Zuccotti Park

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Zuccotti Park
Zuccotti Park Spring 2015.JPG
Location map United States Manhattan.png
Red pog.svg
Type Plaza
Location New York City, United States
Coordinates 40°42′34″N 74°00′41″W / 40.709385°N 74.011323°W / 40.709385; -74.011323Coordinates: 40°42′34″N 74°00′41″W / 40.709385°N 74.011323°W / 40.709385; -74.011323
Area 33,000 square feet (3,100 m2)
Created 1968 (1968)
Etymology Named after John E. Zuccotti, Brookfield Office Properties CEO
Operated by Brookfield Office Properties
Status Open all year

Zuccotti Park, formerly called Liberty Plaza Park, is a 33,000-square-foot (3,100 m2) publicly accessible park in Lower Manhattan, New York City, located in a privately owned public space (POPS) controlled by Brookfield Properties.[1][2][3] The park was created in 1968 by Pittsburgh-based United States Steel, after the property owners negotiated its creation with city officials. It was named Liberty Plaza Park because it was situated beside One Liberty Plaza, which was located between Broadway, Trinity Place, Liberty Street, and Cedar Street. The park's northwest corner is across the street from Four World Trade Center. It has been popular with local tourists and financial workers.

The park was heavily damaged in the September 11 attacks and subsequent recovery efforts of 2001. The plaza was later used as the site of several events commemorating the anniversary of the attacks. After renovations in 2006, the park was renamed by its current owners, Brookfield Office Properties, after company chairman John Zuccotti. In 2011, the plaza became the site of the Occupy Wall Street protest camp, during which activists occupied the plaza and used it as a staging ground for their protests throughout Financial District, Manhattan.



The site was the location of the first coffeehouse in colonial New York City, The King's Arms which opened under the ownership of Lieutenant John Hutchins in 1696. It stood on the west side of Broadway between Crown (now Liberty) Street and Little Queen (now Cedar) Street. [4] On November 5, 1773, summoned by the Sons of Liberty, a huge crowd assembled outside the coffee house to denounce the Tea Act, and agents of the East India Trading company who were handling cargoes of dutied tea. It was perhaps the first public demonstration in opposition to the Tea Act in the American colonies.[5]

The park, formerly called Liberty Plaza Park, was created in 1968 by Pittsburgh-based U.S. Steel in return for a height bonus for an adjacent building at the time of its construction. The U.S. Steel Building, which replaced the demolished Singer Building, is now known as One Liberty Plaza.[6][7] The park was one of the few open spaces with tables and seats in the Financial District. Located one block from the World Trade Center, it was covered with debris, and subsequently used as a staging area for the recovery efforts after the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.[8] As part of the Lower Manhattan rebuilding efforts, the park was regraded, trees were planted, and the tables and seating restored.[7]

On June 1, 2006, the park reopened after an $8 million renovation designed by Cooper, Robertson & Partners. It was renamed Zuccotti Park in honor of John E. Zuccotti, former City Planning Commission chairman and first deputy mayor under Abe Beame and now the chairman of Brookfield Properties,[9] which used private money to renovate the park. Currently, the park has a wide variety of trees, granite sidewalks, tables and seats, as well as lights built into the ground, which illuminate the area. With its proximity to Ground Zero, Zuccotti Park is a popular tourist destination. The World Trade Center cross, which was previously housed at St. Peter's Roman Catholic Church, was featured in a ceremony held in Zuccotti Park before it was moved to the 9/11 Memorial.[10] The park won the 2008 American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Regional and Urban Design and was featured in Architectural Record and International New Architecture magazines.[11]

Beginning on September 17, 2011, Zuccotti Park was occupied by protesters during Occupy Wall Street

Occupy Wall Street[edit]

On September 17, 2011, the Occupy Wall Street protest began using Zuccotti Park as a campground and staging area for their actions.[12] Some of the protesters displayed a placard welcoming visitors to "Liberty Park",[13] an informal return to a version of the park's original name. The organizers had originally planned to occupy One Chase Manhattan Plaza, but that plaza was closed.[14]

Because Zuccotti Park is not a publicly owned space, it is not subject to ordinary public park curfew. New York City Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly said on September 28, 2011, that the NYPD could not bar protesters from Zuccotti Park since it is a public plaza that is required to stay open 24 hours a day. "In building this plaza, there was an agreement it be open 24 hours a day," Kelly said. "The owners have put out regulations [about what's allowed in park]. The owners will have to come in and direct people not to do certain things." A spokesperson for Brookfield Properties, the owner of the park, expressed concern: "Zuccotti Park is intended for the use and enjoyment of the general public for passive recreation. We are extremely concerned with the conditions that have been created by those currently occupying the park and are actively working with the City of New York to address these conditions and restore the park to its intended purpose."[15]

