3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||204.36 g·mol−1|
|Density||871.3 mg cm−3 (at 20 °C)|
|Boiling point||134 to 135 °C (273 to 275 °F; 407 to 408 K) at 2.0 kPa|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|‹See TfM› (what is ‹See TfM› ?)|
Zingiberene is a monocyclic sesquiterpene that is the predominant constituent of the oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale), from which it gets its name. It can contribute up to 30% of the essential oils in ginger rhizomes. This is the compound that gives ginger its distinct flavoring.
Zingiberene is formed in the isoprenoid pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). FPP undergoes a rearrangement to give nerolidyl diphosphate. After the removal of pyrophosphate, the ring closes leaving a carbocation on the tertiary carbon attached to the ring. A 1,3-hydride shift then takes place to give a more stable allylic carbocation. The final step in the formation of zingiberene is the removal of the cyclic allylic proton and consequent formation of a double bond. Zingiberene synthase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the reaction forming zingiberene as well as other mono- and sesquiterpenes.
- Herout, Vlastimil; Benesova, Vera; Pliva, Josef (1953). "Terpenes. XLI. Sesquiterpenes of ginger oil". Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications. 18: 297–300.
- Sultan, Misbah; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Iqbal, Zafar (2005). "Chemical analysis of essential oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale)". Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 8 (11): 1576–1578. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2005.1576.1578.
- K. Rani (1999). "Cyclisation of farnesyl pyrophosphate into sesquiterpenoids in ginger rhizomes ("Zingiber officinale")". Fitoterapia. 70 (6): 568–574. doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00090-8.