Zoophilia and the law

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Zoophilia and the law looks at the laws governing humans performing sex acts on animals. Laws against humans performing sex acts on animals, where they exist, are concerned with the actual act, which it commonly refers to as bestiality, rather than the sexual attraction to animals. For this reason, prohibitions of zoophilic pornography is more varied; they may be unlawful if an actual sex act with an animal is involved, but the status is not clear cut if there is a mere representation, such as a painting or cartoon. In that case, normal obscenity laws will normally apply. All zoophilic imagery is widely regarded as pornography.

Objectives[edit]

Laws on zoophilic activity tend to be shaped by animal welfare concerns, moral views, and cultural beliefs. In many cultures, humans are viewed as different from other animals and having sex with animals is seen as defilement (see speciesism).[1][unreliable source?][not in citation given]

The practice of humans having sex with animals sometimes involves animal cruelty or animal abuse, a practice sometimes called zoosadism. However, not all sexual activity with animals involves cruelty.

Recent legislation[edit]

For centuries, sexual acts on animals were illegal under sodomy laws or "crime against nature" laws. Since the 1950s most sodomy laws have been repealed and in some places specific anti-bestiality laws have been enacted.

Bestiality was outlawed in Norway in 2008,[2] The Netherlands in 2010,[3] Australian Capital Territory in 2011,[4] Sweden in 2013, [5] and Denmark in 2015.[6]

In the U.S., as of 2012, bestiality is illegal in 37 states. Most state bestiality laws were enacted between 1999 and 2012.[7] Laws were enacted in Pennsylvania in 1999,[8] Iowa in 2001,[9] Illinois in 2002,[10] Maryland in 2002,[11] Washington in 2006,[12][dead link] Arizona in 2006,[13] Indiana in 2007,[14] Tennessee in 2007,[15][dead link] Colorado in 2007,[16] Alaska in 2010,[17] and Florida in 2011.[18] Laws which prohibit non-abusive bestiality have been criticized for being discriminatory, unjust and unconstitutional.[19][20]

Background[edit]

International differences[edit]

Some jurisdictions list laws very clearly, such as England and Wales, which specifically prohibits penetration of a human being by the penis of an animal, and penetration of an animal by a human's penis.[21]

By contrast, many countries and US states are less precise about the scope of law in that they outlaw sex with animals, without defining what constitutes "sex".[citation needed]

Even if bestiality is not explicitly prohibited, there are often many other laws which can be used to effectively prosecute cases. For example, most countries have animal cruelty laws, and a prosecutor will argue that all zoophilia activity is animal abuse.[22] In some U.S. states, a person who engages in bestiality can be charged with animal cruelty.[23]

Prohibitions without specific bestiality statutes[edit]

Some countries have a range laws on their books. Sometimes sodomy laws or "crime against nature" laws are used to prosecute people who have sex with animals.

In the case of Kenneth Pinyan, who died from injuries sustained from receiving anal sex from a horse, local law enforcement found that there were no laws that allowed them to prosecute his friend, who had filmed the event and also allowed himself to be sodomized by the horse. The friend was prosecuted for trespassing. That case prompted the Washington State legislature to draw up legislation outlawing sex with animals.[24]

In a 2005 Florida case, a man who had sex with his dog was charged with disorderly conduct, since the state had no anti-bestiality laws on the books at the time.[25] On October 1, 2011 the state of Florida State Law 828.126, F.S went into effect, banning sex with animals.[26]

Laws against zoophilia[edit]

Aggrawal has discussed extensively on laws against zoophilia.[27] It is permitted in a few countries although ordinary animal treatment laws apply.

There are also commonly laws against forcing another person to engage in zoophilia activity, especially minors (usually considered equivalent to rape), and laws related to exposing others (either non-consensually or minors) to the sight of a sexual act. In some jurisdictions, laws against zoophilia conduct also include provisions for seizure of animals where convicted.

