Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС (in Ukrainian)
Zone of Alienation, 30-kilometre Zone
|Etymology: The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant after the disaster|
|Coordinates: 51°18′00″N 30°00′18″E / 51.3°N 30.005°ECoordinates: 51°18′00″N 30°00′18″E / 51.3°N 30.005°E|
|Oblasts|| Kyiv Oblast|
|Raions|| Vyshhorod Raion
|Founded||27 April 1986(current borders established circa 1997)|
|• Total||2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi)|
|• Total||180 samosely|
For others the Exclusion Zone is an "Area of Absolute (Mandatory) Resettlement". Employees of state agencies are resident in the Zone on a temporary basis.
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation[a] is an officially designated exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster.: p.4–5 : p.49f.3 It is also commonly known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the 30-Kilometre Zone, or The Zone.: p.2–5 [b]
Established by the Soviet Armed Forces soon after the 1986 disaster, it initially existed as an area of 30 km (19 mi) radius from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant designated for evacuation and placed under military control. Its borders have since been altered to cover a larger area of Ukraine. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone borders a separately administered area, the Polesie State Radioecological Reserve, to the north in Belarus. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is managed by an agency of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, while the power plant and its sarcophagus (and replacement) are administered separately.
The Exclusion Zone covers an area of approximately 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) in Ukraine immediately surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant where radioactive contamination is highest and public access and habitation are restricted. Other areas of compulsory resettlement and voluntary relocation not part of the restricted Exclusion Zone exist in the surrounding areas and throughout Ukraine. In February 2019 it was revealed that talks were underway to redraw the boundaries of the Exclusion Zone to reflect the declining radioactivity of the Zone's outer areas.
The Exclusion Zone's purpose is to restrict access to hazardous areas, reduce the spread of radiological contamination, and conduct radiological and ecological monitoring activities. Today, the Exclusion Zone is one of the most radioactively contaminated areas in the world and draws significant scientific interest for the high levels of radiation exposure in the environment, as well as increasing interest from tourists. The zone has become a thriving sanctuary with natural flora and fauna with some of the highest biodiversity and thickest forests in all of Ukraine. This is due to the lack of human activity in the Exclusion Zone and is despite the radiation.
The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was the site of fighting between Russian and Ukrainian forces during the capture of Chernobyl on 24 February 2022, as part of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
Geographically, it includes the northernmost raions (districts) of the Kyiv and Zhytomyr Oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.
Historically and geographically, the zone is the heartland of the Polesia region. This predominantly rural woodland and marshland area was once home to 120,000 people living in the cities of Chernobyl and Pripyat as well as 187 smaller communities, but is now mostly uninhabited. All settlements remain designated on geographic maps but marked as нежил. (nezhyl.) – "uninhabited". The woodland in the area around Pripyat was a focal point of partisan resistance during the Second World War, which allowed evacuated residents to evade guards and return into the woods. In the woodland near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant stood the "Partisan's Tree" or "Cross Tree", which was used to hang captured partisans. The tree fell down due to age in 1996 and a memorial now stands at its location.
Setup of the Exclusion Zone
10-kilometre and 30-kilometre Zones
The Exclusion Zone was established on 2 May 1986Soviet government commission headed by Nikolai Ryzhkov: 4 decided on a "rather arbitrary": 161 area of a 30-kilometre (19 mi) radius from Reactor 4 as the designated evacuation area. The 30 km Zone was initially divided into three subzones: the area immediately adjacent to Reactor 4, an area of approximately 10 km (6 mi) radius from the reactor, and the remaining 30 km zone. Protective clothing and available facilities varied between these subzones.soon after the Chernobyl disaster, when a
Later in 1986, after updated maps of the contaminated areas were produced, the zone was split into three areas to designate further evacuation areas based on the revised dose limit of 100 mSv.: 4
- the "Black Zone" (over 200 µSv·h−1), to which evacuees were never to return
- the "Red Zone" (50–200 µSv·h−1), where evacuees might return once radiation levels normalized
- the "Blue Zone" (30–50 µSv·h−1), where children and pregnant women were evacuated starting in the summer of 1986
Special permission for access and full military control was put in place in late 1986. Although evacuations were not immediate, 91,200 people were eventually evacuated from these zones.: 104
In November 1986, control over activities in the zone was given to the new production association Kombinat. Based in the evacuated city of Chernobyl, the association's responsibility was to operate the power plant, decontaminate the 30 km zone, supply materials and goods to the zone, and construct housing outside the new town of Slavutych for the power plant personnel and their families.: 162
In March 1989, a "Safe Living Concept" was created for people living in contaminated zones beyond the Exclusion Zone in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia.: p.49 In October 1989, the Soviet government requested assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess the "Soviet Safe Living Concept" for inhabitants of contaminated areas.: p.52 "Throughout the Soviet period, an image of containment was partially achieved through selective resettlements and territorial delineations of contaminated zones.": p.49
In February 1991, the law On The Legal Status of the Territory Exposed to the Radioactive Contamination resulting from the ChNPP Accident was passed, updating the borders of the Exclusion Zone and defining obligatory and voluntary resettlement areas, and areas for enhanced monitoring. The borders were based on soil deposits of strontium-90, caesium-137, and plutonium as well as the calculated dose rate (sieverts/h) as identified by the National Commission for Radiation Protection of Ukraine. Responsibility for monitoring and coordination of activities in the Exclusion Zone was given to the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs.
In-depth studies were conducted from 1992–93, culminating the updating of the 1991 law followed by further evacuations from the Polesia area. A number of evacuation zones were determined: the "Exclusion Zone", the "Zone of Absolute (Mandatory) Resettlement", and the "Zone of Guaranteed Voluntary Resettlement", as well as many areas throughout Ukraine designated as areas for radiation monitoring. The evacuation of contaminated areas outside of the Exclusion Zone continued in both the compulsory and voluntary resettlement areas, with 53,000 people evacuated from areas in Ukraine from 1990 to 1995.
After Ukrainian Independence, funding for the policing and protection of the zone was initially limited, resulting in even further settling by samosely (returnees) and other illegal intrusion.
