Zoophilia and the law

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Zoophilia and the law looks at the laws governing humans performing sex acts with non-human animals. Laws against humans performing sex acts on animals, where they exist, are concerned with the actual act, which it commonly refers to as bestiality, rather than the sexual attraction to animals. For this reason, prohibitions of zoophilic pornography are more varied; they may be unlawful if an actual sex act with an animal is involved, but the status is not clear-cut if there is a mere representation, such as a painting or cartoon. In that case, normal obscenity laws will normally apply. All zoophilic imagery is widely regarded as pornography.

Public opinion[edit]

According to a 2014 poll carried out by Gallup, 76% of Denmark supports banning bestiality.[1]

An April 2017 Yougov poll found 75% of the United Kingdom think bestiality should be illegal, 11% didn't think bestiality should be illegal, and 14% don't know.[2]

Political parties[edit]

On 21 April 2015, the Liberal Alliance was the only party in the Danish Folketing to oppose and vote against banning bestiality, while the Red-Green Alliance abstained. Liberal Alliance MP Joachim Olsen said about the bill: "Best case, this is a superficial law. Worst case, it is political populism and moralism".[3][4]

Organizations[edit]

Denmark's Animal Ethics Council opposed banning bestiality in Denmark in 2006 and 2015, saying existing laws which allow bestiality except in cases where the animal can be proved to have suffered were enough.[5][6]

Objectives[edit]

Laws on bestiality tend to be shaped by animal welfare concerns, moral views, and cultural beliefs. In many cultures, humans are seen as fundamentally different from other animals and having sex with animals is seen as defilement.[7]

One of the primary critiques of bestiality is that it is harmful to animals and necessarily abusive, because animals are unable to give or withhold consent.[8]

Background[edit]

International differences[edit]

Some jurisdictions list laws very clearly, such as England and Wales, which specifically prohibits penetration of a human being by the penis of an animal, and penetration of an animal by a human's penis.[9]

By contrast, many countries and US states are less precise about the scope of law in that they outlaw sex with animals, without defining what constitutes "sex".[citation needed]

Even if bestiality is not explicitly prohibited, there are often many other laws which can be used to effectively prosecute cases. For example, most countries have animal cruelty laws, and a prosecutor will argue that all zoophilia activity is animal abuse.[10] In some U.S. states, a person who engages in bestiality can be charged with animal cruelty.[11]

Prohibitions without specific bestiality statutes[edit]

Some countries have a range of laws on their books. Sometimes sodomy laws or "crime against nature" laws are used to prosecute people who have sex with animals.

In the case of Kenneth Pinyan, who died from injuries sustained from receiving anal sex from a horse, local law enforcement found that there were no laws that allowed them to prosecute his friend, who had filmed the event and also allowed himself to be sodomized by the horse. The friend was prosecuted for trespassing. That case prompted the Washington State legislature to draw up legislation outlawing sex with animals.[12]

In a 2005 Florida case, a man who had sex with his dog was charged with disorderly conduct, since the state had no anti-bestiality laws on the books at the time.[13] On October 1, 2011, the state of Florida State Law 828.126, F.S went into effect, banning sex with animals.[14]

Laws against sex with animals[edit]

Aggrawal has discussed extensively on laws against bestiality.[15] It is permitted in a few countries although ordinary animal treatment laws apply.

There are also commonly laws against forcing another person to engage in sexual activity with other animals, especially minors (usually considered equivalent to rape), and laws related to exposing others (either non-consensually or minors) to the sight of a sexual act. In some jurisdictions, laws against zoophilia conduct also include provisions for seizure of animals where convicted.

Exceptions[edit]

Sexual handling of an animal for the purposes of veterinary practice, or animal husbandry (breeding), is normally exempted where such laws exist. In public discussion for the recently passed Oregon law, however, one animal shelter's spokesperson wanted the husbandry exemption kept out, as he was concerned that someone might use these "accepted farming practices" as a legal loophole to then have (legal) sexual contact with an animal only for personal enjoyment. One of the legislators responded by asking if they were trying to outlaw an act (of sexual contact), or a state of mind. The veterinary and husbandry exemption was left out of Oregon's law in the final, enacted version.

Zoophilic pornography[edit]

The legality of pornography has three components: legality of production, legality of sale and transportation, and legality of ownership. In general, animal pornography is legal to produce where both zoophilic activity and the creation of pornography in general are legal. Laws concerning sale, transmission and ownership vary more widely.

