocodile||MRAP||Rhodesia||50-60 in service|
|Mine Protected Combat Vehicle||MRAP||Rhodesia||In service as of 2017.|
|Military light utility vehicles|
|Dongfeng EQ2050||Utility vehicle||China||300 in service|
|Mazda T35||Transport truck||Japan|
|Mazda B1800||Light truck||Japan|
- Central Intelligence Organisation
- Ministry of Defence (Zimbabwe)
- National Youth Service (Zimbabwe)
- Zimbabwe Defence Industries
- Rhodesian Security Forces
- Special Forces of Zimbabwe
- Zimbabwean Fifth Brigade
- Zimbabwe Republic Police
- "Zimbabwe Military Strength". Archived from the original on 8 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Zimbabwe National Army Archived May 18, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- "Zimbabwe's holidays". Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Nelson, Harold D, ed. (1983). Zimbabwe, a Country Study. Area Handbook Series (Second ed.). Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, American University. pp. 237–272, 316. OCLC 227599708.
- Alasdair Dennis, "The Integration of Guerrilla Armies into Conventional Forces: Lessons Learnt from BMATT in Africa Archived 2005-12-29 at the Wayback Machine," South African Defence Review 5 (1992). Retrieved June 2012. Paper presented at a conference on Changing Dynamics: Military-Strategic Issues for a Future South Africa, hosted by the Institute for Defence Politics in conjunction with the Hanns Seidel Foundation, CSIR conference centre, Pretoria, 6 August 1992.
- Southern Africa Report, (various) (July 2011). "Zimbabwe Security Forces" (PDF). Randburg: Mopani Media. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Gann, Lewis. The Development of Southern Rhodesia's Military System, 1890- 1953. Occasional Papers n.s. no. 91 (Salisbury GP: 1965). National Archives of Zimbabwe. p 1-82.
- Sampson, Richard. With Sword and Chain in Lusaka: a Londoner's life in Zambia, 1948–1972. Trafford Publishing. pp. 107–108.
- Moorcraft, Paul L.; McLaughlin, Peter (April 2008) . The Rhodesian War: A Military History. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books. ISBN 978-1-84415-694-8.
- "Air Force of Zimbabwe History". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Cilliers, Jackie (December 1984). Counter-Insurgency in Rhodesia. London, Sydney & Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7099-3412-7.
- W.H. Morris-Jones. From Rhodesia to Zimbabwe: Behind and Beyond Lancaster House (2013 ed.). Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-0-714-63167-7.
- "Other People's Sons: Conscription, Citizenship, and Families 1970-1980" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- Rasmussen, R. K., & Rubert, S. C., 1990. A Historical Dictionary of Zimbabwe, Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, NJ, USA.
- Good sources for this first period are Norma J. Kriger, Guerrilla Veterans in Post-war Zimbabwe: Symbolic and Violent Politics, 1980-1987, Cambridge, 2003, and Susan Rice, The Commonwealth Intervention in Zimbabwe 1980, D.Phil thesis, New College Oxford, 1990
- Kriger, 2003, p.113
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Zimbabwedefence.com". Zimbabwedefence.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- United Nations Security Council Document 304. Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM III) S/1997/304 14 April 1997. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
- UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission - up to 30 November 2018, accessed 2 January 2019, <https://peacekeeping.un.org/sites/default/files/statsbynationalitymission_2_19.pdf Archived 2019-01-02 at the Wayback Machine>
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld - Child Soldiers Global Report 2001 - Angola". Refworld. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Thondhlana, Barnabas (5 November 1999). "Zimbabwe Troops In Angola". Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2011 – via AllAfrica.
- Rupiah, Martin, Lt. Col. (1995) Peacekeeping operations: The Zimbabwean experience. In: Shaw, M. & Celliers, J. (eds), South Africa and Peacekeeping in Africa, Volume 1. Institute for Defence Policy, Halfway House, South Africa: 111-125.
- "UN Peacekeeping, Fatalities by Nationality and Mission - up to 31 October 2016" (PDF). United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Mutimkulu, M. (2016) 'Zim Crack Team Ready for Afcon Duty', The Herald (Harare), 16 January 2015.
- 'Equatorial Guinea troops to receive training from Zim army – report', News24 (Cape Town), 9 November 2015.
- Nkala, O. (2015) 'Zimbabwe to train Equatorial Guinea armed forces', Defenceweb, 13 November 2015 <https://www.defenceweb.co.za/joint/diplomacy-a-peace/zimbabwe-to-train-equatorial-guinea-armed-forces/>
- Gumbo, L. (2017) 'ZDF Contingent Back From E. Guinea', The Herald (Harare), 4 January 2017.
- Mpofu, B. (2018) 'Zim Troops to Stay in E. Guinea', The Zimbabwe Independent (Harare), 1 June 2018.