In 1997, the areas of Poliske and Narodychi, which had been evacuated, were added to the existing area of the Exclusion Zone, and the zone now encompasses the exclusion zone and parts of the zone of Absolute (Mandatory) Resettlement of an area of approximately 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi). This Zone was placed under management of the 'Administration of the exclusion zone and the zone of absolute (mandatory) resettlement' within the Ministry of Emergencies.
On 15 December 2000, all nuclear power production at the power plant ceased after an official ceremony with then-President Leonid Kuchma when the last remaining operational reactor, number 3, was shut down.
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was the site of fighting between Russian and Ukrainian forces during the Battle of Chernobyl on 24 February 2022, as part of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Russian forces reportedly captured the plant the same day.
Facilities at Chernobyl still require ongoing management, in part to ensure the continued cooling of spent nuclear fuel. An estimated 100 plant workers and 200 Ukrainian guards who were at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant when the Russians arrived had been unable to leave. Normally they would change shifts daily and would not live at the site. They had limited supplies of medication, food, and electricity.
According to Ukrainian reports, the radiation levels in the exclusion zone increased after the invasion. The higher levels are believed to be a result of disturbance of radioactive dust by the military activity or possibly incorrect readings caused by cyberattacks.
On 10 March, the International Atomic Energy Agency stated that it had lost all contact with Chernobyl.
On 22 March, the Ukrainian state agency responsible for the Chernobyl exclusion zone reported that Russian forces had destroyed a new laboratory at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The laboratory, which opened in 2015, worked to improve the management of radioactive waste, among other things. "The laboratory contained highly active samples and samples of radionuclides that are now in the hands of the enemy, which we hope will harm itself and not the civilized world", the agency said in its statement.
On 27 March, Lyudmila Denisova, then–Verkhovna Rada Commissioner for Human Rights, said that 31 known individual fires covering 10,000 hectares were burning in the zone. These fires caused "...an increased level of radioactive air pollution", according to Denisova. Firefighters were unable to reach the fires due to the Russian forces in the area. These wildfires are seasonal; one fire that was 11,500 hectares in size took place in 2020, and a series of several smaller fires occurred throughout the 2010s.
On 31 March, it was reported that most of the Russian troops occupying Chernobyl withdrew. An Exclusion Zone employee made a post on Facebook suggesting that Russian troops were suffering from acute radiation sickness, based on a photo of military buses unloading near a radiation hospital in Belarus. Chernobyl operator Energoatom claimed that Russian troops had dug trenches in the most contaminated part of the Chernobyl exclusion zone, receiving "significant doses" of radiation. BBC News reported unconfirmed reports that some were being treated in Belarus.
On 3 April, Ukrainian forces retook the Chernobyl power plant.
The 30-kilometre zone is estimated to be home to 197 samosely living in 11 villages as well as in the town of Chernobyl. This number is in decline, down from previous estimates of 314 in 2007 and 1,200 in 1986. These residents are senior citizens, with an average age of 63. After repeated attempts at expulsion, the authorities have accepted their presence and allowed them to stay with limited supporting services. Residence is now informally permitted by the Ukrainian government.
Approximately 3,000 people work in the Zone of Alienation on various tasks, such as the construction of the New Safe Confinement, the ongoing decommissioning of the reactors, and assessment and monitoring of the conditions in the zone. Employees do not live inside the zone, but work shifts there. Some of the workers work "4-3" shifts (four days on, three days off), while others work 15 days on and 15 days off. Other workers commute into the zone daily from Slavutych. The duration of shifts is counted strictly for reasons involving pension and healthcare. Everyone employed in the Zone is monitored for internal bioaccumulation of radioactive elements.
The town of Chernobyl, located outside of the 10-kilometre Exclusion Zone, was evacuated following the accident but now serves as a base to support the workers within the Exclusion Zone. Its amenities include administrative buildings, general stores, a canteen, a hotel, and a bus station. Unlike other areas within the Exclusion Zone, the town is actively maintained by workers, such as lawn areas being mowed and autumn leaves being collected.
Access and tourism
There have been[when?] growing numbers of visitors to the Exclusion Zone each year, and there are now[when?] daily trips from Kyiv offered by multiple companies. In addition, multiple-day excursions can be easily arranged with Ukrainian tour operators. Most overnight tourists stay in a hotel within the town of Chernobyl, which is located within the Exclusion Zone. According to an exclusion area tour guide, as of 2017, there are approximately 50 licensed exclusion area tour guides in total, working for approximately nine companies. Visitors must present their passports when entering the Exclusion Zone and are screened for radiation when exiting, both at the 10 km checkpoint and at the 30 km checkpoint.
The Exclusion Zone can also be entered if an application is made directly to the zone administration department.
Some evacuated residents of Pripyat have established a remembrance tradition, which includes annual visits to former homes and schools. In the Chernobyl zone, there is one operating Eastern Orthodox church, St. Elijah Church. According to Chernobyl disaster liquidators, the radiation levels there are "well below the level across the zone", a fact that president of the Ukrainian Chernobyl Union Yury Andreyev considers miraculous.
The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has been accessible to interested parties such as scientists and journalists since the zone was created. An early example was Elena Filatova's online account of her alleged solo bike ride through the zone. This gained her Internet fame, but was later alleged to be fictional, as a guide claimed Filatova was part of an official tour group. Regardless, her story drew the attention of millions to the nuclear catastrophe. After Filatova's visit in 2004, a number of papers such as The Guardian and The New York Times began to produce reports on tours to the zone.
Tourism to the area became more common after Pripyat was featured in popular video games S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl and Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare. Fans of the S.T.A.L.K.E.R. franchise, who refer to themselves as "stalkers", often gain access to the Zone. ("The Zone" and "stalker" derive from Arkady and Boris Strugatsky's science fiction novel Roadside Picnic, which preceded the accident but which described the evacuation of part of Russia after the appearance of dangerous alien artifacts. It served as the basis for the classic film Stalker.) Prosecution of trespassers became more severe after a significant increase in trespassing in the Exclusion Zone. An article in the penal code of Ukraine was specially introduced, and horse patrols were added to protect the zone's perimeter.
In 2012, journalist Andrew Blackwell published Visit Sunny Chernobyl: And Other Adventures in the World's Most Polluted Places. Blackwell recounts his visit to the Exclusion Zone, when a guide and driver took him through the zone and to the reactor site.
