Zimbabwean general election, 2018

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Zimbabwean presidential election, 2018

← 2013 30 July 2018[1] 2023 →
Turnout 70%[2]

  Emmerson Mnangagwa 2017.png Nelsonphoto.JPG
Nominee Emmerson Mnangagwa Nelson Chamisa
Party ZANU-PF MDC-T
Alliance None MDC Alliance
Popular vote 2,460,463 2,147,436
Percentage 50.8% 44.3%

2018 Zimbabwean presidential election by provinces.svg
Presidential election results map. Green denotes provinces won by Mnangagwa, red denotes those won by Chamisa.

President before election

Emmerson Mnangagwa
ZANU-PF

Elected President

Emmerson Mnangagwa
ZANU-PF

General elections were held on 30 July 2018 in Zimbabwe to elect the president and members of both houses of parliament.[3]

The likelihood of the elections taking place was called into doubt following the 2017 coup. On 22 November 2017, a ZANU-PF spokesman said that Emmerson Mnangagwa would serve out the remainder of Robert Mugabe's term before the elections due to be held; during or before September 2018.[4] On 20 March 2018, Mnangagwa said he was looking forward to holding elections in July 2018.[1]

On 18 January 2018, President Mnangagwa spoke to the Financial Times in an interview, in which he invited the EU, UN and the Commonwealth to send missions to Zimbabwe in order to monitor the elections.[5]

On 29 July 2018, former President Mugabe gave a surprise press conference during which he stated he would not vote for Mnangagwa and ZANU-PF, the party he founded and led for decades.[6] Instead, he expressed the wish to vote for his long-time rival party, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) led by Nelson Chamisa.[7][8]

On 1 August, the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission released preliminary results which show that the ruling party ZANU-PF has won the majority of seats in parliament.[9][10] On 3 August, the Commission declared incumbent President Emmerson Mnangagwa the winner after receiving 2,460,463 (50.8%) votes to Nelson Chamisa’s 2,147,436 (44.3%).[11]

Electoral system[edit]

The President of Zimbabwe is elected using the two-round system.

The 270 members of the House of Assembly consist of 210 members elected in single-member constituencies and 60 women elected by proportional representation in ten six-seat constituencies based on the country's provinces. Voters cast a single vote, which is counted for both forms of election.[12] The 80 members of the Senate include 60 members elected from ten six-member constituencies (also based on the provinces) by proportional representation using party lists; the lists must have a woman at the top and alternate between men and women.[13] The other 20 seats include two reserved for people with disabilities and 18 for traditional chiefs.

According to the Constitution of Zimbabwe, the elections are required to be held before the official expiry date of the current parliamentary term, which is due to end on 21 August 2018.[14]

Presidential candidates[edit]

In 2015, long-term President Robert Mugabe announced that he would run for another term in 2018, and was adopted as the ZANU–PF candidate despite the fact that he would have been 94 at the time of the elections. Following the events of a military coup d'état in November 2017 and his deposition as leader of ZANU-PF, Mugabe resigned amidst parliamentary impeachment hearings on 21 November 2017.[15] His successor Emmerson Mnangagwa was chosen as the ZANU–PF candidate shortly after taking office.[16] On 29 July 2018, Robert Mugabe announced he would not support Emmerson Mnangagwa or the ZANU-PF party.[17]

It was unknown whether Morgan Tsvangirai, the long-time Zimbabwe opposition leader would have run in the elections following an announcement on 6 February 2018 which stated that Tsvangirai was critically ill and an MDC party source said "we should brace for the worst".[18] Tsvangirai subsequently died on 14 February.[19] Nelson Chamisa replaced Tsvangirai as the MDC candidate.[20][21]

On 20 October 2017, the Coalition of Democrats or CODE, a group formed by nine political parties, nominated the leader of the Renewal Democrats of Zimbabwe, Elton Mangoma, to be their presidential candidate in the election.[22]

Joice Mujuru, previously the Vice President of ZANU-PF before being ousted from the party in 2014, also registered her candidacy. Former Deputy Prime Minister Thokozani Khuphe, who leads a breakaway faction of the MDC after falling out with Nelson Chamisa, was also a candidate.[23]

In total 23 candidates stood for election.[24]

Conduct[edit]