Erotic art, such as animal pornography in cartoons and the like, which does not require the recording of an actual sexual act, are not usually considered sex with animals by the law, and so their status depends upon more general laws such as legal limits upon obscenity or pornography alone, and the thin line between erotic art and pornography.

National laws[edit]

Laws affecting zoophilic activities vary across different countries and other sub-national jurisdictions. In general, these laws regulate performing or receiving sexual activity from non-human animals, or the sale, distribution, and ownership of zoophilic pornography.

Legality of zoophilia by country or territory
  Legal
  Unknown status
Illegal;
  Unenforced penalty
  Unknown punishment
  Whipping
  Determined by judge
  Fine if the animal is compelled to act contrary to the law, legal if the animal is not compelled to act contrary to the law
  Fine
  Imprisonment
  Imprisonment if penetration occurs, legal if penetration does not occur
  Up to life imprisonment
  Death penalty

Africa[edit]

Northern Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Algeria Algeria X mark.svg Illegal since June 8, 1966

Penalty: Maximum of three years in prison and a fine 10,000 Algerian dinars[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Canary Islands Canary Islands
(Autonomous community of Spain)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 30, 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry[17][18]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ceuta Ceuta
(Autonomous city of Spain)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 30, 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry[17][18]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Egypt Egypt Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Libya Libya Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Madeira Madeira
(Autonomous region of Portugal)
X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Melilla Melilla
(Autonomous city of Spain)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 30, 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry[17][18]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Morocco Morocco Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
South Sudan South Sudan Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sudan Sudan Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Tunisia Tunisia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Western Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Benin Benin Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cape Verde Cape Verde Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
The Gambia Gambia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ghana Ghana X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Guinea Guinea Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Liberia Liberia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mali Mali Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mauritania Mauritania Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Niger Niger Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Nigeria Nigeria X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Senegal Senegal Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Togo Togo Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Central Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Cameroon Cameroon X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment [19]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Central African Republic Central African Republic Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Chad Chad Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Yes check.svg Legal[20] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Gabon Gabon Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Saint Helena Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Southeast Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Burundi Burundi X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment, maximum of three years' imprisonment, fine of fifty thousand to one hundred thousand francs, or both[21]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Kenya Kenya X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment or the common law offense[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Rwanda Rwanda X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of two years' imprisonment[22]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Uganda Uganda X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Tanzania Tanzania X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Horn of Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Djibouti Djibouti Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Eritrea Eritrea X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of six months in prison and a fine 20,000 Nakfas[23]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ethiopia Ethiopia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Imprisonment[24]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Somalia Somalia Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Somaliland Somaliland Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Indian Ocean States[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Comoros Comoros Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
French Southern and Antarctic Lands French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(Overseas territory of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Madagascar Madagascar Yes check.svg Legal[20] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mauritius Mauritius X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mayotte Mayotte
(Overseas department of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Réunion Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Seychelles Seychelles Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Southern Africa[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Angola Angola Yes check.svg Legal[20] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Botswana Botswana X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of seven years' imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Eswatini Eswatini (Swaziland) Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Lesotho Lesotho X mark.svg Illegal[26] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Malawi Malawi X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years' imprisonment, with or without corporal punishment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mozambique Mozambique Yes check.svg Legal[20] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Namibia Namibia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Determined by judge[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Africa South Africa X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Determined by judge[27]

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years in prison and R200,000 fine[28]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Zambia Zambia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Bermuda Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Canada Canada X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Penetration Legislation: The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the country's current legal definition of bestiality only bans penetrative sexual acts with animals, but also that it didn't legalize any other similar activities.

Maximum of ten years' imprisonment or is guilty of an offense punishable on summary conviction[29][30]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Greenland Greenland
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mexico[edit]
Country, federal district, or state Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Mexico Mexico N/A N/A N/A
Aguascalientes Aguascalientes X mark.svg Illegal since 2009[31]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Baja California Baja California Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Baja California Sur Baja California Sur Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Campeche Campeche Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Chiapas Chiapas Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Chihuahua (state) Chihuahua Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Coahuila Coahuila Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Colima Colima Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Durango Durango X mark.svg Illegal since 2013[32]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guanajuato Guanajuato Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guerrero Guerrero Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Hidalgo (state) Hidalgo Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jalisco Jalisco X mark.svg Illegal since 2012[33]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Michoacán Michoacán Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Morelos Morelos Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
State of Mexico Mexico Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mexico City Mexico City X mark.svg Illegal[34]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Nayarit Nayarit X mark.svg Illegal since 2006[35]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Nuevo León Nuevo León X mark.svg Illegal since 2016[36]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Oaxaca Oaxaca X mark.svg Illegal since 2015