Exceptions[edit]

Sexual handling of an animal for the purposes of veterinary practice, or animal husbandry (breeding), is normally exempted where such laws exist. In public discussion for the recently passed Oregon law, however, one animal shelter's spokesperson wanted the husbandry exemption kept out, as he was concerned that someone might use these "accepted farming practices" as a legal loophole to then have (legal) sexual contact with an animal only for personal enjoyment. One of the legislators responded by asking if they were trying to outlaw an act (of sexual contact), or a state of mind. The veterinary and husbandry exemption was left out of Oregon's law in the final, enacted version.

Zoophilic pornography[edit]

Main article: Animal pornography

The legality of pornography has three components: legality of production, legality of sale and transportation, and legality of ownership. In general, animal pornography is legal to produce where both zoophilic activity and the creation of pornography in general are legal. Laws concerning sale, transmission and ownership vary more widely.

Erotic art, such as animal pornography in cartoons and the like, which does not require the recording of an actual sexual act, are not usually considered sex with animals by the law, and so their status depends upon more general laws such as legal limits upon obscenity or pornography alone, and the thin line between erotic art and pornography.

National laws[edit]

Country or territory Zoosexual activity Sale and distribution of zoophilic pornography Ownership of zoophilic pornography
Australia Australia No Illegal
(Penalty varies by state/territory)[28]
No Illegal[29] Yes
Belgium Belgium No Illegal since 2007
(penalty: up to 6 months in prison and a fine of 1.000 € maximum)[30]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Brazil Brazil Yes Legal[31][need quotation to verify][32][need quotation to verify] since 1830 (via repeal of sodomy laws) Yes Legal, never criminalized[32][33] Yes Legal, never criminalized
Cambodia Cambodia Yes Legal[1][unreliable source?][not in citation given] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Canada Canada No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 10 years in prison)[34]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Denmark Denmark No Illegal[35] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Ecuador Ecuador No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 8 years in prison)[36]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal
(Penalty: Imprisonment (no length given)[37]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Finland Finland Yes Legal since 1971[38] No Illegal[39] Emblem-question.svg
France France No Illegal since 2004
(Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and €30,000 fine)[40]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Germany Germany No Illegal since 2013
(penalty: fine of 25.000 € maximum)[41]
No Illegal
(Penalty: Fine or maximum of 3 years in prison)[42]
Emblem-question.svg
Ghana Ghana No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 3 years in prison)[43]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Hong Kong Hong Kong No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 10 years in prison and $50,000 fine)[44]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Hungary Hungary Yes Legal[45] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Republic of Ireland Ireland No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of life in prison)[46]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
India India No Illegal[47] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Iran Iran No Illegal
(Penalty: First three convictions are punished by ta'zir as determined by a judge
Fourth offense is the death penalty)[48]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Malaysia Malaysia No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 20 years in prison, fines, and whipping)[49]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Mexico Mexico Yes Legal Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Namibia Namibia No Illegal[50] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Netherlands Netherlands No Illegal since 2010
(Penalty: Maximum of 1 year in prison and €19,500 fine)[51]
No Illegal since 2010
(Penalty: Maximum imprisonment 6 months or a fine of the third category (€7,800))[52]
No Illegal since 2010
(Penalty: Maximum imprisonment 6 months or a fine of the third category (€7,800))
New Zealand New Zealand No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 7 years in prison
Maximum of 3 years in prison)[53][54]
No Illegal No Illegal
Norway Norway No Illegal since 2008[55] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Philippines Philippines No Illegal[56][unreliable source?] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Poland Poland No Illegal since 1997. Defined as a type of animal abuse.
(Penalty: Maximum 3 years in prison, donation to animal welfare charity and prohibition of owning an animal for up to 10 years. If done in order to distribute or sell the penalty is increased to a minimum of 6 months and maximum of 8 years in prison)[57]
No Illegal
(Penalty: minimum of 6 months and maximum 8 years in prison)[58]
Yes Legal (as long as it is not owned with intention of publicizing, sharing or selling)
Portugal Portugal No Illegal[59] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Romania Romania Yes Legal[60] Emblem-question.svg Ambiguous (Law only mentions a ban on "sites with [...] zoophilic content", which are to be blocked by ISPs at the request of the National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications)[61] Yes check.svg Legal[62]
Singapore Singapore No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison and fine)[63]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
South Africa South Africa No Illegal
(Penalty: determined by judge)[64]
No Illegal
(Penalty: maximum 5 years in prison and R200,000 fine)[65]
Emblem-question.svg
Sweden Sweden No Illegal since 2014
(Penalty : fine, prison up to 2 years, or both)[66]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Switzerland Switzerland No Illegal[67] No Illegal[68] No Illegal
Thailand Thailand Yes Legal[69][dead link] No law mentions zoophilia. No Zoophilic pornography falls within the definition of pornography. Distribution of any pornography is illegal. Yes
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal[70] Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
United Kingdom United Kingdom No Illegal since 1290
(Penalty: Maximum of 2 years in prison for conviction on indictment
Maximum of 6 months in prison and a fine for summary conviction) Intercourse with an animal (see Sexual Offences Act 2003[21])
No Illegal since 2008[71] (see Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008) No Illegal since 2008 (see Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008)
United States United States
No / Yes Varies by state, territory, or district. No / Yes Varies by state, territory, or district. No / Yes Varies by state, territory, or district.
Zambia Zambia No Illegal
(Penalty: Maximum of 5 years in prison)[72]
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg

