Temporal range: 80 Ma Late Cretaceous - Recent
The Zingiberales are an order of flowering plants. The order has been widely recognised, at least for the past few decades, and includes many familiar plants, such as ginger, cardamom, turmeric, galangal and myoga in the Zingiberaceae or ginger family, bananas and plantains in the Musaceae or banana family, arrowroot in the Marantaceae or arrowroot family, Ravenala, Phenakospermum and Bird of Paradise flower in the Strelitziaceae family, along with various types of heliconias in the Heliconiaceae family.
Zingiberales are a diverse order of monocots. They are rhizomatous herbaceous plants, often containing raphides. Leaves usually petiolate, leaf arrangement distichous (spiral in Musaceae). Flowers in thyrse-like spikes, epigynous, and zygomorphic to asymmetric. Stamens 6, 5 or 1. Septal nectaries often present. Pollen sulcate but often inaperturate. Fruit capsular or schizocarp.
Specific characteristics which help to distinguish this order include a herbaceous arborescent stem, distichous phyllotaxy, large petiolate leaves in which the petioles are often long, parallel and transverse venation diverging laterally from a common midrib, and inflorescences of conspicuous colorful bracts (bracteate inflorescence) and the substitution of one to five rudimentary staminodia for fertile stamens.
Leaf architecture is useful for distinguishing families within Zingiberales, based on vein pattern type, vein length per area, and other aspects of vein architecture such as angle of vein divergence, with three main types of venation recognized. These are the Zingiber-type, with square to vertically elongate areoles, the Costus-type, with horizontally elongate areoles and the Orchidantha-type with cross veins spanning multiple parallel veins.
Based on morphology alone, the Zingiberales have been considered to form two main groups, each with four families, utilising the number of fertile stamens. A paraphyletic basal assemblage of "banana-families" (the bananas) with 5 or 6 fertile stamens (Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae, Heliconiaceae), and a monophyletic derived clade of "ginger-families" (the gingers) with only one fertile stamen and four or five highly modified staminodia (Zingiberaceae, Costaceae, Cannaceae, Marantaceae).
The apomorphies (derived characteristics common to a taxonomic group) are considered to be penni-parallel leaf venation, supervolute ptyxis (left and right halves of immature leaf lamina rolled into each other), diaphragmed air chambers in leaves and stem, silica cells and an inferior ovary.
The Zingiberiflorae, whether treated as a separate superorder, as here, or an order in a more widely circumscribed unit, is one of the most indisputably natural suprafamilial group
The Zingiberales have always been considered a unique and coherent (monophyletic) group. For a brief history of the taxonomy of this order, see Kress 1990. Based on morphological grounds, earlier systems, such as the Wettstein system, last revised in 1935, and the Engler system, updated in 1964, recognised a similar order (containing the same plants, although divided over fewer families), the Scitamineae. The Cronquist system also recognised this order with eight families, but organized the order in the subclass Zingiberidae of the class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). In the classification system of Dahlgren the Zingiberales were the sole order in the superorder Zingiberiflorae (also called Zingiberanae), with the same eight families.
Using molecular phylogenetics, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, the APG III system, of 2009, and the APG II system (2003) recognized this order and assigned it to the clade commelinids, in the monocots, as sister group to Commelinales.
|clade monocots :
The order, which now has has more than 2,500 species, distributed in 68 genera over eight families, has been subdivided from early times. In the Bentham and Hooker system (1883), their Ordo Scitamineae had four tribes: Zingibereae, Maranteae, Canneae, and Museae. The modern classification is into the following families: Zingiberaceae (gingers), Musaceae (bananas), Heliconiaceae (heliconias), Strelitziaceae (bird-of-paradise), Costaceae (spiral gingers), Cannaceae (canna lilies), Marantaceae (prayer plants), and Lowiaceae (Orchidantha). The family structure was retained from the earlier systems, and is circumscribed as:
- Families (genera/species)
- order Zingiberales Griseb.
- family Cannaceae Juss. (1/7 Canna cannas)
- family Costaceae Nakai (7/143 e.g. Costus spiral gingers)
- family Heliconiaceae Vines (1/194 Heliconia heliconias)
- family Lowiaceae Ridl. (1/18 Orchidantha)
- family Marantaceae R.Br. (2/570 e.g. Maranta prayer plants)
- family Musaceae Juss. (3/91 e.g. Musa bananas)
- family Strelitziaceae Hutch. (3/7 e.g. Strelitzia birds of paradise)
- family Zingiberaceae Martinov (50/1,600 e.g. Zingiber gingers)
The common ancestor of the Zingiberales is estimated to have originated 158 million years ago with six of the eight families established by the end of the Cretaceous, but Stevens on the APWeb lists a number of papers that date variously the stem and crown groups age. Probably the ancestral Zingiberales were distributed in tropical Gondwanaland encompassing the present day Americas, Africa, and Southeast Asia with subsequent dispersals between Africa and the Americas; the current distribution of the Zingiberales seems to be a product of numerous secondary and tertiary dispersal events between the major tropical regions of the world. The phylogenetic diversification and biogeographic dispersal of the Zingiberales was in part driven by the evolutionary radiation and diversification of their associated animal pollinators, which include bats, birds, non-flying mammals, and insects. Six of the eight families of the Zingiberales contain taxa specialized for pollination by vertebrates, which appears to be the plesiomorphic state in the order. Of these six families two are exclusively vertebrate-pollinated (Strelitziaceae, Heliconiaceae). Pollination by insects also occurs in six families with one (Marantaceae) or possibly two (Lowiaceae) families predominantly specialized for insect visitors. (Kress and Specht 2005)
The leaf fossil record for Zingiberales extends back to the Late Cretaceous. Species of the Zingiberales order, together with those of the Commelinales order, are thought to have evolved around 80 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous.
Distribution and habitat
Tropical and subtropical, worldwide.
- Christenhusz, Maarten JM & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
- Dahlgren, R.M.; Clifford, H.T.; Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-642-64903-5. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Friis, Henrik; Balslev, eds. (2005). Plant Diversity and Complexity Patterns: Local, Regional and Global Dimensions: Proceedings of an International Symposium Held at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in Copenhagen, Denmark, 25-28 May, 2003. Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab. ISBN 978-87-7304-304-2.
- Kress, W. John (1990). "The Phylogeny and Classification of the Zingiberales". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 77 (4): 698–721. doi:10.2307/2399669.
- Kress, W.J.; Specht, C.D. Between Cancer and Capricorn: Phylogeny, evolution and ecology of the primarily tropical Zingiberales. (PDF). pp. 459–478., in Friis & Balslev (2005)
- Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (1998). The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol. IV. Flowering Plants. Monocotyledons: Alismatanae and Commelinanae (except Gramineae). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-03531-3. ISBN 978-3-662-03531-3.
- Salvi, Amanda M.; Smith, Selena Y.; Benedict, John C.; Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Specht, Chelsea (27 July 2015). "Re-Examining Zingiberales Fossils Using Leaf Venation" (Abstract of oral presentation). Botany 2015 (15004).
- Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-051404-9.
- APG (1998). "An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85 (4): 531–553. doi:10.2307/2992015. JSTOR 2992015.
- APG II (2003). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 141 (4): 399–436. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x.
- APG III (2009). "An Update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- "Zingiberales". Heliconia Society of Puerto Rico. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
- Stephen, Mark (14 July 2015). "Zingiberales" (Graphic presentation). Prezi. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- Stevens, P.F. (2017) . "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 31 January 2017. (see also Angiosperm Phylogeny Website)
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