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|Synonyms||Gastrinoma, Pancreatic Ulcerogenic Tumor Syndrome, ZES, Z-E Syndrome|
|Endoscopy image of multiple small ulcers in the distal duodenum in a patient with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome|
The syndrome is caused by a gastrinoma, a neuroendocrine tumor that secretes a hormone called gastrin. The tumor causes excessive production of gastric acid, which leads to the growth of gastric mucosa and proliferation of parietal and ECL cells.
ZES may occur on its own or as part of an autosomal dominant syndrome called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). The primary tumor is usually located in the pancreas, duodenum or abdominal lymph nodes, but ectopic locations (e.g., heart, ovary, gallbladder, liver, and kidney) have also been described.
Signs and symptoms
Patients with Zollinger–Ellison syndrome may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea. The diagnosis is also suspected in patients who have severe ulceration of the stomach and small bowel, especially if they fail to respond to treatment.
- Chronic diarrhea, including steatorrhea (fatty stools)
- Pain in the esophagus, especially between and after meals at night
- Vomiting blood
- Loss of appetite
Gastrinomas may occur as single tumors or as multiple small tumors. About one-half to two-thirds of single gastrinomas are malignant tumors that most commonly spread to the liver and to lymph nodes near the pancreas and small bowel.
Nearly 25 percent of patients with gastrinomas have multiple tumors as part of a condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). MEN I patients have tumors in their pituitary gland and parathyroid glands, in addition to tumors of the pancreas.
Gastrin works on the parietal cells of the gastric glands, causing them to secrete more hydrogen ions into the stomach lumen. In addition, gastrin acts as a trophic factor for parietal cells, causing parietal cell hyperplasia. Thus, there is an increase in the number of acid-secreting cells, and each of these cells produces acid at a higher rate. The increase in acidity contributes to the development of peptic ulcers in the stomach, duodenum (first portion of the small bowel) and occasionally the jejunum (second portion of the small bowel)-- the last of which is an 'atypical' ulcer.
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome may be suspected when the above symptoms prove resistant to treatment, when the symptoms are especially suggestive of the syndrome, or when endoscopy is suggestive. The diagnosis is made through several laboratory tests and imaging studies:
- Secretin stimulation test, which measures evoked gastrin levels. Note that the mechanism underlying this test is in contrast to the normal physiologic mechanism whereby secretin inhibits gastrin release from G cells. Gastrinoma cells release gastrin in response to secretin stimulation, thereby providing a sensitive means of differentiation.
- Fasting gastrin levels on at least three separate occasions
- Gastric acid secretion and pH (normal basal gastric acid secretion is less than 10 mEq/hour; in Zollinger–Ellison patients, it is usually more than 15 mEq/hour)
- An increased level of chromogranin A is a common marker of neuroendocrine tumors.
Proton pump inhibitors (such as omeprazole and lansoprazole) and histamine H2-receptor antagonists (such as famotidine and ranitidine) are used to slow acid secretion. Once gastric acid is suppressed, symptoms normally improve. Surgery to remove peptic ulcers or tumors might also be considered.
Sporadic reports of unusual cases of peptic ulceration in the presence of pancreatic tumors occurred prior to 1955, but R. M. Zollinger and E. H. Ellison, surgeons at The Ohio State University, were the first to postulate a causal relationship between these findings. The American Surgical Association meeting in Philadelphia in April 1955 heard the first public description of the syndrome, and Zollinger and Ellison subsequently published their findings in Annals of Surgery.
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