History[edit]

Main article: History of zoophilia

Mentions in the press[edit]

  • "Freddie the Dolphin" (1991, UK) - man accused of masturbating a well known tame dolphin at sea. Charged with a "lewd act". Acquitted. Expert witnesses testified male dolphins use their erections not just sexually, but socially as well, and no sexual inference could be drawn. Judge summing up said of the £30,000 trial cost, "this has been the most expensive lesson in dolphin sociology that he has ever heard of".[73][unreliable source?]
  • Kenneth Pinyan (2005, USA) - man died following anal penetration by a stallion, which was filmed by his friend. The death led to rapid introduction of laws in Washington state against sex with animals.[7][not in citation given]
  • Sudan (February 2006) - man caught having sex with a neighbour's goat, is ordered by the council of elders to pay the neighbour a dowry of 15,000 Sudanese dinars ($50) and marry the animal.[74]
  • Cambodia (2005) - man caught having a "passionate embrace" in bed with dog, by wife, confessed he loved the dog more and they separated. Cambodian police commented: "As police, we could only solve the problem of his wife then wanting a divorce. We cannot solve the problem of his relationship with his dog, because under Cambodian law it is not strictly illegal... It is amazing, but this husband is not crazy. It seems he is a passionate human being who looked at a dog, and the more he looked, the more passionate he became."[1][unreliable source?]
  • Wisconsin, USA (2007) - Bryan James Hathaway was convicted for having sex with a dead deer. The court case raised some interesting legal issues because the statute prohibits sex with animals, but not carcasses. The defence raised the issue that if a dead animal was an animal, at what point would it cease to be an animal.[75]
  • Kansas, USA (2012) - Joshua Coman was convicted in Kansas of criminal sodomy (a misdemeanor), but the Kansas Supreme Court ruled that he did not have to register as a sex offender.[76][77]
  • Vancouver, Canada (2012) - Brian Cutteridge, bestiality proponent, was arrested after the SPCA claims to have a video of him engaging in sex with one of his dogs.[78]
  • Arizona, USA (2012) - Sarah Dae Walker and her husband pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit bestiality in a case where Craigslist was used.[79]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Hubby does it doggy style". Archived from the original on 2005-02-03. 
  2. ^ "Sex with animals to be banned in Norway". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. 
  3. ^ "Dutch Parliament OKs Ban on Beastiality – In the News –". Last.fm. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  4. ^ "Crimes Legislation Amendment Bill 2010" (PDF). Australian Capital Territory Legislation Register. 2010. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2341789/Sweden-set-ban-bestiality-scrapping-legal-loophole-legal-animal-did-suffer.html
  6. ^ http://www.euronews.com/newswires/3009322-denmark-bans-bestiality-in-move-against-animal-sex-tourism/
  7. ^ a b Wisch, Rebecca F. (2013). "Table of State Animal Sexual Assault Laws". Michigan State University College of Law. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 
  8. ^ "Accidentally Decriminalized, Bestiality To Go Back On Books - Philly.com". Articles.philly.com. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  9. ^ "Iowa Animal Anti-Cruelty Statute". Animallaw.info. 2004-04-09. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  10. ^ Erickson, Kurt (July 27, 2002). "Ryan signs anti-bestiality legislation - The Pantagraph Bloomington". HighBeam Research. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Maryland Consolidated Cruelty Statutes". Animallaw.info. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  12. ^ Sullivan, Jennifer (2 March 2006). "Lawmakers vote to make bestiality illegal in this state". The Seattle Times. 
  13. ^ "Governor signs bill to ban bestiality - Tucson Citizen Morgue, Part 1 (2006-2009)". Tucsoncitizen.com. 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  14. ^ "Indiana Consolidated Cruelty Statutes". Animallaw.info. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  15. ^ "States considering laws against bestiality - OhMyGov News". Ohmygov.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  16. ^ Brown, Jennifer (April 17, 2007). "Bill adds bestiality to animal cruelty law". Denver Post. 