Penalty: Maximum of one year in prison and a fine of 800 days of salary[37]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Puebla Puebla Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Querétaro Querétaro X mark.svg Illegal since 2009[38]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Quintana Roo Quintana Roo X mark.svg Illegal since 2013[39]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
San Luis Potosí San Luis Potosí Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sinaloa Sinaloa Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sonora Sonora X mark.svg Illegal[40]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tabasco Tabasco Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tamaulipas Tamaulipas X mark.svg Illegal since 2010[41]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tlaxcala Tlaxcala Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Veracruz Veracruz X mark.svg Illegal since 2010[42]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Yucatán Yucatán X mark.svg Illegal since 2011[43]

'Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Zacatecas Zacatecas Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
United States[edit]

Central America[edit]

In the early 2000s, sex with animals was legal in all Central American countries except Belize. From 2011 to 2017, all Central American countries banned it.

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Belize Belize X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
France Clipperton Island
(Overseas minor territory of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Costa Rica Costa Rica X mark.svg Illegal since 2015[44][45]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
El Salvador El Salvador X mark.svg Illegal since 2016[46][47]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guatemala Guatemala X mark.svg Illegal since 2017[48][49]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Illegal since 2017[48][49]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Honduras Honduras X mark.svg Illegal since 2015[50]

Penalty: Seizure of animals, and 10 minimum salaries to 25 minimum salaries

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Nicaragua Nicaragua X mark.svg Illegal since 2011[51]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Panama Panama X mark.svg Illegal since 2012[52]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Caribbean[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Anguilla Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Aruba Aruba
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
The Bahamas Bahamas Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Barbados Barbados X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands
(Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Saba; Special municipalities of the Netherlands)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cuba Cuba Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Curaçao Curaçao
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Dominica Dominica Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Grenada Grenada X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
United States Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
(Extraterritorial jurisdiction of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal for civilians

X mark.svg Illegal for armed service members since September 16, 2016


Penalty: Maximum of dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 5 years.[53][54][55]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Haiti Haiti Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jamaica Jamaica X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment and hard labor[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Martinique Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Montserrat Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 6 months in prison and a $25,000 fine[56][57]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of four years' imprisonment, with or without hard labor for buggery
Maximum of four years' imprisonment for attempted buggery[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Flag of France.svg Saint Martin
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years' imprisonment[58]

X mark.svg Illegal[58]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Illegal[58]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

South America[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Argentina Argentina Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bolivia Bolivia X mark.svg Illegal since July 1, 2015

Penalty: Maximum of 1 year's imprisonment and a fine of 60 days, or lose work benefits of 6 months[59]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Brazil Brazil Yes check.svg Legal Yes check.svg Legal[60] Yes check.svg Legal[61]
Chile Chile Yes check.svg Legal[62] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Colombia Colombia X mark.svg Illegal since 2015

Penalty: Maximum of 63 months' imprisonment or a minimum of 21 months' imprisonment, special inability of 1.75 to 5.25 years for the exercise of profession, trade, trade or tenure related to animals, and a maximum fine of 105 minimum wages or a minimum of 8.75 minimum wages[63][64]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ecuador Ecuador X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 8 years in prison[65]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
French Guiana French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guyana Guyana X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Paraguay Paraguay Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Peru Peru Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Suriname Suriname Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Uruguay Uruguay Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Venezuela Venezuela Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tajikistan Tajikistan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Eurasia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Armenia Armenia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cyprus Cyprus X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Georgia (country) Georgia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Western Asia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Bahrain Bahrain Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Iran Iran X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: The first three convictions are determined by a judge and the fourth offense is capital punishment[66]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Iraq Iraq Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Israel Israel X mark.svg No specific laws against bestiality[67], but prosecuted as animal abuse[68] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jordan Jordan Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Kuwait Kuwait Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Lebanon Lebanon X mark.svg Illegal since March 1, 1943

Penalty: Maximum of one year's imprisonment[16][69]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Oman Oman Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
State of Palestine Palestine Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Qatar Qatar X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Syria Syria X mark.svg Illegal since June 22, 1949

Penalty: Maximum of three years' imprisonment[16][70]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Yemen Yemen Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal

