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The Zimmerwald Left was a revolutionary minority faction at the Zimmerwald Peace Conference of 1915, headed by Lenin. The Left of the Zimmerwald Congress was made up of eight out of 38 people: Lenin, Zinoviev (Russia), Jānis Bērziņš (Latvia), Karl Radek (Poland), Julian Borchardt (Germany), Fritz Platten (Switzerland), Zeth Höglund and Ture Nerman (Sweden). It was the first step towards forming what later became the Comintern.
- R. Craig Nation, War on War: Lenin, the Zimmerwald Left, and the Origins of Communist Internationalism. (1989) Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2009.
- Zimmerwald Left, MIA
- Socialism and War. The Attitude of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party Towards the War by Lenin
- The Principles of Socialism and the War of 1914–1915 by Lenin
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