The credibility of the elections has been questioned by both Zimbabwe citizens,[25] and the international community.[26] The opposition party have claimed that people aged 141 are registered to vote, and in one instance a single address had over 100 registered voters. Academic Tony Reeler has argued people should boycott the poll, otherwise they would legitimise the 2017 Zimbabwean coup d'état.[27] Opposition leader Nelson Chamisa, has indicated that his party will participate in the election, but has requested the intervention of the Southern African Development Community and African Union.[28] The Zimbabwe Republic Police have been accused of requiring officers to cast postal ballots in front of their supervisors,[29] which is contrary to electoral law, which requires them to be a secret ballot.[30] The Zimbabwe Electoral Commission (ZEC) has removed ghost voters and duplicate voters.[31] In 2015, the ZEC stated that Diaspora voting would be allowed in the 2018 election,[32] however Mnangagwa has ruled this out.[33] Elmar Brok has claimed that ZANU-PF had transported people to vote in an area in which they did not live.[34]

On 1 August, the opposition accused the government of rigging the vote. Just after the Zimbabwe 2018 elections, supporters of Zanu-PF attacked houses of some MDC members, the opposition Party. [35] In subsequent riots by MDC supporters, the army opened fire and killed three people, while three others died of their injuries the following day.[36]

Although the election process was peaceful, the main opposition party MDC Alliance claimed that Zanu PF and ZEC rigged the presidential election results to announce Emmerson Mnangagwa the winner. The party claimed that there was manipulation of figures which did not tally with what was recorded on V11 forms issued at each polling station.[37][38]

Opinion polling[edit]

Date(s) Polling organisation Sample size Turnout Mnangagwa Chamisa Undecided Lead
June 2018 Afrobarometer 85% 42% 31% 26% 11%
July 2018 Afrobarometer 2,400 - 40% 37% 20% 3%
30 July 2018 Results 70% 50.8% 44.3% 6.5%

Results[edit]

President[edit]

Presidential election results map. Green denotes districts won by Mnangagwa, red denotes those won by Chamisa.
Candidate Party Votes %
Emmerson Mnangagwa ZANU–PF 2,460,463 50.8
Nelson Chamisa MDC Alliance 2,147,436 44.3
Thokozani Khupe Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai 45,573 0.9
Joseph Makamba Busha FreeZim Congress 17,566 0.4
Nkosana Moyo Alliance for People’s Agenda 15,223 0.3
Evaristo Chikanga Rebuilding Zimbabwe Party 13,141 0.3
Joice Mujuru People's Rainbow Coalition 12,878 0.3
Hlabangana Kwanele Republican Party 9,449 0.2
Blessing Kasiyamhuru Zimbabwe Partnership for Prosperity 7,022 0.1
William Mugadza Bethel Christian Party 5,809 0.1
Divine Mhambi National Alliance of Patriotic and Democratic Republicans 4,980 0.1
Peter Wilson Democratic Opposition Party 4,898 0.1
Peter Munyanduri New Patriotic Front 4,529 0.1
Ambrose Mutinhiri National Patriotic Front 4,107 0.1
Daniel Shumba United Democratic Alliance 3,907 0.1
Peter Gava United Democratic Front 2,866 0.1
Brian Mteki Independent 2,747 0.1
Lovemore Madhuku National Constitutional Assembly 2,738 0.1
Noah Ngoni Manyika Build Zimbabwe Alliance 2,678 0.1
Elton Mangoma Coalition of Democrats 2,437 0.1
Melbah Dzepasi #1980 Freedom Movement Zimbabwe 1,899 0.0
Violet Mariyacha United Democracy Movement 1,673 0.0
Timothy Chiguvare People’s Progressive Party 1,549 0.0
Invalid/blank votes
Total 100
Registered voters/turnout
Source: ZBC

House of Assembly[edit]