On October 6, 2011, it was reported that Brookfield Office Properties, which owns Zuccotti Park, had issued a statement which said, "Sanitation is a growing concern ... Normally the park is cleaned and inspected every weeknight... because the protestors refuse to cooperate ... the park has not been cleaned since Friday, September 16th and as a result, sanitary conditions have reached unacceptable levels."[16] To protect and clean the park, protesters volunteered to sweep the areas of the plaza and posted signs urging each other to avoid damaging the flower beds.[17] Starting at roughly 1 am local time on November 15, NYPD began clearing Zuccotti Park.[18][19] After a court order was released allowing them to return,[20] police refused to allow them back in. Later that day, the New York Supreme Court that issued the injunction ruled against allowing protesters to camp or sleep in Zuccotti Park.[21] At midnight on December 31, 2011, about 500 protesters clashed with police when they attempted to re-occupy the park. Within hours, there were 68 arrests.[22]

Steel barriers restricting access to the park were removed on January 10, 2012. On January 24, Occupy Wall Street protesters dropped their lawsuit against the city and Brookfield for the imposition of rules which prohibited their tents, generators, and other installations from the park. The rules restricting these items had been upheld in court and enforced in the park.[23][24]

Zuccotti Park is home to two sculptures, including Mark di Suvero's Joie de Vivre, seen here in the background
The park at night during the holiday season


The park is home to two sculptures: Joie de Vivre by Mark di Suvero and Double Check, a bronze businessman sitting on a bench, by John Seward Johnson II.[8][25][26][27]Joie de Vivre, a 70-foot-tall sculpture consisting of bright-red beams, was installed in Zuccotti Park in 2006, having been moved from its previous installation in the Storm King Art Center. Benjamin Genocchio, an Australian art critic, commented that the sculpture suited the location, "nicely echoing the skyscrapers around it."[28]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Lisa W. Foderaro (2011-11-13). "Privately Owned Park, Open to the Public, May Make Its Own Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  2. ^ "Privately Owned Public Space". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved 2011-11-11. 
  3. ^ nyc.gov Department of City Planning. "Privately Owned Public Space". Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  4. ^ Burrows and Wallace (1999), p.108
  5. ^ Burrows and Wallace (1999), p.214
  6. ^ Roberts, Sam (October 5, 2011). "A Public Servant Whose Name Is Now on Protesters' Lips". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Liberty Plaza Construction to Begin this Spring". Battery Park City Broadsheet. Jan 21, 2004. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b "Brookfield Properties Re-Opens Lower Manhattan Park Following $8 Million Renovation" (Press release). June 1, 2006. Retrieved October 5, 2011. 
  9. ^ Colford, Paul D. (June 2, 2006). "Park Honor for Ex-City Official". Daily News. New York. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  10. ^ "WTC Cross' is Installed in 9/11 Memorial Museum". July 23, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Zuccotti Park". Cooper, Robertson & Partners. Retrieved 16 March 2015. 
  12. ^ Moynihan, Colin (September 19, 2011). "Wall Street Protests Continue, With at Least 6 Arrested". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  13. ^ Moynihan, Colin (September 27, 2011). "Park Gives Wall St. Protesters a Place to Call Home". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  14. ^ Pepitone, Juliane (September 16, 2011). "Thousands of protesters to 'Occupy Wall Street' on Saturday". CNN. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  15. ^ Fractenberg, Ben (September 28, 2011). "Zuccotti Park Can't Be Closed to Wall Street Protesters, NYPD Says". DNA Info. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Protesters To Be 'Met With Force' If They Target Officers". CBS News. October 6, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Occupy Wall Street Protesters Leave Washington Square Park, Return To Zuccotti Park". Cbslocal.com. CBS Broadcasting Inc. October 8, 2011. 
  18. ^ Barron, James; Moynihan, Colin (November 14, 2011). "Police Begin Clearing Zuccotti Park of Protester". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Police move in to evict Occupy protesters from New York park". CNN. November 15, 2011. Retrieved November 15, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Order to Show Cause and Temporary Restraining Order". Retrieved November 19, 2011. 
  21. ^ "In the Matter of the Application of JENNIFER WALLER et al." (PDF). Retrieved November 19, 2011. 
  22. ^ "OWS Clash With Police At Zuccotti Park". Retrieved January 1, 2012. 
  23. ^ Moynihan, Colin (January 24, 2012). "Occupy Wall Street Drops Suit on Zuccotti Park". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2012. 
  24. ^ Crovitz, L Gordon (January 29, 2012). "Occupy AstroTurf. The 'movement' faded as soon as the tents were removed.". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Zuccotti Park Opens at Broadway and Liberty Street". Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. June 1, 2006. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Liberty Plaza Park Turns Over a New Leaf". Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. July 25, 2005. Retrieved July 1, 2010. 
  27. ^ Dunlap, David W. (June 1, 2006). "Back at His Bench Downtown, Having Survived 9/11". The New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2011. 
  28. ^ Genocchio, Benjamin (June 23, 2006). "Works of a Major Player In Macho Sculpture". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 


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