Zubr class LCAC
|Builders:||Feodosia Shipbuilding Company, Crimea|
People's Liberation Army Navy
|Type:||Air-cushioned landing craft|
|Displacement:||340 tons (light)
415 tons (normal)
555 tons (full load)
|Length:||57 m (187 ft)|
|Beam:||25.6 m (84 ft)|
|Draught:||1.6 m (5.2 ft)|
|Propulsion:||5 Kuznetsov NK-12MV gas turbines;
2 for lift, 3 for propulsion; 5 x 11,836 horsepower
Propellers: 3 four-bladed variable-pitch propellers
55 knots if sustained 
|Range:||300 mi (480 km) at 55 knots|
|Complement:||31 (4 officers, 27 enlisted)|
|Ekran-1 navigational radar, Lazur radar (Pozitiv radar on MDK-51), R-782 Buran communications system|
|Electronic Countermeasures System: Decoys, MS-227 chaff launcher, MP-411 ESM radar system; intercept|
|Armament:||4 x Strela-3 man-portable air defence missile system launchers, plus 32 anti-personnel missiles; or 2 x Strela 2 quad launchers, manual aiming, infrared homing to 6 km (3.7 mi) at Mach 1.5, maximum altitude of 2,500 m (8,200 ft)
2 x 30 mm AK-630 close in weapon systems with 6,000 rounds each, maximum range of 2 km (1.2 mi)
2 x 140 mm Ogon launchers, 22 rockets each with 132 rockets in total; or 2 x 122 mm retractable rocket launchers
Mines (one set of removable equipment for laying from 20 to 80 mines, depending on their types)
The Zubr-class (Project 1232.2, NATO reporting name "Pomornik") is a class of air-cushioned landing craft (LCAC). This class of military hovercraft is, as of 2012, the world’s largest, with a standard full load displacement of 555 tons. The hovercraft is designed to sealift amphibious assault units (such as marines and tanks) from equipped/non-equipped vessels to non-equipped shores, as well as transport and plant naval mines.
There are currently seven Zubr-class hovercraft in active service worldwide with several pending delivery. There are two vessels in service with the Russian Navy, one in service with the Ukrainian Navy, and four with the Hellenic Navy. In 2009, China placed an order for four vessels from Ukraine as part of a deal worth 315 million USD. Two updated versions of the vessels will be built at Crimea's Feodosia Shipbuilding Company followed by two advanced models of the surface warship. In 2015, Greece agreed to sell their fleet of 2 Zubr-class hovercraft to China, with Kleftos Priapos, spokesperson for the Hellenic Navy, stating about the deal "...the Zubrs were all constructed in either Russia or Ukraine, the sale of these hovercraft does not violate any current NATO rules against arms transfers to China".
High strength and buoyancy is provided by a rectangular pontoon, the main load-carrying part of the ship's hull. The superstructure built on the pontoon is divided into three compartments with two longitudinal bulkheads: combat material compartment in the midsection fitted with tank ramps, and outboard sections housing main and auxiliary propulsion units, troop compartments, living quarters, and NBC protection systems. To improve working conditions in the battle stations, troop compartments and living quarters are fitted with air-conditioning and heating-systems, sound/heat-insulating coatings, and structures made of vibration damping materials. The ship provides normal conditions for the crew to make meals and rest.
Personnel are protected against the effects of weapons of mass destruction by airtight sealing of combat stations, crew and troop compartments, augmented with individual gas masks and protection suits. The ship is also protected from magnetic influence mines with an active system to compensate for the magnetic fields generated by the ship and transported materials. The central command post and MS-227 device compartments are strengthened with alloy armor.
The Zubr-class landing craft has a cargo area of 400 square metres (4,300 sq ft) and a fuel capacity of 56 tons. It can carry three main battle tanks (up to 150 tonnes), or ten armoured vehicles with 140 troops (up to 131 tonnes), or 8 armoured personnel carriers of total mass up to 115 tonnes, or 8 amphibious tanks or up to 500 troops (with 360 troops in the cargo compartment).
At full displacement the ship is capable of negotiating up to 5-degree gradients on non-equipped shores and 1.6m-high vertical walls. The Zubr remains seaworthy in conditions up to Sea State 4. The vessel has a cruising speed of 30-40 knots.
Russian Navy (2)
- 770 Evgeny Kocheshkov (former MDK-118)
- 782 Mordovia (former MDK-94)
Ukrainian Navy (1)
- Artemivsk (former MDK-93, U 424)
Hellenic Navy (2 + 2)
- Kephalonia (L181)
- Kerkyra (L182) (currently in 'long term inactivity')
- Zakynthos (L183) (currently in 'long term inactivity')
- Ithaki (L180)
People's Liberation Army Navy (4: 2 delivered from Ukraine, 2 built in China
- Wertheim, The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems, 128
- Jane's Information Group, Jane's international defence review
- "Zubr Class (Pomornik) Air Cushioned Landing Craft, Russia". naval-technology.com. 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- Hellenic Navy (2008). "Hellenic Command Amphibious Forces: Ships". Hellenic Navy. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- "Ukraine crisis prompts hurried delivery of second Zubr LCAC to China". IHS Jane's. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- Want China Times web site (2014-12-04). "Greece agrees to sell Zubr-class landing craft to China". WantChinaTimes. Retrieved 2015-09-05.
- Hellenic Navy (2008). "Hellenic Command Amphibious Forces: Introduction". Hellenic Navy. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Kitov, Vladimir (2000-11-04). "Almaz launches NATO-bound craft". The Russia Journal. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Titova, Irina (2000-12-29). "City Shipyard Hovercraft Is 1st Delivery to NATO State". The St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Saunders, Stephen (RN) (2003). Jane's Fighting Ships 2003-2004. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2546-5.
- Jane's Information Group (2002). Jane's international defence review: IDR. Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
- Wertheim, Eric (2007). The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems (15, illustrated ed.). Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-955-2. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zubr class LCAC.|
- Vessel description (in Russian) on Youtube
- "Zubr Class (Pomornik) - Naval Technology". naval-technology.com. Retrieved 2014-05-31.
- (Greek) http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57%3Adad-istoriko&catid=74%3Adad&Itemid=226&lang=el
- (Greek) http://www.hellenicnavy.gr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=325&Itemid=315&lang=el
- (English) All Zubr class LCAC - Complete Ship List
- "Десантный корабль "Зубр" проект 12322". almaz.spb.ru. Retrieved 2014-05-31.