House of Assembly election results map. Green denotes constituencies won by ZANU–PF, red denotes those won by the MDC Alliance.
Zimbabwean general election, 2018 results (House of Assembly).svg
Party Votes % Seats
Common Women Total +/–
Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front 2,477,708 52.35 144 35 179 –17
Movement for Democratic Change Alliance 1,624,875 34.33 64 24 88
Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai 161,824 3.42 0 1 1
People's Rainbow Coalition 61,644 1.30 0 0 0 New
National Patriotic Front 49,103 1.04 1 0 1 New
Zimbabwe Partnership for Prosperity 26,515 0.56 0 0 0 New
Zimbabwe African People's Union 16,088 0.34 0 0 0 0
Zimbabwe Democratic Union 11,199 0.24 0 0 0 New
National Constitutional Assembly 9,736 0.21 0 0 0 New
Mtwakazi Republic Party 9,554 0.20 0 0 0 New
Build Zim Alliance 8,486 0.18 0 0 0 New
Coalition of Democrats 6,522 0.14 0 0 0 New
FreeZim Congress 4,303 0.09 0 0 0 0
United Democratic Alliance 3,599 0.08 0 0 0 New
Republican Party of Zimbabwe 3,264 0.07 0 0 0 New
Freedom Movement #1980 2,146 0.05 0 0 0 New
Alliance for the Peoples Agenda 2,111 0.04 0 0 0 New
United African National Council 1,889 0.04 0 0 0 New
The African Democrats 1,387 0.03 0 0 0 New
United Movement for Democracy 1,357 0.03 0 0 0 0
Alliance for National Salvation 1,204 0.03 0 0 0 New
Zimbabwe Rainbow Democratic Party 1,172 0.02 0 0 0 New
People's Progressive Party Zimbabwe 1,064 0.02 0 0 0 New
Freedom Justice Coalition Zimbabwe 773 0.02 0 0 0 New
United Democratic Front 611 0.01 0 0 0 New
PRZ 494 0.01 0 0 0 New
Zimbabwe Labour Party 464 0.01 0 0 0 New
Zimbabwe Patriotic Movement 402 0.01 0 0 0 New
Zim First 373 0.01 0 0 0 New
National Action Party 362 0.01 0 0 0 New
Rebuilding Zimbabwe Party 346 0.01 0 0 0 New
Maat – Zimbabwe 342 0.01 0 0 0 New
Zimbabwe People's Party: Good People's Movement 328 0.01 0 0 0 New
Democratic Official Party 323 0.01 0 0 0 New
United Democracy Movement 318 0.01 0 0 0 New
Forces of Liberation Organization of African National Party 303 0.01 0 0 0 New
Chief's Party 282 0.01 0 0 0 New
United Crusade for Achieving Democracy Green Party of Zimbabwe 224 0.00 0 0 0 New
Unity Party Zimbabwe 214 0.00 0 0 0 New
New Zimbabwe Republican Party 198 0.00 0 0 0 New
Federal Democrats of Zimbabwe 194 0.00 0 0 0 New
ERA 177 0.00 0 0 0 New
Democratic Alliance–United People's Party 147 0.00 0 0 0 New
Progressive Democrats of Zimbabwe 144 0.00 0 0 0 New
United Christian Alliance 123 0.00 0 0 0 New
African People's Congress 70 0.00 0 0 0 New
Suffering Voices of Zimbabwe 66 0.00 0 0 0 New
Freedom Front 44 0.00 0 0 0 0
Independents 238,179 5.05 1 0 1 –1
Invalid/blank votes
Total 4,732,851 100 210 60 270 0
Registered voters/turnout
Source: ZEC

Senate[edit]

Senat zimbabwe 2018.svg
Party Seats +/–
Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front 34 –3
Movement for Democratic Change Alliance 25
Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai 1
Chiefs 18
People with disabilities 2
Total 80 0
Source: ZBC

Aftermath[edit]

Within days after the election, there were protests by the Movement for Democratic Change opposition. The army opened fire on demonstrators and bystanders and killed six people. In the following days, many opposition supporters were arrested, according to opposition leaders and human rights groups.[39]

On 10 August, it was announced that Mnangagwa's inauguration, which had been scheduled for 12 August, would be delayed after Chamisa petitioned to challenge the election results in court, with a ruling due by the end of the month.[40] On 24 August 2018, the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe dismissed Chamisa's challenge and officially declared Mnangagwa the winner in a unanimous ruling.[41][42][43] The Chief Justice Luke Malaba noted that Chamisa refused both a recount and access to the ballot boxes.[44] Mnangagwa's inauguration and official swearing-in was then held on 26 August.[45][46]

