Zou language

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Zou
Zo, Zomi
Native toBurma, India
RegionIn Burma: Chin State, Tiddim, Chin Hills;
In India: Manipur, Chandel, Singngat subdivision and Sungnu area; Churachandpur districts; Assam.
EthnicityZou
Native speakers
187,500[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3zom
Glottologzouu1235[3]

Zou or Zokam (literally "of the hills"), or Zo, Zomi, Yo, Yaw, or Jo, is a Northern Kuki-Chin language[2] originating in northwestern Burma and spoken also in Manipur in northeastern India, where the name is spelled Zo.

The name Zou is sometimes used as a cover term for the languages of all Kukish and Chin peoples, especially the Zo people.

The term 'Zo' has been employed in many books to denote the word 'Zou', for simple reason of phonetic usage.

The Zou themselves employ the various terms Zo, Zou, and Zomi to mean their tribe.[4]

Phonology of Zou Language[edit]

The set of 22 Zou consonantal phonemes can be established on the basis of the following minimal pairs or overlapping words. Besides these 22 Phonemes, 1 consonant is a borrowed phoneme (i.e. /r/), which is found only in loan words, in very rare cases (e.g. /r/ in /rəŋ/ "color"). Along with these consonants, Zou has 7 vowels: i, e, a, ɔ, o, u, ə.[5]

Consonant Phonemes
Plosives(stops) Bilabial labiodental alveolar palatal velar glottal
Unaspirated p b t d c j k g ?
Aspirated ph th kh
Fricatives v s h
Affricate
Nasals m n ŋ
l approximant v l
Approximants w y
Vowels
unrounded rounded
Open back i u
Close-mid back e o  ɔ
Mid back (ə)

Types of Zo verbs[edit]

The Zo verbs can be classified into three types: Stem (1), Stem (2), Stem (3) as given below:[6]

Types of Zo Verbs
Stem 1 Stem 2 Stem 3 Stem 4
piê-give pie? po- pia
puo-carry puo? po- pua-

Tone[edit]

According to David Mortensen (2003) a syllable, in isolation, displays the Lexical Tone. Abramson (1979) states that the citation form of a monosyllabic word may be viewed as bearing the ideal manifestation of a tone. According to Matisoff (1999, p. 88), “Sinospheric TB languages tend to be more strictly monosyllabic than others.” Tone-bearing units (TBU) is the morphological unit in which only a single tone specification is found in the pronounced form (Mazaudon, 1977). TBU is the phonological unit which receives a tonal pitch command (Yip, 2002; Gussenhoven, 2004).

Zo is monosyllabic, partially agglutinating tone language. The Zo tones are treated as Suprasegmental features in this study. Like many tone languages, the Tone Bearing Unit (Goldsmith, 1990, p. 44) is the “syllable” in Zo, whose tonal rhymes consist of i) Short/lax and Long/tense vowel quality ii) Glides (diphthongs, triphthongs) which are realized as Rising(H), Mid(M) and, Falling(L) and Low tones in isolation respectively. In terms of lexical phonology, the basic tonemes or underlying tones or lexical tones or inherent tonemes either have Lax (short vowel, monophthong) or Tense vowel (diphthong, triphthong) within them as the nucleus depending upon the syntactic constructions with respect to other tonemes in phrasal phonological environments in which they occur as in morphonotonemic processes.

Sample text[edit]

The following is a sample text in Zou.

Zou English
Maw na sung ma naw in, amaw sa pi ma in leimi in i piang a, a khawh ma ma - gam lua a i lua suhsuh ih mawnate ma ei bawl in eima pumpi ei man muda maithei, Ih mawnate -eeng taang gol lua a hi man in khat veivei eima mawnate eimon maisah zolo maithei va-ia kim lai, tuate lip khap sih saang a pamai eisa, ei khua tua ngeet-nguut ngeng ngong man a ih dial dual liang luang mawna nei van nuai ei mai sah thop valong, abieh huai tapo ma Jehova ki chi Pasian khat a na om ngang tangh hi. As we are born in sin, we cannot even love ourselves and there is no knowledge about what is forgiveness, because of the enormous sins inherited in us. Eventhough we are in this situation, in spite of our enormous sins the one who has mercy, sympathises us and forgives us our sins is the God called Jehovah.

There are four major dialects of Zou in Myanmar and India ;Haidawi, Khuongnung, Thangkhal, and Khodai.

Numbers[edit]

Zo numbers are counted as follows: [7]
Zou English Hindi
Bem Zero Sunna
Khat One Ek
Ni Two Do
Thum Three Tin
Li Four Char
Nga Five Panch
Guh Six Chhe
Sagi Seven Sat
Giet Eight Ath
Kuo Nine Naw
Sawm Ten Das
Sawmlehkhat Eleven Gyarah
Sawmlehkuo Nineteen Unnis
Sawmni Twenty Bis
Sawmthum Thirty Tis
Sawmkuo Ninety Nabbe
Za Hundred Ek Saw
Zanga Five hundred
Tul(khat) One thousand Hazar
Tulsawm Ten thousand Das Hazar
Tulza Hundred thousand/One lakh Lakh
Then Million Das Lakh
Thensawm Ten million
Thenza Hundred million
Awn Billion
Awn sawm Ten billion
Awn za Hundred billion

Writing systems[edit]

Zou is often written in a Latin script developed by Christian missionary J.H. Cope. In 1952, M. Siahzathang of Churachandpur created an alternative script known as Zolai or Zoulai, an alphabetic system with some alphasyllabic characteristics. The user community for the script is growing- Zou cultural, political, and literary organizations began to adopt the script beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, the Manipur State Government has shown support for both Siahzathang and the script. [8][9]

Linguistic relations[edit]

As can be seen from the name Zo ("of the hills") and Mizoram ("people hill country"), Zo among the Northern Kukish languages is closely related to the Central Kukish languages such as the Lushai or Mizo language (endonym in Lushai is Mizo ṭawng), the main language of Mizoram.