  17. ^ Drake, Bruce. "Bill to Criminalize Bestiality Advances in Alaska Legislature". Politicsdaily.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  18. ^ "Anti-Bestiality Law Finally Passes In Florida « CBS Miami". Miami.cbslocal.com. 2011-05-05. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  19. ^ Cutteridge, Brian Anthony (2010). "For the Love of Dog: On the Legal Prohibition of Zoophilia in Canada and the United States" (PDF). inter-disciplinary.net. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  20. ^ Roberts, Michael (2009). "The Unjustified Prohibition against Bestiality: Why the Laws in Opposition Can Find No Support under the Harm Principle". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1328310. 
  21. ^ a b "Sexual Offences Act 2003, Section 69". HM Government. 2003. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  22. ^ The argument that "all sexual activity with animals is automatically abuse" was made for example, in 1) the 2004 case of State vs. Mitchell (Florida), 2) the 2004 Pony case in Utrecht, Holland (cited below), and 3) the 2006 Washington state law which asserts as its foundational premise that "animal cruelty in the first degree is committed when a person knowingly engages in sexual conduct or sexual contact with an animal." SB-6417 2006
  23. ^ "Man Charged With Sexually Abusing Animals". WBNS-10TV. June 16, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  24. ^ "The Animal In You". The Stranger. February–March 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-30. 
  25. ^ "Man charged with having intercourse with his Guide Dog". Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. 
  26. ^ "Section 828.126, Florida Statutes". The Florida Senate. 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  27. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2009). Forensic and Medico-legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-4308-2. 
  28. ^ Ref: Halsbury's Laws of Australia #9 page 247662: Criminal offence: New South Wales (Crimes Act 1900 s79, not more than 14 years imprisonment), Northern Territory (Criminal Code s138, not more than 3 years imprisonment), Queensland (Criminal Code s211: "carnal knowledge of an animal", not more than 7 years imprisonment), South Australia (Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s69, "buggery with an animal", not more than 10 years imprisonment), Tasmania (Criminal Code s122(b), not more than 21 years imprisonment), Victoria (Crimes Act 1958 s59, not more than 5 years imprisonment), Western Australia (Criminal Code s181: "carnal knowledge of an animal", not more than 7 years imprisonment), Australian Capital Territory (Crimes Act 1900, s63A inserted in 2011, "Bestiality", not more than 10 years imprisonment).
  29. ^ "Legislation relating to pornography in Australia". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  30. ^ "Lois, Decrets, Ordonnances Et Reglements / Wetten, Decreten, Ordonnanties En Verordeningen". Moniteur Belge / Belgisch Staatsblad (in French): 38259–38260. 13 July 2007.  /(Dutch)
  31. ^ "Revista Época - Sexo com animais: por que fingir que isso não existe? - notícias em Saúde e bem-estar". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  32. ^ a b Ecce Bestia: Vice with Animals (Portuguese)
  33. ^ "Cadernos Pagu - Sex with animals as an extreme practice in bizarre porn". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  34. ^ "Criminal Code, Section 160". Canadian Dept. of Justice. 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Flertal for lovændring: Nu bliver sex med dyr ulovligt". Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  36. ^ "Ecuador". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  37. ^ Criminal Code of Ethiopia 2004 - Article 633.- Sexual Intercourse with an Animal.
  38. ^ Kilpinen, Pekka (2001). "Järjettömäin luondocappalden canssa". University of Helsinki (in Finnish). Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  39. ^ "FINLEX ® - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö: 19.12.1889/39". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  40. ^ [French Penal Code - Chapter one: Serious abuse or acts of cruelty animals. - Article 521-1]
