Elections in Zimbabwe

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The Zimbabwe government consists of an elected head of state, the president, and a legislature. The presidential term lasts for 5 years, and is elected by majority, with a second round if no candidate receives a majority in the first round.[1] The Parliament is bicameral, consisting of the House of Assembly and Senate. Following the 2013 constitution, the House of Assembly has 270 members. 210 are elected for five-year terms by single-member constituencies. Furthermore, the constitution specifies that for the two first parliaments, there are 60 additional seats reserved for women, 6 seats per province, which are filled based on the votes for in the single-member constituencies, using party-list proportional representation, distributed using the largest remainder method and the hare quota.[2][3] The Senate has 80 members: 60 are elected for five-year terms in 6-member constituencies representing one of the 10 provinces, elected based on the votes in the lower house election, using party-list proportional representation, distributed using the hare quota. Additionally the senate consists of 2 seats for each non-metropolitan district of Zimbabwe elected by each provincial assembly of chiefs using SNTV,[4] 1 seat each for the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs and 1 male and 1 female seat for people with disabilities elected on separate ballots using FPTP by an electoral college designated by the National Disability Board.[2][3]

Zimbabwe is a one party dominant state; the dominant party being the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front. Opposition parties are permitted, including the MDC-T led by Morgan Tsvangirai and the MDC-M led by Welshman Ncube, both formations of the original Movement for Democratic Change created in 1999. Recent elections (March 2008) have witnessed former ruling party finance minister Simba Makoni standing as an independent presidential candidate.

Election results[edit]






Sithole and Muzorewa withdrew during the week before balloting, but their names remained on the ballot and both received votes



e • d Summary of the official 9 March-11 March 2002 Zimbabwean Presidential election results
Candidates - nominating parties Votes %
Robert Mugabe - Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front 56.0
Morgan Tsvangirai - Movement for Democratic Change 42.0
Wilson Kumbila - Zimbabwe African National Union – Ndonga 1.0
Shaka Maya - National Alliance for Good Governance 0.5
Paul Siwela 0.5
Source: Electionguide



e • d Summary of the 31 March 2005 House of Assembly of Zimbabwe election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front 1,569,867 59.6 78
Movement for Democratic Change 1,041,292 39.5 41
Independents 16,223 0.6 1
Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga 6,608 0.3 0
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance 594 0.0 0
Zimbabwe People's Democratic Party 61 0.0 0
Presidential appointees 20
Ex-officio members (Chiefs) 10
Total (turnout 47.7%) 2,634,645 100.0 150
Registered voters 5,658,624
Total votes cast 2,696,670
Invalid votes 62,025
Source: African Elections Database


e • d Summary of 26 November 2005 Senate of Zimbabwe election results
Parties Votes % Seats
Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front 449,860 73.71 43
Movement for Democratic Change 123,628 20.26 7
Zimbabwe African National Union – Ndonga 11,023 1.81 0
Independents 9,689 1.59 0
Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance 6,919 1.13 0
Peace Action is Freedom for All 5,278 0.86 0
African National Party 3,585 0.59 0
Zimbabwe African People's Union – Federal Party 213 0.03 0
Multi-Racial Open Party – Christian Democrats 100 0.02 0
Ex-officio members (Chiefs) 10
Presidential appointees 6
Total (turnout 19.5%) 610,295 100.00 66
Registered voters 3,239,574
Total votes cast 631,347
Invalid votes 21,052
Source: African Elections Database





On 12–13 February 2000, there was a constitutional referendum for increasing the powers of the president. These powers were to permit the government to confiscate White-owned land without compensation for the purpose of redistribution to Black farmers, and to give government officials immunity from prosecution.

  • "Yes" Votes 45.32%
  • "No" Votes 54.68%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Part XVII, Section 110". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 63. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b "3, 4". Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) (pdf). pp. 52–54.
  3. ^ a b "Electoral Amendment Act 2014 [Act 6-2014]" (doc). Veritas Zimbabwe. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  4. ^ "Part X, Section 44". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 35. Retrieved 18 January 2015.

External links[edit]