Zou as spoken in India is similar to the Paite language of the Paite, though Zou does not have the guttural stop W.[10][11]

Geographical extent[edit]

At its largest extent, the geographic area covered by the language group is a territory of approximately 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) in size, in Burma, India and Bangladesh.[12] However political boundaries and political debates have distorted the extent of the area in some sources.[13]

In Burma[edit]

It is used in Chin State, Tiddim, and the Chin Hills. Use of Burmese has increased in the Zo speaking Chin State since the 1950s.[14] Ethnologue reports that Zou is spoken in the following townships of Myanmar.

In India[edit]

In Bangladesh[edit]

In Bangladesh it is used by the Bom people.[16][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Zou at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ a b Haokip, Pauthang (2011). Socio-linguistic Situation in North-east India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 55. ISBN 978-8180697609.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zou". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2019). "Zo". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (22nd ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
  5. ^ Singh, Yashawanta; Himmat, Lukram (February 2013). "Zou Phonology" (PDF). Language in India. 13 (2): 683–701.
  6. ^ Philip Thanglienmang Tungdim (2012). "A Descriptive Grammar of the Zo Language". Academia. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  7. ^ Philip Thanglienmang Tungdim (2011). "Zo-English-Hindi Kizilna Laibu Selftutor 2011". Academia. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  8. ^ Pandey, Anshuman (29 September 2010). "Introducing the Zou Script" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  9. ^ Ian James; Mattias Persson (March 2012). "Script for Zou". skyknowledge.com. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  10. ^ Bareh, Hamlet (2001). "Zou". Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Manipu. Mittal. pp. 260ff. ISBN 978-81-7099-790-0. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
  11. ^ Their language is called Zou which is similar to the language spoken by the Paite. Unlike the Zou, the Paite possess the terminal glottal stop 'h'. For example, a word for 'good' is hoih in Paite while it changes into hoi in the Zou language. Sannemla (Zou folksongs) are also popular among the Paite, although they are rendered in their individual dialect bearing the characteristic phonetic differences. Singh, Kumar Suresh; Horam, M. & Rizvi, S. H. M. (1998). People of India: Manipur. Anthropological Survey of India by Seagull Books. p. 253. ISBN 978-81-7154-769-2.
  12. ^ Encyclopaedia of South-Asian tribes - Volume 8 - Page 3436 Satinder Kumar - 2000 "According to the 1981 census, 12,515 persons speak the Zou language"
  13. ^ Gopalakrishnan, Ramamoorthy (1996). Socio-political framework in North-East India. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. p. 150. OCLC 34850808. But against the background of all such conflict the Zomi National Congress went a step further in its argument for a Zomi identity by claiming Thado language as Zomi language. In the Kuki-Chin group of tribes, numerical strength has played ...
  14. ^ Nang Khen Khup (2007). Evaluating the Impact of Family Devotions Upon Selected Families from the Zomi Christian Community of Tulsa (Thesis). Oral Roberts University. p. 7. OCLC 645086982. The Zomi language is descended from the Tibeto-Burman language domain. Though each tribal group speaks its own dialect, Burmese is widely used in Zoland (Chinland) due to Burmanization of military regime for over five decades
  15. ^ Shyamkishor, Ayangbam. "In Search of Common Identity: A Study of Chin-Kuki-Mizo Community in India" (PDF). International Journal of South Asian Studies: A Biannual Journal of South Asian Studies. 3 (1): 131–140. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  16. ^ Loncheu, Nathan (2013). Dena, Lal (ed.). Bawmzos: A Study Of The Chin-Kuki-Zo Tribes Of Chittagong. New Delhi: Akansha Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-8370-346-8.
  17. ^ Reichle, Verena (1981). Bawm language and lore: Tibeto-Burman area. Europäische Hochschulschriften series 21, Linguistik: volume 14. Bern, Switzerland: P. Lang. ISBN 978-3-261-04935-3.

Further reading[edit]

  • DeLancey, Scott (1987). "Part VIII: Sino-Tibetan languages". In Comrie, Bernard (ed.). The World's Major Languages. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 797–810. ISBN 978-0-19-520521-3.
  • Thang, Khoi Lam (2001). A phonological reconstruction of Proto-Chin. Payap University Masters thesis. Chiang Mai: Payap University.
  • Button, Christopher Thomas James (2009). A Reconstruction of Proto Northern Chin in Old Burmese and Old Chinese Perspective. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Ph.D. dissertation. London: University of London.
  • Button, Christopher Thomas James (2011). Proto Northern Chin. (STEDT monograph number 10). Berkeley, California: Department of Linguistics, University of California Berkeley. ISBN 978-0-944613-49-8.

External links[edit]