|Molar mass||161.47 g/mol (anhydrous)
179.47 g/mol (monohydrate)
287.53 g/mol (heptahydrate)
|Density||3.54 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.072 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
|Melting point||680 °C (1,256 °F; 953 K) decomposes (anhydrous)
100 °C (heptahydrate)
70 °C, decomposes (hexahydrate)
|Boiling point||740 °C (1,360 °F; 1,010 K) (anhydrous)
280 °C, decomposes (heptahydrate)
|57.7 g/100 mL, anhydrous (20 °C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|1.658 (anhydrous), 1.4357 (heptahydrate)|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||ICSC 1698|
|EU classification||Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases||R22, R41, R50/53|
|S-phrases||(S2), S22, S26, S39, S46, S60, S61|
|Cadmium sulfateManganese sulfate|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Zinc sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colorless solids. The heptahydrate is commonly encountered. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
Production and reactivity
Zinc sulfate is produced by treating virtually any zinc containing material (metal, minerals, oxides) with sulfuric acid.
Specific reactions the reaction of the metal with aqueous sulfuric acid:
- Zn + H2SO4 + 7 H2O → ZnSO4(H2O)7 + H2
Pharmaceutical grade zinc sulfate is produced by treating high purity zinc oxide with sulfuric acid:
- ZnO + H2SO4 + 6 H2O → ZnSO4(H2O)7
In aqueous solution, all forms of zinc sulfate behave identically. These aqueous solutions consist of the metal aquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ and SO42− ions. Barium sulfate forms when these solutions are treated with solutions of barium ions:
- ZnSO4 + BaCl2 → BaSO4 + ZnCl2
With a reduction potential of -0.76, zinc(II) reduces only with difficulty.
The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone. Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs. It is used as in electrolytes for zinc plating, as a mordant in dyeing, as a preservative for skins and leather and in medicine as an astringent and emetic.
As a mineral ZnSO4·7H2O is known as goslarite. Zinc sulfate occurs as several other minor minerals Zinc-melanterite (Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4·7H2O (structurally different from goslarite). Lower hydrates of zinc sulfate are rarely found in nature: (Zn,Fe)SO4·6H2O (bianchite ), (Zn,Mg)SO4·4H2O (boyleite), and (Zn,Mn)SO4·H2O (gunningite).
Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed as a source of essential zinc, at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. Excess ingestion results in acute stomach distress, with nausea and vomiting appearing at 2-8 mg/Kg of body weight.
- Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
- Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X.
- Dieter M. M. Rohe, Hans Uwe Wolf "Zinc Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a28 537
- "WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- "Zinc Sulphate Zinc Sulfate MSDS Sheet of Manufacturers". Mubychem.com. 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "Moss on Roofs," Community Horticultural Fact Sheet #97, Washington State University King County Extension, 
- European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of zinc compounds (E6) as feed additives for all animal species: Zinc sulphate monohydrate", Feb 2012 
|Salts and the ester of the sulfate ion|