On 14 April 2013, the 32nd episode of the wildlife documentary TV program River Monsters (Atomic Assassin, Season 5, Episode 1) was broadcast, featuring the host Jeremy Wade catching a wels catfish in the cooling pools of the Chernobyl power plant at the heart of the Exclusion Zone.
On 16 February 2014, an episode of the British motoring TV programme Top Gear was broadcast, featuring two of the presenters, Jeremy Clarkson and James May, driving into the Exclusion Zone.
A portion of the finale of the Netflix documentary Our Planet, released in 2019, was filmed in the Exclusion Zone. The area was used as the primary example of how quickly an ecosystem can recover and thrive in the absence of human interference.
In 2019, Chernobyl Spirit Company released Atomik Vodka, the first consumer product made from materials grown and cultivated in the exclusion zone.
The poaching of game, illegal logging, and metal salvage have been problems within the zone. Despite police control, intruders started infiltrating the perimeter to remove potentially contaminated materials, from televisions to toilet seats, especially in Pripyat, where the residents of about 30 high-rise apartment buildings had to leave all of their belongings behind. In 2007, the Ukrainian government adopted more severe criminal and administrative penalties for illegal activities in the alienation zone, as well as reinforced units assigned to these tasks. The population of Przewalski's horse, introduced to the Exclusion Zone in 1998, has reportedly fallen since 2005 due to poaching.
Management of the Zone
|Formed||6 April 2011|
|Jurisdiction||Chernobyl Exclusion Zone|
|Parent agency||State Emergency Service|
In April 2011, the State Agency of Ukraine on the Exclusion Zone Management (SAUEZM) became the successor to the State Department – Administration of the exclusion zone and the zone of absolute (mandatory) resettlement according to presidential decree. The SAUEZM is, as its predecessor, an agency within the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.
Policing of the Zone is conducted by special units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and, along the border with Belarus, by the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine.
The SAUEZM is tasked with:
- Conducting environmental and radioactivity monitoring in the zone
- Management of long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste
- Leasing of land in the exclusion zone and the zone of absolute (mandatory) resettlement
- Administering of state funds for radioactive waste management
- Monitoring and preservation of documentation on the subject of radioactivity
- Coordination of the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant
- Maintenance of a register of persons who have suffered as a result of the disaster
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is located inside the zone but is administered separately. Plant personnel, 3,800 workers as of 2009[update], reside primarily in Slavutych, a specially-built remote city in Kyiv Oblast outside of the Exclusion Zone, 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of the accident site.
There are 11 checkpoints.
- Dytiatky, near the village of Dytiatky
- Stari Sokoly, near the village of Stari Sokoly
- Zelenyi Mys, near the village of Strakholissia
- Poliske, near the village of Chervona Zirka
- Ovruch, near the village of Davydky
- Vilcha, near the village of Vilkhova
- Dibrova, near the village of Fedorivka
- Benivka, near the city of Pripyat
- The city of Pripyat itself
- Leliv, near the city of Chernobyl
- Paryshiv, between the city of Chernobyl and the border with Belarus (route P56)
Development and recovery projects
The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is an environmental recovery area, with efforts devoted to remediation and safeguarding of the reactor site. At the same time, projects for wider economic and social revival of the territories around the disaster zone have been envisioned or implemented.
In November 2007, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution calling for "recovery and sustainable development" of the areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Commenting on the issue, UN Development Programme officials mentioned the plans to achieve "self-reliance" of the local population, "agriculture revival" and development of ecotourism.
However, it is not clear whether such plans, made by the UN and then-President Victor Yushchenko, deal with the zone of alienation proper, or only with the other three zones around the disaster site where contamination is less intense and restrictions on the population are looser (such as the district of Narodychi in Zhytomyr Oblast).
Since 2011, tour operators have been bringing tourists inside the Exclusion Zone (illegal tours may have started even before). Tourists are accompanied by tour guides at all times and are not able to wander too far on their own due to the presence of several radioactive "hot spots". Pripyat was deemed safe for tourists to visit for a short period of time in the late 2010s, although certain precautions must be taken.
In 2016, the Ukrainian government declared the part of the exclusion zone on its territory the Chernobyl Radiation and Environmental Biosphere Reserve.
It was reported in 2016 that "A heavily contaminated area within a 10-kilometer radius" of the plant would be used for the storage of nuclear waste. The IAEA carried out a feasibility study in 2018 to assess the prospect of expanding the local waste management infrastructure.
In 2017, three companies were reported developing plans for solar farms within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The high feed-in tariffs offered, the availability of land, and easy access to transmission lines (which formerly ran to the nuclear power station) have all been noted as beneficial to siting a solar farm. The solar plant began operations in October 2018.
In 2019, following a three-year research project into the transfer of radioactivity to crops grown in the exclusion zone conducted by scientists from UK and Ukrainian universities, one bottle of vodka using grain from the zone was produced. The vodka did not contain abnormal levels of radiation because of the distillation process. The researchers consider the production of vodka, and its sales profits, a means to aid economic recovery of the communities most adversely affected by the disaster.
The territory of the zone is polluted unevenly. Spots of hyperintensive pollution were created first by wind and rain spreading radioactive dust at the time of the accident, and subsequently by numerous burial sites for various material and equipment used in decontamination. Zone authorities pay attention to protecting such spots from tourists, scrap hunters, and wildfires, but admit that some dangerous burial sites remain unmapped, and only recorded in the memories of the (aging) Chernobyl liquidators.
Flora and fauna
There has been an ongoing scientific debate about the extent to which flora and fauna of the zone were affected by the radioactive contamination that followed the accident. As noted by Baker and Wickliffe, one of many issues is differentiating between negative effects of Chernobyl radiation and effects of changes in farming activities resulting from human evacuation.
"Twenty-five years after the Chernobyl meltdown, the scientific community has not yet been able to provide a clear understanding of the spectrum of ecological effects created by that radiological disaster."
Near the facility, a dense cloud of radioactive dust killed off a large area of Scots pine trees; the rusty orange color of the dead trees led to the nickname "The Red Forest" (Рудий ліс). The Red Forest was among the world's most radioactive places; to reduce the hazard, the Red Forest was bulldozed and the highly radioactive wood was buried, though the soil continues to emit significant radiation. Other species in the same area, such as birch trees, survived, indicating that plant species may vary considerably in their sensitivity to radiation.