Southern Asia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Afghanistan Afghanistan Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bangladesh Bangladesh X mark.svg Illegal since July 25, 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment (Unenforced)[16][71]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Bhutan Bhutan X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of one year imprisonment[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
India India X mark.svg Illegal since July 25, 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16][71]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Maldives Maldives X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of thirty months' imprisonment[16][72]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Nepal Nepal Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Pakistan Pakistan X mark.svg Illegal since July 25, 1828 (As part of Company rule in India)

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment [16][71]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years' imprisonment (Unenforced)[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Eastern Asia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
China China Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Hong Kong Hong Kong
(Special administrative region of China)
X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 10 years in prison and $50,000 fine[73]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Japan Japan Yes check.svg Legal Yes check.svg Legal Yes check.svg Legal
Macau Macau
(Special administrative region of China)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Mongolia Mongolia Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
North Korea North Korea Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Korea South Korea X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of one year in prison or fines which can total up to 20 million

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Taiwan Taiwan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Southeast Asia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Brunei Brunei X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of capital punishment[74]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Myanmar Myanmar X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of life imprisonment[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cambodia Cambodia Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
East Timor East Timor Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Laos Laos Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Malaysia Malaysia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of twenty years' imprisonment and shall also be liable to whipping[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Philippines Philippines Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Singapore Singapore X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of two years in prison and fine (Unenforced)[75]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Thailand Thailand X mark.svg Illegal since 2014

Penalty: Maximum of one year in prison and a fine of up to Bt20,000[76]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Vietnam Vietnam Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Republic of Indonesia[edit]
Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Indonesia Indonesia Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Aceh Aceh X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of being whipped one hundred times[77]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bali Bali Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bangka Belitung Islands Bangka Belitung Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Banten Banten Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bengkulu Bengkulu Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Central Java Central Java Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Central Sulawesi Central Sulawesi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
East Java East Java Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
East Kalimantan East Kalimantan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
East Nusa Tenggara East Nusa Tenggara Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Gorontalo Gorontalo Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jakarta Jakarta Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jambi Jambi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Lampung Lampung Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Maluku (province) Maluku Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
North Kalimantan North Kalimantan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
North Maluku North Maluku Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
North Sulawesi North Sulawesi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
North Sumatra North Sumatra Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Papua (province) Papua Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Riau Riau Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Riau Islands Riau Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Southeast Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Kalimantan South Kalimantan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Sulawesi South Sulawesi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Sumatra South Sumatra Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Java West Java Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Kalimantan West Kalimantan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Papua (province) West Papua Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Sulawesi West Sulawesi Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
West Sumatra West Sumatra Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Special Region of Yogyakarta Yogyakarta Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Europe[edit]

Central Europe[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Austria Austria X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a year's imprisonment and a fine of 360 days' rates[78]

Yes check.svg Legal[78]
Croatia Croatia X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Czech Republic Czech Republic Yes check.svg Legal[79] X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a 1 year's imprisonment, prohibition to undertake an activity, or to confiscation of a thing or another property value[80]

Yes check.svg Legal[81]
Germany Germany No Illegal since July 13, 2013, if the animal is forced,[82] but

Yes Legal if the animal is not forced, as clarified by the Federal Constitutional Court[83][84][85]


Penalty: Maximum of a €25,000 fine[86][87]

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of a fine or 3 years' imprisonment[88][89]

Yes check.svg Legal (as long as it is not owned with intention of publicizing, sharing or selling)[88][89]
Hungary Hungary Yes check.svg Legal[17][90] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Poland Poland X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 3 years in prison, donation to animal welfare charity and prohibition of owning an animal for up to 10 years (if done in order to distribute or sell the penalty is increased to a minimum of 6 months and maximum of 8 years in prison)[17][91]

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum 5 years' to a minimum of 3 months' imprisonment[92]

Yes check.svg Legal (if not possessed with intent to sell or distribute)
Romania Romania Yes check.svg Legal[17] Emblem-question.svg Unknown; Law only mentions a ban on "sites with […] zoophilic content", which are to be blocked by ISPs at the request of the National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications[93] Yes check.svg Legal[93]
Slovakia Slovakia X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Slovenia Slovenia X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Switzerland Switzerland X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Imprisonment (In the case of repeated or serious infringements, authorities may prohibit the keeping or breeding of animals for trade or professional occupation)[94][95]

X mark.svg Illegal[96]

Penalty: A fine or a Maximum of 3 years imprisonment

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: A fine or a Maximum of 1 year imprisonment

Eastern Europe[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Abkhazia Abkhazia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Armenia Armenia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Belarus Belarus Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Georgia (country) Georgia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Moldova Moldova Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Russia Russia Yes check.svg Legal, unless animal is hurt (no explicit law)[97] X mark.svg Illegal[citation needed]

Penalty: Minimum 1 year of imprisonment. Maximum 2 years.

