He is a member of the National Assembly (MP) since 2006. He functioned as chairman of the Parliamentary Committee on Human Rights, Minority, Civic and Religious Affairs between 2006 and 2010.
Between 2 June 2010 and 13 May 2012, he was Secretary of State for Social Inclusion within the Ministry of National Resources. On 3 May 2012 Minister of National Resources Miklós Réthelyi resigned from his office. Prime Minister Viktor Orbán appointed Balog as the successor to Réthelyi. The office was also renamed to Ministry of Human Resources. During his ministership, the Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre (KLIK) was established on 1 September 2012, which became the central state agency for managing schools and marked centralised education system.