  41. ^ Cottrell, Chris (February 1, 2013). "German Legislators Vote to Outlaw Bestiality". The New York Times (New York: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 13, 2014. 
  42. ^ "184a StGB Verbreitung gewalt- oder tierpornographischer Schriften - dejure.org". dejure.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  43. ^ "GhanaLegal.com : Welcome - GhanaLegal - Resources for the legal brains". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  44. ^ "Cap 200 s 118L Bestiality (CRIMES ORDINANCE)". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  45. ^ "Petition · EU: ban bestiality · Change.org". Change.org. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  46. ^ Criminal Law in Ireland. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  47. ^ "Section 377 in The Indian Penal Code". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  48. ^ e. Vaty-e heyvanat va Mayet-e-insan (bestiality and necrophilia), four offenses
  49. ^ Buggery with an animal - 377.
  50. ^ Namibia: Rehoboth Man Arrested for Bestiality
  51. ^ "wetten.nl - Wet- en regelgeving - Wetboek van Strafrecht - BWBR0001854". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  52. ^ "wetten.nl - Wet- en regelgeving - Wetboek van Strafrecht - BWBR0001854" (in Dutch). Wetten.overheid.nl. 2012-12-24. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  53. ^ "Crimes Act 1961". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  54. ^ "Crimes Act 1961". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  55. ^ "New Animal Welfare Act". regjeringen.no. 15 May 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  56. ^ "LiveLeak.com - catholic filipino charged for raping dog he also loves pigs too". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  57. ^ "Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych". Isap.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  58. ^ Polish Penal Code, Article 202, Section 3.
  59. ^ "History of Zoophilia and The Law". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  60. ^ Bestiality and Zoophilia. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  61. ^ "Legea nr. 196 din 13 mai 2003 privind prevenirea si combaterea pornografiei". Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  62. ^ "Legea nr. 196 din 13 mai 2003 privind prevenirea si combaterea pornografiei". Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  63. ^ "Singapore Statutes Online - 224 - Penal Code". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  64. ^ Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007, s. 13.
  65. ^ Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996 s. 24A(2) read with s. 18(3)(b)(ii).
  66. ^ "Sweden Joins An Increasing Number Of European Countries That Ban Bestiality". WebProNews. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  67. ^ Bundeskanzlei - A. "SR 455.1 Tierschutzverordnung vom 23. April 2008 (TSchV)". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  68. ^ See FJ 2000 p. 2981.
  69. ^ May 2004 Update from the Land of Randy Pandas
  70. ^ "Mayaro labourer on bestiality charge". The Trinidad Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  71. ^ Extreme porn law used on beastly Chinese DVD pirates
  72. ^ "ILGA Africa 2000 Report". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  73. ^ "The Flummery Digest". Archived from the original on 2006-11-18. 
  74. ^ "Africa | Sudan man forced to 'marry' goat". BBC News. 2006-02-24. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  75. ^ Haines, Lester (22 March 2007). "Sex with dead deer is illegal, US man finds". The Register. 
  76. ^ Rabiner, Stephanie (2012-04-06). "Dog Molester Won't Have to Register as Sex Offender - Legally Weird". Blogs.findlaw.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  77. ^ "100494 - State v. Coman - Greene - Kansas Court of Appeals". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2013-10-13. 
  78. ^ "Vancouver man faces bestiality charge". CBC News. 26 February 2012. 
  79. ^ "Pair plead guilty in Craigslist bestiality case". CBS 5. 28 June 2012.