Cases of mutant deformity in animals of the zone include partial albinism and other external malformations in swallows and insect mutations. A study of several hundred birds belonging to 48 different species also demonstrated that birds inhabiting highly radioactively contaminated areas had smaller brains compared to birds from clean areas.
A reduction in the density and the abundance of animals in highly radioactively contaminated areas has been reported for several taxa, including birds, insects, spiders, and mammals. In birds, which are an efficient bioindicator, a negative correlation has been reported between background radiation and bird species richness. Scientists such as Anders Pape Møller (University of Paris-Sud) and Timothy Mousseau (University of South Carolina) report that birds and smaller animals such as voles may be particularly affected by radioactivity.
Møller is the first author on 9 of the 20 most-cited articles relating to the ecology, evolution and non-human biology in the Chernobyl area. However, some of Møller's research has been criticized as flawed. Prior to his work at Chernobyl, Møller was accused of falsifying data in a 1998 paper about asymmetry in oak leaves, which he retracted in 2001. In 2004, the Danish Committees on Scientific Dishonesty (DCSD) reported that Møller was guilty of "scientific dishonesty". The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) subsequently concluded that there was insufficient evidence to establish either guilt or innocence. Strongly held opinions about Møller and his work have contributed to the difficulty of reaching a scientific consensus on the effects of radiation on wildlife in the Exclusion Zone.
More recently, the populations of large mammals have increased due to a significant reduction of human interference. The populations of traditional Polesian animals (such as the gray wolf, badger, wild boar, roe deer, white-tailed eagle, black stork, western marsh harrier, short-eared owl, red deer, moose, great egret, whooper swan, least weasel, common kestrel, and beaver) have multiplied enormously and begun expanding outside the zone. The zone is considered as a classic example of an involuntary park.
The return of wolves and other animals to the area is being studied by scientists such as Marina Shkvyria (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Sergey Gaschak (Chernobyl Centre in Ukraine), and Jim Beasley (University of Georgia). Camera traps have been installed and are used to record the presence of species. Studies of wolves, which are concentrated in higher-radiation areas near the center of the exclusion zone, may enable researchers to better assess relationships between radiation levels, animal health, and population dynamics.
The area also houses herds of European bison (native to the area) and Przewalski's horses (foreign to the area, as tarpan was the native wild horse) released there after the accident. Some accounts refer to the reappearance of extremely rare native lynx, and there are videos of brown bears and their cubs, an animal not seen in the area for more than a century. Special game warden units are organized to protect and control them. No scientific study has been conducted on the population dynamics of these species.
The rivers and lakes of the zone pose a significant threat of spreading polluted silt during spring floods. They are systematically secured by dikes.
Grass and forest fires
It is known that fires can make contamination mobile again. In particular, V.I. Yoschenko et al. reported on the possibility of increased mobility of caesium, strontium, and plutonium due to grass and forest fires. As an experiment, fires were set and the levels of the radioactivity in the air downwind of these fires was measured.
Grass and forest fires have happened inside the contaminated zone, releasing radioactive fallout into the atmosphere. In 1986, a series of fires destroyed 2,336 hectares (5,772 acres) of forest, and several other fires have since burned within the 30 km (19 mi) zone. A serious fire in early May 1992 affected 500 ha (1,240 acres) of land, including 270 ha (670 acres) of forest. This resulted in a great increase in the levels of caesium-137 in airborne dust.
In 2010, a series of wildfires affected contaminated areas, specifically the surroundings of Bryansk and border regions with Belarus and Ukraine. The Russian government claimed that there was no discernible increase in radiation levels, while Greenpeace accused the government of denial.
On 4 April 2020, a fire broke in the Zone on at least 20 hectares of Ukrainian forests. Approximately 90 firefighters were deployed to extinguish the blaze, as well as a helicopter and two aircraft. Radiation is still present in these forests, making firefighting more difficult; authorities stated that there was no danger to the surrounding population. The previous reported fire was in June 2018.
Current state of the ecosystem
Despite the negative effect of the disaster on human life, many scientists see an overall beneficial effect to the ecosystem. Though the immediate effects of the accident were negative, the area quickly recovered and is today seen as very healthy. The lack of people in the area has increased the biodiversity of the Exclusion Zone in the years since the disaster.
In the aftermath of the disaster, radioactive contamination in the air had a decidedly negative effect on the fauna, vegetation, rivers, lakes, and groundwater of the area. The radiation resulted in deaths among coniferous plants, soil invertebrates, and mammals, as well as a decline in reproductive numbers among both plants and animals.
The surrounding forest was covered in radioactive particles, resulting in the death of 400 hectares of the most immediate pine trees, though radiation damage can be found in an area of tens of thousands of hectares. An additional concern is that as the dead trees in the Red Forest (named for the color of the dead pines) decay, contamination is leaking into the groundwater.
Despite all this, Professor Nick Beresford, an expert on Chernobyl and ecology, said that "the overall effect was positive" for the wildlife in the area.
The impact of radiation on individual animals has not been studied, but cameras in the area have captured evidence of a resurgence of the mammalian population – including rare animals such as the lynx and the vulnerable European bison.
Research on the health of Chernobyl's wildlife is ongoing, and there is concern that the wildlife still suffers from some of the negative effects of the radiation exposure. Though it will be years before researchers collect the necessary data to fully understand the effects, for now, the area is essentially one of Europe's largest nature preserves. Overall, an assessment by plant biochemist Stuart Thompson concluded, "the burden brought by radiation at Chernobyl is less severe than the benefits reaped from humans leaving the area." In fact, the ecosystem around the power plant "supports more life than before".
The industrial, transport, and residential infrastructure has been largely crumbling since the 1986 evacuation. There are at least 800 known "burial grounds" (Ukrainian singular: mohyl'nyk) for the contaminated vehicles with hundreds of abandoned military vehicles and helicopters. River ships and barges lie in the abandoned port of Chernobyl. The port can easily be seen in satellite images of the area. The Jupiter Factory, one of the largest buildings in the zone, was in use until 1996 but has since been abandoned and its condition is deteriorating.
However, the infrastructure immediately used by the existing nuclear-related installations is maintained and developed, such as the railway link to the outside world from the Semykhody station used by the power plant.