- 'Zimbabwe soldiers to stay in Equatorial Guinea', Bulawayo 24 News, 1 June 2018, https://bulawayo24.com/index-id-news-sc-national-byo-136928.html Archived 2019-02-28 at the Wayback Machine
- Mugabe, T. (2017) 'Operation Restore Legacy ends', The Herald (Harare), 19 December 2017, accessed 23 January 2018, <http://www.herald.co.zw/operation-restore-legacy-ends/ Archived 2018-01-28 at the Wayback Machine>
- 'Text of Zimbabwe military's statement in full', istuff.co.nz, 15 November 2017, accessed 15 November 2017, <https://www.stuff.co.nz/world/africa/98929916/text-of-zimbabwe-militarys-statement-in-full Archived 2018-01-28 at the Wayback Machine>
- Rupapa, T. (2017) 'President Promotes 25 Air Force Officers', The Herald (Harare), 30 November 2017.
- Share, F. (2017b) 'President Confers New Ranks to Generals', The Herald (Harare), 20 December 2017.
- ‘Thousands Mark ZDF Anniversary’, The Herald (Harare), 10 August 2016.
- "Zimbabwe National Army - 1 Infantry Brigade: Colours Presentation Ceremony', Zimpapers Byo 'The Chronicle' (Bulawayo)". YouTube. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
- Chimutambgi, T. (2016) ‘We'll Defend Zimbabwe, Whatever it Takes—ZNA’, The Herald (Harare), 25 February 2016.
- Dembedza, P. (2014) ‘Brig-Gen Bandama Dies’, The Herald (Harare), 12 July 2014.
- Musiiwa, M. (2013) ‘Army Commander Warns Illegal Settlers’, The Herald (Harare), 11 December 2013.
- Manzongo, J. (2012) ‘Remain Resolute, Army Officers Urged’, The Herald (Harare), 5 March 2012.
- Manzongo, J. (2014) 'Appoint Soldiers As Parastatal CEOs', The Herald (Harare), 21 February 2014.
- Mambo, E. (2015) ‘Presidential Guard Boss in Hot Soup’, Zimbabwe Independent, 15 June 2015.
- Mukucha, J. & Nyanzero, P. (2017) '99 Complete Tactic Training', The Herald (Harare), 9 December 2017.
- "Chimutambgi, T. (2017) 'ZNA Embraces Farming', The Herald (Harare). 30 June 2017, via Allafrica.com, accessed 7 July 2017". Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Machingura, M. (2014) 'Kombi Fatally Runs Over Soldier', The Herald (Harare), 29 May 2014.
- ’Military Will Not Respect Puppets’, The Herald (Harare), 5 June 2012.
- Smith, L.J., updated by Rikhye, R. (2002) 'Zimbabwe Army, v. 1.1', 29 December 2002.
- Musazulwa, R. (2005) 'Arms embargo hampers Zim military training', Zimbabwe Standard (Harare), 20 March 2005
- Maphosa, V. & Ndangariro, R. (2018) 'ZNA Commended for Discipline', The Herald (Harare), 26 January 2018, accessed 28 January 2018 <http://www.herald.co.zw/zna-commended-for-discipline/ Archived 2018-01-28 at the Wayback Machine>
- Mukwati, E. (2016) 'Army Should Defend Independence', The Herald (Harare), 28 June 2016.
- "Moyo, O. (2015) 'Lt Colonel Tshuma Appointed Commander 1:1 Combat Group', The Chronicle (Bulawayo), 9 January 2015, accessed 30 June 2016". Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- Chimutambgi, T. (2016) 'We'll Defend Zimbabwe, Whatever it Takes—ZNA', The Herald (Harare), 25 February 2016.
- 'Army Officer Stabs Teacher in the Chest Over Snooker Token', New Zimbabwean, 7 May 2015.
- Sibanda, T. (2012) 'Army Deploys Battalion to Campaign for Zanu-PF', SW Radio Africa (London), 18 July 2012
- "2 Combat group) – newzimbabwevision". newzimbabwevision.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- 'Put Country First, Army Chief Tells Soldiers', The Herald (Harare), 1 October 2012.
- 'President Promotes 37 ZNA Officers', The Herald (Harare), 9 March 2016.
- 'Arms Theft—Soldier Jailed 35 Years', The Herald (Harare), 1 February 2010.
- Maponga, G. (2015) 'Second De-Mining Squadron on Cards', The Herald (Harare), 23 June 2015.
- Murwira, Z. (2011) 'Defence Forces lauded for technical expertise', The Herald (Harare), 2 August 2011.
- Mateko, M. (2005) 'ZNA Clearing Landmines', The Herald (Harare), 9 May 2005.
- '212 Graduate From ZNA', The Herald (Harare), 10 December 2007.
- "Training, ZNA website, undated, accessed 13 November 2016". Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
- 'Sappers Finish Course', The Herald (Harare), 22 June 2013.
- 'Be Vigilant, ZNA Commandos Urged', The Herald (Harare), 3 October 2009.
- '243 Army Recruits Graduate', The Herald (Harare), 22 October 2010.
- Pito, N. (2011) 'What Makes a ZNA Soldier Tick?', The Herald (Harare), 1 December 2011.
- Magoronga, M. (2017) Respect Zim's Diverse Cultures', The Herald (Harare), 4 December 2017.