Or a fine.


Yes check.svg Legal
South Ossetia South Ossetia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Transnistria Transnistria[98] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Ukraine Ukraine Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Northern Europe[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Denmark Denmark X mark.svg Illegal since July 1, 2015

Penalty: Fine or a maximum of 4 months in prison[99][100]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Estonia Estonia X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Finland Finland Yes check.svg Legal since January 15, 1971[101][102] Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Iceland Iceland Yes check.svg Legal since August 12, 1940
(As part of Denmark)[101]
X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Latvia Latvia X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Lithuania Lithuania X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Norway Norway X mark.svg Illegal since 2008[103]

Penalty: Fine and/or maximum of 3 years in prison.[104]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Sweden Sweden X mark.svg Illegal since 2014

Penalty: Fine, maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, or both[105]

Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg

Southern Europe[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Albania Albania Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Andorra Andorra Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Bulgaria Bulgaria X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Gibraltar Gibraltar
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Greece Greece X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Italy Italy X mark.svg No specific laws against bestiality, but in 2012 the Supreme Court of Cassation sentenced a man to six months in jail for forcing his dogs to have sex with women.[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Yes check.svg Legal[78] Yes check.svg Legal[78]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Malta Malta X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Montenegro Montenegro Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Portugal Portugal X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
San Marino San Marino Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Serbia Serbia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Spain Spain X mark.svg Illegal since March 30, 2015

Penalty: Minimum of three months and one day to a maximum of one year of imprisonment and a year's disqualification and a day to three years for the exercise of profession, trade or business that is related to animals and animal husbandry[106][17][18]

Yes check.svg Legal[78] Yes check.svg Legal[78]
Turkey Turkey X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment[107]

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment and a maximum of four years' imprisonment

X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Minimum of one year's imprisonment and a maximum of four years' imprisonment

Vatican City Vatican City Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Western Europe[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Belgium Belgium X mark.svg Illegal since 2007

Penalty: Maximum of 6 months in prison and a fine of €1,000[108]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

France France X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Republic of Ireland Ireland X mark.svg Illegal since 1634[110]

Penalty: Maximum of life in prison[111][112]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Luxembourg Luxembourg X mark.svg Illegal[17]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Monaco Monaco Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Netherlands Netherlands X mark.svg Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum of 1 year in prison and €19,500 fine[113]

X mark.svg Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum 6 months' imprisonment or a fine of €7,800[114]

X mark.svg Illegal since 2010

Penalty: Maximum 6 months' imprisonment or a fine of €7,800[114]

United Kingdom United Kingdom X mark.svg Illegal since 1558
(As part of Kingdom of England for England and Wales only)

X mark.svg Illegal since 1634
(As part of Kingdom of Ireland for Northern Ireland only)[110]
X mark.svg Illegal
(As part of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland for Scotland only)


Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison for conviction on indictment
Maximum of 6 months in prison and a fine for summary conviction[9][115]

X mark.svg Illegal since January 26, 2009

Penalty: Maximum of 12 months' imprisonment in England or 6 months' imprisonment in Northern Ireland, a fine, or both on summary conviction
Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, a fine, or both on conviction on indictment[116]

X mark.svg Illegal since January 26, 2009

Penalty: Maximum of 12 months' imprisonment in England or 6 months' imprisonment in Northern Ireland, a fine, or both on summary conviction
Maximum of 2 years' imprisonment, a fine, or both on conviction on indictment[116]

Oceania[edit]

Australasia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
New Zealand New Zealand X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of 7 years in prison ("bestiality")
Maximum of 3 years in prison ("indecency with animal")[117][118]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Commonwealth of Australia[edit]
Country, state, or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Australia Australia N/A X mark.svg Illegal[119]

Penalty: Emblem-question.svg Unknown

N/A
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Australia Australian Antarctic Territory Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory X mark.svg Illegal since 2011

Penalty: Maximum ten years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Christmas Island Christmas Island Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Australia Coral Sea Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Australia Jervis Bay Territory Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
New South Wales New South Wales X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum fourteen years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Northern Territory Northern Territory X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum three years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Queensland Queensland X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum seven years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
South Australia South Australia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum ten years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tasmania Tasmania X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum 21 years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Victoria (Australia) Victoria X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum five years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Western Australia Western Australia X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum seven years' imprisonment[120]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Melanesia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Fiji Fiji X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison with corporal punishment[121]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
New Caledonia New Caledonia
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison[16]