The Chernobyl-2 site (a.k.a. the "Russian Woodpecker") is a former Soviet military installation relatively close to the power plant, consisting of a gigantic transmitter and receiver belonging to the Duga-1 over-the-horizon radar system. Located 2 km (1.2 mi) from the surface area of Chernobyl-2 is a large underground complex that was used for anti-missile defense, space surveillance and communication, and research. Military units were stationed there.
- Immediately after the explosion on 26 April 1986, Russian photographer Igor Kostin photographed and reported on the event, getting the first pictures from the air, then for the next 20 years he continued visiting the area to document the political and personal stories of those impacted by the disaster, publishing a book of photos Chernobyl: confessions of a reporter.
- In 1993, the official video for Pink Floyd's "Marooned" features scenes of the town of Pripyat.
- In an opening scene of the 1998 film Godzilla, the main character, scientist Nick Tatopoulos, is in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, researching the effects of environmental radiation on earthworms.
- British photographer John Darwell was among the first foreigners to photograph within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone for three weeks in late 1999, including in Pripyat, in numerous villages, a landfill site, and people continuing to live within the Zone. This resulted in an exhibition and book Legacy: Photographs inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Stockport: Dewi Lewis, 2001. ISBN 978-1-899235-58-2. Visits have since been made by numerous other documentary and art photographers.
- In a 2014 episode of Top Gear, the hosts were challenged with making their cars run out of fuel before they could reach the Exclusion Zone.
- Jeremy Wade, of the fishing documentary River Monsters, risks his life to catch a river monster that supposedly lives near or in the cooling ponds of the Chernobyl power plant near Pripyat.
- A large fraction of Martin Cruz Smith's 2004 crime novel Wolves Eat Dogs (the fifth in his series starring Russian detective Arkady Renko) is set in the Exclusion Zone.
- The 2005 horror film Return of the Living Dead: Necropolis opening scene takes place within Chernobyl, where canisters of the zombie chemical 2-4-5 Trioxin are found to be held.
- The video game franchise S.T.A.L.K.E.R., released in 2007, recreates parts of the zone from source photographs and in-person visits (bridges, railways, buildings, compounds, abandoned vehicles), albeit taking some artistic license regarding the geography of the Zone for gameplay reasons.
- In the 2007 video game Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, two missions, i.e. "All Ghillied Up" and "One Shot, One Kill" take place in Pripyat.
- A 2009 episode of Destination Truth depicts Josh Gates and the Destination Truth team exploring the ruins of Pripyat for signs of paranormal activity.
- In 2011, Guillaume Herbaut and Bruno Masi created the web documentary La Zone, funded by CNC, LeMonde.fr and Agat Films. The documentary explores the communities and individuals that still inhabit or visit the Exclusion Zone.
- The PBS program Nature aired on 19 October 2011, its documentary Radioactive Wolves which explores the return to nature which has occurred in the Exclusion Zone among wolves and other wildlife.
- In the 2011 film Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Chernobyl is depicted when the Autobots investigate suspected alien activity.
- 2011: the award-winning short film Seven Years of Winter was filmed under the direction of Marcus Schwenzel in 2011. In his short film the filmmaker tells the drama of the orphan Andrej, which is sent into the nuclear environment by his brother Artjom in order to ransack the abandoned homes. In 2015 the film received the Award for Best Film from the Uranium International Film Festival.
- The 2012 film Chernobyl Diaries is set in the Exclusion Zone. The horror movie follows a tour group that become stranded in Pripyat, and their encounters with creatures mutated by radioactive exposure.
- The 2015 documentary The Russian Woodpecker, which won the Grand Jury Prize for World Documentary at the Sundance Film Festival, has extensive footage from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and focuses on a conspiracy theory behind the disaster and the nearby Duga radar installation.
- Markiyan Kamysh's novel, Stalking the Atomic City. Life among the decadent and the depraved of Chornobyl, about illegal pilgrimage to Chernobyl Zone.
- The 2015 documentary The Babushkas Of Chernobyl directed by Anne Bogart and Holly Morris focuses on elderly residents who remain in the Exclusion Zone. These people, a majority of whom are women, are self-sufficient farmers who receive routine visits from officials to check on their health and radiation levels. The film won several awards.
- The five-part HBO miniseries Chernobyl was aired in 2019, dramatizing the events of the explosion and relief efforts after the fact. It was primarily shot in Lithuania.
- In 2019, the Spintires video game released a DLC where players can drive around the Exclusion Zone behind the wheel of a Russian truck to hunt down prize logging sites, while also trying to avoid getting blasted by radiation. The power plant, Pripyat, Red Forest, Kupsta Lake and the Duga Radar have all been recreated, so players can also go on a sightseeing tour from the truck.
- The survival horror video game Chernobylite by The Farm 51 is set in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
- In Chris Tarrant: Extreme Railways Season 5 Episode - "Extreme Nuclear Railway: A Journey Too Far?" (episode 22), Chris Tarrant visits Chernobyl on his journey through Ukraine.
- 2020 Chernobyl Exclusion Zone wildfires
- Effects of the Chernobyl disaster
- List of Chernobyl-related articles
- Polesie State Radioecological Reserve
- ^ Ukrainian: Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, romanized: Zona vidchuzhennia Chornobyl's'koyi AES, Belarusian: Хона адчужэння Чарнобыльскай АЭС, Zona adčužennia Čarnobyĺskaj AES, Russian: Зона отчуждения Чернобыльской АЭС, romanized: Zona otchuzhdeniya Chernobyl'skoy AES
- ^ Ukrainian: Чорнобильська зона, romanized: Chornobyl's'ka zona, Belarusian: Чарнобыльская зона, romanized: Charnobyl'skaya zona, Russian: Чернобыльская зона, romanized: Chernobyl'skaya zona).
- ^ Hjelmgaard, Kim. "Why a babushka in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone refuses to leave home". USA TODAY.
- ^ a b "Чернобыльскую зону "захватывают" самоселы". Ura-inform.com. 28 August 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- ^ a b "Секреты Чернобыля - "Самоселы"". Chernobylsecret.my1.ru. Retrieved 22 October 2012.
- ^ a b c d e Petryna, Adriana (2002). Life Exposed: Biological Citizens after Chernobyl. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09019-1.
