Zinc sulfate

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Zinc sulfate
Zinc Sulfate.jpg
Zinc sulfate.png
Names
IUPAC name
Zinc sulfate
Other names
White vitriol
Goslarite
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.904
EC Number 231-793-3
RTECS number ZH5260000
UNII
UN number 3077
Properties
ZnSO4
Molar mass 161.47 g/mol (anhydrous)
179.47 g/mol (monohydrate)
287.53 g/mol (heptahydrate)
Appearance white powder
Odor odorless
Density 3.54 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.072 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
Melting point 680 °C (1,256 °F; 953 K) decomposes (anhydrous)
100 °C (heptahydrate)
70 °C, decomposes (hexahydrate)
Boiling point 740 °C (1,360 °F; 1,010 K) (anhydrous)
280 °C, decomposes (heptahydrate)
57.7 g/100 mL, anhydrous (20 °C) (In aqueous solutions with a pH < 5)[1]
Solubility alcohols
−45.0·10−6 cm3/mol
1.658 (anhydrous), 1.4357 (heptahydrate)
Thermochemistry
120 J·mol−1·K−1[2]
−983 kJ·mol−1[2]
Pharmacology
A12CB01 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 1698
Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases (outdated) R22, R41, R50/53
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S22, S26, S39, S46, S60, S61
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Other cations
Cadmium sulfate
Manganese sulfate
Related compounds
Copper(II) sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevention the conditions in those at high risk.[3] Side effects may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and feeling tired.[4]

It has the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate is commonly encountered.[5]

Uses[edit]

Medicine[edit]

In medicine it is used together with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and an astringent.[5]

Manufacturing[edit]

The hydrates, especially the heptahydrate, are the primary forms used commercially. The main application is as a coagulant in the production of rayon. It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone.

It is used as in electrolytes for zinc plating, as a mordant in dyeing, as a preservative for skins and leather.

Other[edit]

Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs.[6]

Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement zinc in the brewing process. Zinc is a necessary nutrient for optimal yeast health and performance. Although not necessary for low gravity beers as the grains commonly used in brewing already provide adequate zinc. It is a more common practice when pushing yeast to their limit by increasing alcohol content beyond their comfort zone. Before modern stainless steel brew kettles and fermenting vessels and after wood, zinc was slowly leeched by the use of copper kettles. A modern copper immersion chiller is speculated to provide trace elements of zinc. Be careful when adding supplemental zinc to not overdo it. Side effects include "...increased acetaldehyde and fusel alcohol production due to high yeast growth when zinc concentrations exceed 5 ppm. Excess zinc can also cause soapy or goaty flavors." [7] [8] [Sillerova et al. (2012) Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnolgy and Food Sciences 1 (February special issue): 689-695]

Toxicity[edit]

Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed as a source of essential zinc, at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. Excess ingestion results in acute stomach distress, with nausea and vomiting appearing at 2-8 mg/Kg of body weight.[9]

Production and reactivity[edit]

Zinc sulfate is produced by treating virtually any zinc containing material (metal, minerals, oxides) with sulfuric acid.[5]

Specific reactions the reaction of the metal with aqueous sulfuric acid:

Zn + H2SO4 + 7 H2O → ZnSO4(H2O)7 + H2

Pharmaceutical grade zinc sulfate is produced by treating high purity zinc oxide with sulfuric acid:

ZnO + H2SO4 + 6 H2O → ZnSO4(H2O)7

In aqueous solution, all forms of zinc sulfate behave identically. These aqueous solutions consist of the metal aquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ and SO42− ions. Barium sulfate forms when these solutions are treated with solutions of barium ions:

ZnSO4 + BaCl2 → BaSO4 + ZnCl2

With a reduction potential of -0.76, zinc(II) reduces only with difficulty.

When heated over 680 C, zinc sulfate decomposes into sulfur dioxide gas and zinc oxide fume, both of which are hazardous.[10]

Minerals[edit]

As a mineral ZnSO4·7H2O is known as goslarite. Zinc sulfate occurs as several other minor minerals Zinc-melanterite (Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4·7H2O (structurally different from goslarite). Lower hydrates of zinc sulfate are rarely found in nature: (Zn,Fe)SO4·6H2O (bianchite ), (Zn,Mg)SO4·4H2O (boyleite), and (Zn,Mn)SO4·H2O (gunningite).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3. 
  2. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  3. ^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 700. ISBN 9780857111562. 
  4. ^ WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 351. ISBN 9789241547659. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Dieter M. M. Rohe, Hans Uwe Wolf "Zinc Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a28 537
  6. ^ "Moss on Roofs," .Community Horticultural Fact Sheet #97, Washington State University King County Extension, [1]
  7. ^ "Metallurgy for Homebrewers" Brew Your Own Magazine [2]
  8. ^ "The Effect of Zinc on Fermentation Performance" Braukaiser blog.[3]
  9. ^ European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), "Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of zinc compounds (E6) as feed additives for all animal species: Zinc sulphate monohydrate", Feb 2012 [4]
  10. ^ "Zinc Sulphate Zinc Sulfate MSDS Sheet of Manufacturers". Mubychem.com. 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-06-08.