- Share, F. (2017a) 'Gen Chiwenga, Chihuri Retire', The Herald (Harare), 19 December 2017.
- 'Chiwenga Appointed ZDF Commander', The Herald (Harare), 29 November 2003.
- Meredith, Martin (September 2007) . Mugabe: Power, Plunder and the Struggle for Zimbabwe. New York: PublicAffairs. pp. 65–72. ISBN 978-1-58648-558-0.
- SIPRI, (various) (2016). "Trade Registers". Solna: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Nkala, Oscar (5 March 2015). "Zimbabwe Defence Industries should be shut down – manager". Nehanda Radio. Harare. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Kahiya, Vincent (19 May 2000). "Zimbabwe: Controversy Over $600m Spare Parts For ZNA". The Zimbabwe Independent. Harare, Zimbabwe. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Arms ban hits security forces". The Zimbabwe Independent. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Staff, Writer (21 March 2014). "Zimbabwe Defence Industries broke". Zimbabwe Independent. Harare. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Mugabe lifts lid on arms for minerals deal with China". The Source. Harare. 21 February 2017. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2015.
- Hogg, Ian. Jane's Infantry Weapons, 1991-1992 (1992 ed.). Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. p. 752. ISBN 9780710609632.
- "SALW Guide: Global distribution and visual identification (Zimbabwe country report)" (PDF). Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (1988). The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why. London: I.B.Tauris & Co, Ltd. p. 63. ISBN 978-1850430698.
- Cullen, Tony; Drury, Ian; Bishop, Chris. The Encyclopedia of World Military Weapons (1988 ed.). Greenville: Crescent Publications. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-0517653418.
- Staff, Reporter (30 March 2016). "Church blames ZANU-PF for economic turmoil". The Zimbabwean. Johannesburg, Gauteng. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Headquarters 1 Brigade/Brady Barracks (Gate Exhibit), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe National Army, 2010
- Locke, Peter G.; Cooke, Peter D.F. (1995). Fighting vehicles and weapons of Rhodesia, 1965-80. Wellington: P&P Publishing. pp. 93–96. ISBN 978-0473024130.
- Hussein, Solomon (1988). Towards a Common Defence and Security Policy in the Southern African Development Community. Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa. pp. 109–111. ISBN 978-0798301749.
- Keegan, John (1983). World Armies (Second ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave-Macmillan. p. 488. ISBN 978-0333340790.
- "Zimbabwe Defence Forces". defenceweb.co.za. 13 October 2014. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Baynham, Simon (1992). Zimbabwe in transition. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell International. pp. 239–242. ISBN 978-9122015086.
- Chaipa, Edmore (29 November 2013). "Meaning of the Gun Salute". The Herald. Harare, Zimbabwe. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Scramble for the Congo - Anatomy of an Ugly War" (PDF). ICG Africa. 20 December 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- "Boomslang Logistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Scramble for the Congo - Anatomy of an Ugly War" (PDF). ICG Africa. 20 December 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- de Cherisey, Erwan (23 November 2017). "Zimbabwe's army deploys more vehicle types in Harare". London: Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 23 November 2017.
- Bastos, Expedito Carlos Stephani (June 2006). "Uma realidade brasileira - As exportações dos veículos militares Engesa". Revista DaCultura. 6 (10): 36–41.
- "Mengshi EQ2050" (in English and French). Maquetland. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013.
- ZNA Demonstrates ATGM
- MILITARISATION OF ZIMBABWE: Does the opposition stand a chance?
- Alao, Abiodun (1995) The Metamorphosis of the ‘Unorthodox’: The Integration and Early Development of the Zimbabwean National Army. In: Bhebe, N. & Ranger, T. (eds) Soldiers in Zimbabwe’s Liberation War. Volume 1. University of Zimbabwe Publications, Harare: 104-117. ISBN 0-908307-36-5
- Binda, A. (2007) Masoja: The History of the Rhodesian African Rifles and its Forerunner, the Rhodesia Native Regiment. Thirty Degrees South Publishers Pty Ltd, Johannesburg.
- Chitiyo, K. & Rupiya, M. (2005) Tracking Zimbabwe’s political history: the Zimbabwe Defence Force from 1980–2005. In: Rupiya, M. (ed.) Evolutions and Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria: 331-363. ISBN 1-919913-82-3
- Cooper, Tom (2013) Africa@War Volume 14: Great Lakes Conflagration – The Second Congo War, 1998–2003. Helion & Co Ltd, England, and Thirty Degrees South Publishers Pty Ltd, Johannesburg.
- Gangarosa, Gene Jr. (2001). Heckler & Koch—Armorers of the Free World. Maryland: Stoeger Publishing. ISBN 0-88317-229-1.
- Rupiah, Martin, Lt. Col. (1995) Peacekeeping operations: The Zimbabwean experience. In: Shaw, M. & Celliers, J. (eds), South Africa and Peacekeeping in Africa, Volume 1. Institute for Defence Policy, Halfway House, South Africa: 111-125.