- ^ a b c d e Marples, David R. (1988). The Social Impact of the Chernobyl Disaster. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-02432-1.
- ^ a b c d Mould, R. F. (2000). Chernobyl Record: The Definitive History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7503-0670-6.
- ^ a b c d e Bondarkov, Mikhail D.; Oskolkov, Boris Ya.; Gaschak, Sergey P.; Kireev, Sergey I.; Maksimenko, Andrey M.; Proskura, Nikolai I.; Jannik, G. Timothy (2011). Environmental Radiation Monitoring in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - History and Results 25 Years After. US: Savannah River National Laboratory / Savannah River Nuclear Solutions.
- ^ a b "Zoning of radioactively contaminated territory of Ukraine according to actual regulations". ICRIN. 2004. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- ^ Chernobyl: The end of a three-decade experiment BBC News. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- ^ a b c "Decree of the President of Ukraine № 393/2011 On approval of the State Agency of Ukraine of the Exclusion Zone". State Agency of Ukraine on Exclusion Zone Management. 6 April 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- ^ "Postcard from hell". The Guardian. 18 October 2004. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- ^ Canales, Katie. "A photographer visited the abandoned towns around Chernobyl more than 20 times over the past 25 years, and the captivating photos show just how suddenly time stopped in its tracks after the disaster". Business Insider.
- ^ "How Chernobyl has become an unexpected haven for wildlife". UNEP. 16 September 2020.
- ^ a b Erin Doherty, Ivana Saric (24 February 2022). "Russian military forces seize Chernobyl nuclear plant". axios.com. Axios. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ "IAEA Frequently Asked Chernobyl Questions". International Atomic Energy Agency. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- ^ Nasvit, Oleg (1998). "Legislation in Ukraine about the Radiological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" (PDF). Kyoto University Research Reactor Institite. 25: 51–57.
- ^ "IAEA's Power Reactor Information System polled in May 2008 reports shut down for units 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively". Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- ^ "Chernobyl nuclear power plant under control of Russian troops, says Ukrainian President". MSN. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- ^ a b Tobias, Ben (7 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Chernobyl workers' 12-day ordeal under Russian guard". BBC News. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
- ^ "Scientists Track Radioactive Dangers after Russian Attack Chernobyl Plant in Ukraine". Weatherboy. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ Pavel Polityuk and Forrest Crellin (25 February 2022). "Ukraine reports higher Chernobyl radiation after Russians capture plant". .reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- ^ Child, David. "Latest Ukraine updates: UN stresses 'urgent' need for talks | Russia-Ukraine War News". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- ^ AP (23 March 2022). "Russians forces destroy laboratory in Chernobyl nuclear power plant". Business Standard India. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
- ^ "Пожежа біля ЧАЕС: у зоні відчуження через бойові дії горить понад 10 тис га лісу - Денісова". www.unian.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 31 March 2022.
- ^ Dozens of Russian troops ‘fall ill with radiation poisoning’ at Chernobyl
- ^ Russian Troops Suffer ‘Acute Radiation Sickness’ After Digging Chernobyl Trenches
- ^ a b Ukraine war: Russian troops leave Chernobyl, Ukraine says, BBC News (1 April 2022)
- ^ Rushton, Jimmy. "Ukrainian forces in full control of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the district of Pripyat and the area of the State Border of Ukraine with the Republic of Belarus.🇺🇦". Twitter. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
- ^ URA-Inform (28 August 2012). "ChernobylZone squatter captured" (in Russian). URS-Inform. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- ^ a b c Marples, David (3 May 2012). "Chornobyl's legacy in Ukraine: Beyond the United Nations reports". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- ^ Rothbart, Michael. "After Chernobyl". Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- ^ Sylvester, Phil (28 October 2020). "Visiting Chernobyl - How To Stay Safe". www.worldnomads.com. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
- ^ "Сайт г. Припять. Чернобыльская авария. Фото Чернобыль. Чернобыльская катастрофа". Pripyat.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "The only church open in Chernobyl zone shows the minimum radiation level". Interfax. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- ^ Mycio, Mary (6 July 2004). "Account of Chernobyl Trip Takes Web Surfers for a Ride". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ "Chernobyl: Ukraine's new tourist destination | World news". The Guardian. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Chivers, C.J. (15 June 2005). "Pripyat Journal; New Sight in Chernobyl's Dead Zone: Tourists". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011.
- ^ a b c Boyle, Rebecca (Fall 2017). "Greetings from Isotopia". Distillations. 3 (3): 26–35. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- ^ "Славутич-Портал - Сам себе сталкер". Archived from the original on 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Кримінальний кодекс України | від 05.04.2001 № 2341-III (Сторінка 7 з 14)" (in Russian). Zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Кодекс України про адміністративні правопорушення (ст... | від 07.12.1984 № 8073-X (Сторінка 2 з 15)" (in Russian). Zakon.rada.gov.ua. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Blackwell, Andrew (2012). Visit Sunny Chernobyl: And Other Adventures in the World's Most Polluted Places. Rodale Books. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-60529-445-2.
- ^ Yong, Ed (1 April 2019). "Netflix's Our Planet Says What Other Nature Series Have Omitted". The Atlantic.
- ^ "Chernobyl Just Produced A Vodka With Grain Grown Right In The Exclusion Zone". All That's Interesting. 8 August 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- ^ Davies, Thom; Polese, Abel (2015). "Informality and survival in Ukraine's nuclear landscape: Living with the risks of Chernobyl". Journal of Eurasian Studies. 6 (1): 34–45. doi:10.1016/j.euras.2014.09.002.
