Zonguldak

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Zonguldak
Zonguldak is located in Turkey
Zonguldak
Zonguldak
Zonguldak is located in Europe
Zonguldak
Zonguldak
Zonguldak is located in Asia
Zonguldak
Zonguldak
Zonguldak is located in Earth
Zonguldak
Zonguldak
Coordinates: 41°27′23″N 31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°E / 41.45639; 31.79861Coordinates: 41°27′23″N 31°47′55″E / 41.45639°N 31.79861°E / 41.45639; 31.79861
CountryTurkey
ProvinceZonguldak
Government
 • MayorÖmer Selim Alan (AKP)
Area
 • District632.98 km2 (244.39 sq mi)
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
109,080
 • District
213,544
 • District density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
Postal code
67 000
Area code(s)(+90) 372
Vehicle registration67
ClimateCfa
Websitewww.zonguldak.bel.tr

Zonguldak (Turkish pronunciation: [zoŋˈguɫdak]) is a city and the capital of Zonguldak Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It was established in 1849 as a port town for the nearby coal mines in Ereğli and the coal trade remains its main economic activity.[citation needed] According to the 2009 census, Zonguldak has a population of 108,792. The current mayor is Ömer Selim Alan, representing the AKP.

Etymology[edit]

There are several different theories concerning the origin of the city's name:

  • That it comes from Zone Geul-Dagh, the name given to the area by French and Belgian mining companies[3][4] from French "zone" and a French spelling of Turkish Göldağı ('Lake Mountain'), the highest mountain in the vicinity of the Devrek district.
  • That the name came from Turkish zongalık which means "swamp", or zongura.
  • That the name may derive from the name of the nearby ancient settlement of Sandaraca or Sandarake (in Ancient Greek Σανδαράκη).
  • That the name may have come from "jungle" (which the French entrepreneurs called the area due to its uneven wooded geography) plus Turkish dağ 'mountain'.

In a 1920 report, the British Foreign Office spelled Zonguldak Zunguldak.[5]

History[edit]

The port city of Zonguldak suffered a heavy bombardment by the Russians during World War I, according to the caption of a Lubok popular print.[6]

As of 1920, the port was under the control of the Heraclea Coal Company. The northern part of the bay featured a man-made harbor, for steamship use. At that time, they had two cranes which distributed coal to exporting vessels.[5]

Climate[edit]

Zonguldak has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa, Trewartha: Cf). Summers are warm, the average temperature is around 23 °C in July and August. Winters are cool, the average temperature is around 6 °C in January and February. Precipitation is frequent, especially in the colder months, while it is generally heaviest in autumn and early winter, lightest (although still frequent) in spring.

The water temperature is always quite mild and fluctuates between 8° C and 20 °C throughout the year.

Climate data for Zonguldak (1991–2020, extremes 1939–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.1
(75.4)
26.7
(80.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.6
(92.5)
36.7
(98.1)
40.5
(104.9)
39.5
(103.1)
39.8
(103.6)
36.2
(97.2)
35.9
(96.6)
29.9
(85.8)
28.1
(82.6)
40.5
(104.9)
Average high °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
9.7
(49.5)
11.7
(53.1)
15.2
(59.4)
19.3
(66.7)
23.6
(74.5)
25.8
(78.4)
26.2
(79.2)
23.2
(73.8)
19.2
(66.6)
15.2
(59.4)
11.5
(52.7)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.4
(43.5)
8.1
(46.6)
11.5
(52.7)
15.7
(60.3)
19.9
(67.8)
22.4
(72.3)
22.7
(72.9)
19.5
(67.1)
15.7
(60.3)
11.7
(53.1)
8.3
(46.9)
14.0
(57.2)
Average low °C (°F) 3.8
(38.8)
3.6
(38.5)
5.2
(41.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.6
(54.7)
16.5
(61.7)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
16.1
(61.0)
12.8
(55.0)
8.9
(48.0)
5.7
(42.3)
11.0
(51.8)
Record low °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−8.0
(17.6)
−6.4
(20.5)
−2.1
(28.2)
3.0
(37.4)
8.8
(47.8)
11.2
(52.2)
10.0
(50.0)
5.9
(42.6)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.2
(26.2)
−7.4
(18.7)
−8.0
(17.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 127.7
(5.03)
93.9
(3.70)
96.4
(3.80)
57.1
(2.25)
59.5
(2.34)
83.0
(3.27)
69.7
(2.74)
81.6
(3.21)
125.9
(4.96)
147.5
(5.81)
134.5
(5.30)
161.8
(6.37)
1,238.6
(48.76)
Average precipitation days 18.13 15.93 15.60 12.73 11.37 9.33 7.17 7.03 10.17 12.80 13.60 18.30 152.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.0 73.5 108.5 153.0 195.3 243.0 275.9 257.3 189.0 130.2 90.0 65.1 1,842.8
Mean daily sunshine hours 2.0 2.6 3.5 5.1 6.3 8.1 8.9 8.3 6.3 4.2 3.0 2.1 5.0
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[7]

Health[edit]

Because of coal there is a lot of lung disease.[8]

Economy[edit]

Jobs in coal in Turkey are being lost[9] and in 2020 the EBRD proposed a just transition.[10]


Transportation[edit]

Zonguldak old coal Port constructed in 1848
Construction work in the city
Zonguldak port and breakwater, Turkey Ottoman era postcard

The city is the terminus of a railway line to Irmak, with the terminating station Zonguldak Railway Station built in 1937.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Zonguldak is twinned with:[11]

Notable people[edit]

Ergün Penbe - Turkish former footballer

Murat Boz - Turkish singer-songwriter and actor

Nilgün Efes - Turkish entrepreneur and journalist

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Governorship of Zonguldak - A Brief History Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
  4. ^ Financial Manager's Office of Zonguldak - A General Description Archived October 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (in Turkish)
  5. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
  6. ^ The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships.” World Digital Library. Accessed May 11, 2015.
  7. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  8. ^ Ugurtas, Selin (2020-04-17). "Coronavirus outbreak exposes health risks of coal rush". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  9. ^ "Ürettiği kömür kırıcılar 'kara elmas'ı sanayiye hazır hale getiriyor".
  10. ^ "The EBRD just transition initiative".
  11. ^ "Kardeş Kent İlişkileri". zonguldak.bel.tr (in Turkish). Zonguldak. Retrieved 2020-01-19.

External links[edit]

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