X mark.svg Illegal
Sale and distribution of any kind of pornography illegal
X mark.svg Illegal
Ownership of any kind of pornography illegal
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Vanuatu Vanuatu Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Micronesia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Guam Guam
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Kiribati Kiribati X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Nauru Nauru Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Palau Palau Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

Polynesia[edit]

Country or territory Bestiality Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
American Samoa American Samoa
(Unincorporated territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Easter Island Easter Island
(Overseas territory of Chile)
Yes check.svg Legal[62] Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Cook Islands Cook Islands
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of seven years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
French Polynesia French Polynesia
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Niue Niue
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Samoa Samoa X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of five years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tokelau Tokelau
(Part of the Realm of New Zealand)
Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tonga Tonga X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of ten years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Tuvalu Tuvalu X mark.svg Illegal

Penalty: Maximum of fourteen years in prison[16]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands
(Unincorporated organized territory of the United States)
Yes check.svg Legal Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna
(Overseas collectivity of France)
X mark.svg Illegal since March 9, 2004

Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine[25]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown Emblem-question.svg Unknown

History[edit]

Mentions in the press[edit]

  • "Freddie the Dolphin" (1991, UK) - man accused of masturbating a well known tame dolphin at sea. Charged with a "lewd act". Acquitted. Expert witnesses testified male dolphins use their erections not just sexually, but socially as well, and no sexual inference could be drawn. Judge summing up said of the £30,000 trial cost, "this has been the most expensive lesson in dolphin sociology that he has ever heard of".[122][unreliable source?]
  • Kenneth Pinyan (2005, USA) - man died following anal penetration by a stallion, which was filmed by his friend. The death led to rapid introduction of laws in Washington state against sex with animals.[123][not in citation given]
  • Cambodia (2005) - man caught having a "passionate embrace" in bed with dog, by wife, confessed he loved the dog more and they separated. Cambodian police commented: "As police, we could only solve the problem of his wife then wanting a divorce. We cannot solve the problem of his relationship with his dog, because under Cambodian law it is not strictly illegal... It is amazing, but this husband is not crazy. It seems he is a passionate human being who looked at a dog, and the more he looked, the more passionate he became."[7][unreliable source?]
  • Wisconsin, USA (2007) - Bryan James Hathaway was convicted for having sex with a dead deer. The court case raised some interesting legal issues because the statute prohibits sex with animals, but not carcasses. The defence raised the issue that if a dead animal was an animal, at what point would it cease to be an animal. He was sentenced to 6 months probation and labeled as a sex offender.[124]
  • Kansas, USA (2012) - Joshua Coman was convicted in Kansas of criminal sodomy (a misdemeanor), but the Kansas Supreme Court ruled that he did not have to register as a sex offender.[125][126]
  • Vancouver, Canada (2012) - Brian Cutteridge, bestiality proponent, was arrested after the SPCA claims to have a video of him engaging in sex with one of his dogs.[127]
  • Arizona, USA (2012) - Sarah Dae Walker and her husband pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit bestiality in a case where Craigslist was used.[128]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

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  4. ^ "Denmark officially bans bestiality". www.thelocal.dk. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Denmark outlaws bestiality in narrow vote". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  6. ^ Det Dyreetiske Råd: Udtalelse om menneskers seksuelle omgang med dyr, The Animal Ethics Council: Statement on the sexual relations of humans with animals
  7. ^ a b "Hubby does it doggy style". Archived from the original on 3 February 2005.
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  9. ^ a b "Sexual Offences Act 2003, Section 69". HM Government. 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  10. ^ The argument that "all sexual activity with animals is automatically abuse" was made for example, in 1) the 2004 case of State vs. Mitchell (Florida), 2) the 2004 Pony case in Utrecht, Holland (cited below), and 3) the 2006 Washington state law which asserts as its foundational premise that "animal cruelty in the first degree is committed when a person knowingly engages in sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal." SB-6417 2006
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  52. ^ http://aaanpanama.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/LEY-70.pdf
  53. ^ Executive Order 13740
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  98. ^ Transnistria's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any country. The Moldovan government and all the world's other states consider Transnistria de jure a part of Moldova territory.
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