- ^ Желающие привезти сувениры из Чернобыля станут уголовниками (in Russian). Korrespondent.net. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Gill, Victoria (27 July 2011). "Chernobyl's Przewalski's horses are poached for meat". BBC Nature News. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Границы и КПП". Google Maps. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- ^ "Chernobyl: Has the area recovered since 1986's nuclear disaster?". BBC Science Focus Magazine. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ "Ukraine Tries to Restore Contaminated Land". AP NEWS. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ "What's going on in Chernobyl today?". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ "UN plots Chernobyl zone recovery". BBC News. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Chernobyl's sealed zone to open to tourists | Travel Snitch". 1 May 2013. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- ^ "Tours of Chernobyl sealed zone officially begin | Travel Snitch". 30 April 2013. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
- ^ "Chernobyl: The end of a three-decade experiment". BBC News. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ Dao, Dan Q. "What To Consider If You Plan On Visiting Chernobyl—And Is It Safe?". Forbes. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ Orizaola, Germán. "Chernobyl has become a refuge for wildlife 33 years after the nuclear accident". The Conversation. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ "Area around Chernobyl plant to become a nuclear dump". The Japan Times Online. 24 March 2016. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ "Mission reviews Chernobyl waste management : Waste & Recycling - World Nuclear News". www.world-nuclear-news.org. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ Geuss, Megan (28 November 2017). "Radioactive land around Chernobyl to sprout solar investments". Ars Technica. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- ^ "Chernobyl Will Soon Be Generating Solar Power:Nearly 4,000 solar panels, covering an area the size of two football fields, have been installed at the site of the 1986 nuclear disaster". 10 January 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
The new one-megawatt power plant is located just a hundred meters from the new "sarcophagus," a giant metal dome sealing the remains of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, the worst nuclear disaster in the world.[...][the Ukrainian-German company Solar Chernobyl] has spent one million euros on the structure which has about 3,800 photovoltaic panels installed across an area of 1.6 hectares, about the size of two football fields, and hopes the investment will pay for itself within seven years. Eventually, the region is to produce 100 times the initial solar power, the company said.
- ^ "Three decades on, Chernobyl is creating solar power". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ a b "Vodka made in Chernobyl exclusion zone aims to boost economic recovery". Euronews. 9 August 2019.
- ^ Gill, Victoria (8 August 2019). "Chernobyl vodka made in exclusion zone". BBC News. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- ^ a b Zimmer, Katarina (7 February 2022). "Scientists can't agree about Chernobyl's impact on wildlife". Knowable Magazine. doi:10.1146/knowable-020422-1. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ a b c d e Baker, Robert J.; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K. (14 April 2011). "Wildlife and Chernobyl: The scientific evidence for minimal impacts". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- ^ Bird, Winifred A.; Little, Jane Braxton (March 2013). "A Tale of Two Forests: Addressing Postnuclear Radiation at Chernobyl and Fukushima". Environmental Health Perspectives. 121 (3): a78–a85. doi:10.1289/ehp.121-a78. PMC 3621180. PMID 23454631.
- ^ Mycio, M. (2005). Wormwood Forest: A Natural History of Chernobyl. Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 9780309094306.
- ^ Møller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A. (October 2001). "Albinism and phenotype of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from Chernobyl". Evolution. 55 (10): 2097–2104. doi:10.1554/0014-3820(2001)055[2097:aapobs]2.0.co;2. PMID 11761068. S2CID 20027410.
- ^ Møller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A.; de Lope, F.; Saino, N. (22 August 2007). "Elevated frequency of abnormalities in barn swallows from Chernobyl". Biology Letters. 3 (4): 414–417. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0136. PMC 1994720. PMID 17439847.
- ^ Kinver, Mark (14 August 2007). "Chernobyl 'not a wildlife haven'". BBC News. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Cornelia Hesse Honegger: Aktuelles". Wissenskunst.ch. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A. (2011). "Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e16862. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...616862M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016862. PMC 3033907. PMID 21390202.
- ^ Møller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A. (22 October 2007). "Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl". Biology Letters. 3 (5): 483–486. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0226. PMC 2394539. PMID 17698449.
- ^ Møller, A. P.; T. A. Mousseau (January 2009). "Reduced abundance of raptors in radioactively contaminated areas near Chernobyl". Journal of Ornithology. 150 (1): 239–246. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0343-5. S2CID 34029630.
- ^ Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A. (2009). "Reduced abundance of insects and spiders linked to radiation at Chernobyl 20 years after the accident". Biology Letters (published 18 March 2009). 5 (3): 356–359. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0778. PMC 2679916. PMID 19324644.
- ^ Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A. (March 2011). "Efficiency of bio-indicators for low-level radiation under field conditions". Ecological Indicators. 11 (2): 424–430. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2010.06.013.
- ^ Morelli, Federico; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders Pape (October 2017). "Cuckoos vs. top predators as prime bioindicators of biodiversity in disturbed environments". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 177: 158–164. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2017.06.029. PMID 28686944. S2CID 40377542.
- ^ a b c Wendle, John (18 April 2016). "Animals Rule Chernobyl Three Decades After Nuclear Disaster". National Geographic. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- ^ Mousseau, Timothy A. (3 November 2021). "The Biology of Chernobyl". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 52 (1): 87–109. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110218-024827. ISSN 1543-592X. S2CID 238723709. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ Smith, J. T. (23 February 2008). "Is Chernobyl radiation really causing negative individual and population-level effects on barn swallows?". Biology Letters. 4 (1): 63–64. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2007.0430. PMC 2412919. PMID 18042513.
- ^ a b Vogel, Gretchen; Proffitt, Fiona; Stone, Richard (28 January 2004). "Ecologists Rocked by Misconduct Finding". Science. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ Borrell, Brendan (2007). "A Fluctuating Reality: Accused of fraud, Anders Pape Møller has traveled from superstar evolutionary biologist to pariah" (PDF). The Scientist. 21 (1): 26–. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ Møller, Anders P.; de Lope, F. (1998). "Herbivory Affects Developmental Instability of Stone Oak, Quercus rotundifolia". Oikos. 82 (2): 246–252. doi:10.2307/3546964. ISSN 0030-1299. JSTOR 3546964. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ Higginbotham, Adam (14 April 2011). "Is Chernobyl a Wild Kingdom or a Radioactive Den of Decay?". Wired. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- ^ Odling-Smee, Lucy; Giles, Jim; Fuyuno, Ichiko; Cyranoski, David; Marris, Emma (1 January 2007). "Where are they now?". Nature. 445 (7125): 244–245. Bibcode:2007Natur.445..244O. doi:10.1038/445244a. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 17230161. S2CID 4414512.