Two Washington based entity, American International Republican Institute (IRI) and National Democratic Institute (NDI), who have observant role in Zimbabwean 2018 elections, in Zimbabwe International Election Observation Mission (ZIEOM) have expressed doubts that the poll had a standard accepting value.[47] Manisha Singh, the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs, told a congressional hearing that until the new government of President Emmerson Mnangagwa shows signs of "changing its ways," the U.S. government will not lift sanctions against Zimbabwe.[48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ncube, Xolisani (20 March 2018). "ED winces over 'briefcase' parties". NewsDay.
  2. ^ "Zimbabwe opposition says its candidate won". 31 July 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  3. ^ Dzirutwe, MacDonald (30 May 2018). "Zimbabwe sets first post-Mugabe elections for July 30". Reuters. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Zimbabwe's Mnangagwa promises jobs in 'new democracy'". BBC. 22 November 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Zimbabwe's president seeks to build bridges with west". Financial Times. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  6. ^ "Zimbabwe election: Mugabe turns on Mnangagwa in surprise pre-poll speech". BBC. 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  7. ^ Hamza Mohamed (29 July 2018). "Zimbabwe's Mugabe says he won't vote for successor Mnangagwa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  8. ^ "Nelson Chamisa Has Won Election And Must Be Sworn In: Biti ⋆ Pindula News". 31 July 2018.
  9. ^ Jason Burke (1 August 2018). "Zanu-PF wins majority in Zimbabwe parliament elections, officials say". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Mugabe's ex-party wins most seats". BBC News. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  11. ^ Zimbabwe election: Emmerson Mnangagwa declared winner as defeated opposition leader rejects result - as it happened The Independent, 2 August 2018
  12. ^ Electoral system –House of Assembly. IPU
  13. ^ Electoral system – Senate. IPU
  14. ^ "Timeframe for the 2018 Elections". The Zimbabwean. 25 February 2018.
  15. ^ Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe vows to stay on despite army pressure BBC News, 19 November 2017
  16. ^ Zanu-PF reveals Mnangagwa as 2018 presidential candidate The Zimbabwean, 19 November 2017
  17. ^ "Zimbabwe election: Mugabe refuses to back successor Mnangagwa". British Broadcasting Corporation. 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
  18. ^ "Zimbabwe's Tsvangirai 'critically ill'". BBC News. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  19. ^ "Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai dies". ENCA. 14 February 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  20. ^ "Election: Mnangagwa versus Chamisa – The Zimbabwe Independent". Zimbabwe Independent. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Chamisa to fight Zimbabwe polls for opposition party". News24. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  22. ^ Manayiti, Obey (20 October 2017). "Code nominates Mangoma as presidential candidate". NewsDay Zimbabwe. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  23. ^ "Mnangagwa, Chamisa register for first post-Mugabe election". Africanews. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  24. ^ "'Magic owls', ghost voters and Zimbabwe's election". BBC News. 23 July 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  25. ^ MUTSAKA, FARAI (11 July 2018). "The case of the 141-year-old voter: Zimbabwe ballot at risk". The Sacramento Bee. ISSN 0890-5738. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  26. ^ "Zimbabwe Not Yet Ready for Free, Fair, Credible Elections: US, European Observers". How Africa News. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  27. ^ "Opposition urged to boycott polls". NewsDay Zimbabwe. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  28. ^ "Zimbabwe opposition calls for African blocs to protect poll". Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  29. ^ "Police in postal vote storm". NewsDay Zimbabwe. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  30. ^ "Statement regarding the illegal manner in which ZEC is allowing postal voting to take place. - David Coltart (Official Website)". David Coltart (Official Website). 13 July 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  31. ^ "'Magic owls', ghost voters and Zimbabwe's election". BBC News. 23 July 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  32. ^ "ZEC confirms diaspora vote in 2018". Zimbabwe Situation. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  33. ^ "No Diaspora vote: President – NewsDay Zimbabwe". www.newsday.co.zw. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  34. ^ "The Latest: Counting underway in Zimbabwe's historic vote". Newser. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  35. ^ Zimbabwe's experiment to heal bitter political divisions
  36. ^ "Violence flares over Zimbabwe poll". BBC News. 1 August 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  37. ^ Hove, Farai D. (1 August 2018). "ZIM ELECTIONS: EXPOSED-ELECTORAL FRAUD...V11 Forms Vanished At ZEC's 21% Polling Stations". The Zambian Observer. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  38. ^ Murwira, Zvamaida (6 August 2018). "Coltart exposes V11 forms hypocrisy". The Herald. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  39. ^ Mahr, Krista. "Zimbabwe politics is still in turmoil as opposition challenges election results". latimes.com. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
  40. ^ "Zimbabwe presidential inauguration delayed amid court challenge". Sky News. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  41. ^ "WATCH LIVE - Zimbabwe's top court delivers election ruling". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  42. ^ "Court rejects Zimbabwe election challenge". BBC. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  43. ^ Mutsaka, Farai. "Zimbabwe court unanimously upholds president's election win". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  44. ^ "OVERVIEW: ConCourt declares Mnangagwa as duly elected president of Zimbabwe". News24. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  45. ^ "President Mnangagwa sworn in". ZBC News Online. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  46. ^ "Zimbabwe: Emmerson Mnangagwa sworn in as president". The Guardian. Reuters. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  47. ^ Former Top U.S. Diplomat for Africa Picks Flaws in Zimbabwe Elections, But Accepts President
  48. ^ U.S. Sanctions to Remain Until Zimbabwe Demonstrates Reforms