- ^ Mulvey, Stephen (20 April 2006). "Wildlife defies Chernobyl radiation". BBC News. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Lavars, Nick (6 October 2015). "Deer, wolves and other wildlife thriving in Chernobyl exclusion zone". New Atlas. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- ^ Deryabina, T.G.; Kuchmel, S.V.; Nagorskaya, L.L.; Hinton, T.G.; Beasley, J.C.; Lerebours, A.; Smith, J.T. (October 2015). "Long-term census data reveal abundant wildlife populations at Chernobyl". Current Biology. 25 (19): R824–R826. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.017. PMID 26439334.
- ^ "Conflict conservation". The Economist. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- ^ Kinver, Mark (26 April 2015). "Cameras reveal the secret lives of Chernobyl's wildlife". BBC News. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- ^ a b Dusha-Gudym, Sergei I. (August 1992). "Forest Fires on the Areas Contaminated by Radionuclides from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident". IFFN. Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC). pp. No. 7, p. 4–6. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- ^ "Forest Fire as a Factor of Environmental Redistribution of Radionuclides Originating from Chernobyl Accident" (PDF). Maik.ru. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ Davidenko, Eduard P.; Johann Georg Goldammer (January 1994). "News from the Forest Fire Situation in the Radioactively Contaminated Regions". Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- ^ Antonov, Mikhail; Maria Gousseva (18 September 2002). "Radioactive fires threaten Russia and Europe". Pravda.ru. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009.
- ^ Yoschenko; et al. (2006). "Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part I. Fire experiments". Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. 86 (2): 143–163. doi:10.1016/j.jenvrad.2005.08.003. PMID 16213067.
- ^ "Transport of Radioactive Materials by Wildland fires in the Chernobyl Accident Zone: How to Address the Problem" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2012. (416 KB)
- ^ "Chernobyl Forests. Two Decades After the Contamination" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2007. (139 KB)
- ^ Allard, Gillian. "Fire prevention in radiation contaminated forests". Forestry Department, FAO. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- ^ a b Deutsche Welle (11 August 2010). "Russian fires hit Chernobyl-affected areas, threatening recontamination".
- ^ "Chernobyl: Radioactive forest near nuclear plant catches fire | DW | 04.04.2020". DW.COM.
- ^ Hopkin, Michael (9 August 2005). "Chernobyl ecosystems 'remarkably healthy'". Nature News: news050808–4. doi:10.1038/news050808-4. Retrieved 15 June 2017 – via www.Nature.com.
- ^ WHO. (2005). Chernobyl: the true scale of the accident.
- ^ "Red forest: description of radioactive dead ecosystem | Чернобыль, Припять, зона отчуждения ЧАЭС". chornobyl.in.ua. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- ^ Onishi, Yasuo; Voitsekhovich, Oleg V.; Zheleznyak, Mark J. (3 June 2007). "Chapter 2.6 - Radionucleotides in Groundwater in the CEZ". Chernobyl - What Have We Learned?: The Successes and Failures to Mitigate Water Contamination Over 20 Years. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781402053498.
- ^ a b Oliphant, Roland (24 April 2016). "30 years after Chernobyl disaster, wildlife is flourishing in radioactive wasteland". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
"You could say that the overall affect was positive," said Professor Nick Beresford, an expert on Chernobyl based at the centre for Ecology and hydrology in Lancaster.
- ^ in english: Island
- ^ in english: Town
- ^ in english: Transfer Point
- ^ "Exploring Chernobyl Dead Zone With Google Maps | The Cheap Route". Blog.TheCheapRoute.com. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "A journey through the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone". Radioactive Railroad. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^  Archived 21 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b Wolfgang Spyra. Environmental Security and Public Safety. Springer, 6 March 2007. pg. 181
- ^ Kostin, Igor; Johnson, Thomas (2006), Chernobyl : confessions of a reporter, New York Umbrage Editions, ISBN 978-1-884167-57-7
- ^ "S.T.A.L.K.E.R.: Shadow of Chernobyl". Stalker-game.com. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ ""La Zone", lauréat du Prix France 24 - RFI du webdocumentaire 2011". Le Monde.fr. Lemonde.fr. 22 April 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Video: Radioactive Wolves | Watch Nature Online | PBS Video". Video.pbs.org. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- ^ "Watch SEVEN YEARS OF WINTER Online | Vimeo On Demand". Vimeo. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- ^ "The Film Corner with Greg Klymkiw: SEVEN YEARS OF WINTER - Review By Greg Klymkiw - One of the Best Short Dramatic Films I've Seen In Years is playing at the Canadian Film Centre World Wide Short Film Festival 2012 (Toronto) in the programme entitled "Official Selection: Homeland Security"". klymkiwfilmcorner.blogspot.de. 3 June 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- ^ "IMDb Resume for Marcus Schwenzel". IMDb. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- ^ "Zoom - Seven Years of Winter". ARTE Cinema. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- ^ "Award to Seven Years of Winter | International Uranium Film Festival". uraniumfilmfestival.org. Retrieved 3 May 2016.
- ^ Harvey, Dennis (1 February 2015). "Sundance Film Review: 'The Russian Woodpecker'".
- ^ "Stalking the Atomic City by Markiyan Kamysh". Penguin Random House Canada. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
- ^ "The Babushkas Of Chernobyl". www.hoopladigital.com.
- ^ "The Babushkas Of Chernobyl: Awards & Reviews". thebabushkasofchernobyl.com.
- ^ "Spintires - Chernobyl® DLC on Steam". store.steampowered.com. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
- State Agency of Ukraine on Exclusion Zone Management (SAUEZM) website – the central executive body over the zone (formerly under the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine)
- Conservation, Optimization and Management of Carbon and Biodiversity in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone – a project of SAUEZM, UNEP, GEF, and the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine
- Chernobyl Radiation and Ecological Biosphere Reserve (in Ukrainian)
- Chernobyl Center – research institution working in the zone
- Official radiation measurements – SUAEZM. Online map (in Ukrainian)
News and publications
- Wildlife defies Chernobyl radiation - by BBC News, 20 April 2006
- Radioactive Wolves - by PBS Documentary aired in the U.S. on Oct, 19 2011
- Inside the Forbidden Forests 1993 The Guardian article about the zone
- The zone as a wildlife reserve
Images from inside the Zone
- ChernobylGallery.com - Photographs of Chernobyl and Pripyat
- Lacourphotos.com - Pripyat in Wintertime (Urban photos)
- Images from inside the Zone