Zuffenhausen

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Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen
Stadtbezirk of Stuttgart
Church of Saint Paul
Church of Saint Paul
Coat of arms of Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen
Coat of arms
Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen  is located in Germany
Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen
Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen
Coordinates: 48°49′N 9°10′E / 48.817°N 9.167°E / 48.817; 9.167Coordinates: 48°49′N 9°10′E / 48.817°N 9.167°E / 48.817; 9.167
Country Germany
State Baden-Württemberg
Admin. region Stuttgart
District Urban district
City Stuttgart
Borough Stadtbezirk
Government
 • District Director Gerhard Hanus[1]
Area
 • Total 11.96 km2 (4.62 sq mi)
Population (2009/12/31)
 • Total 35,568
 • Density 3,000/km2 (7,700/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 70435, 70437, 70439
Dialling codes 0711
Vehicle registration S
Website www.stuttgart.de

Zuffenhausen is an urban district (Stadtbezirk) in the northern suburbs of Stuttgart, the capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It consists mainly of the formerly independent city of Zuffenhausen. The Zuffenhausen district has an area of 1,200 hectares (making it the third largest district in Stuttgart) and 35,568 inhabitants (2009). Zuffenhausen has been continuously inhabited in places for nearly 7500 years (likely because of its fertile soil and proximity to the River Necker). The name likely originated from the Alemanni words "Uffo" or "Offo" in the 7th Century. The oldest surviving mention of Zuffenhausen is by Pope Innocent III on 18 May 1204 when the town belonged to Bebenhausen Abbey. Zuffenhausen was proclaimed a city in 1907, but its income was badly affected by the Great Depression and so Zuffenhausen (and later Zazenhausen) agreed to being incorporated into Stuttgart on 1 April 1931. Notable subdistricts are the villages of Zazenhausen and Neuwirtshaus and the subdistrict of Rot (German: red), which was first built as a camp for German refugees in 1945.

Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen station is on the Franconia Railway and is served by lines S4, S5, S6 and S60 of the Stuttgart S-Bahn. The headquarters of Porsche and the Porsche Museum are located in Zuffenhausen. Stuttgart Neuwirtshaus (Porscheplatz) station is nearby and is served by lines S6 and S60.

Geography[edit]

View from the southeast (gardens on the lower slopes of Castle Wood Court) of the core area of the modern city district of Zuffenhausen. The towers of St. Paul (left) and St. John's Church in the "Old Patch" (right) are visible.

Geography, Topography and Geology[edit]

Geography and topography[edit]

Zuffenhausen's terrain, a river valley carved into existence by the Feuerbach river, has two distinct elevations: most of Zuffenhausen with an average of 255 metres (837 ft) and Zazenhausen at 252 metres (827 ft). To the north and northwest, the vast stretches of the Gäuplatte and its the "Long field" with their flat waves at a height of about 300 metres (980 ft) (327 metres (1,073 ft) at Neuwirtshaus) that makes up the eastern part of the Strohgäu, a rich farmland largely free of trees. To the south lies the Swabian Alps and the Schurwald behind them, and to the east is the Neckar and its fertile valley. In the area of Zuffenhausen itself there are irregular increases in elevation, of which Burgholzhof is the highest with 359 metres (1,178 ft) above sea level.

The topographical situation has also meant that Zuffenhausen has been a high-traffic area for most of its history. In the northern part of Stuttgart Bay, trade has run since time immemorial through an important north-south traffic artery through the Pragsattel, one of the most important transport hubs of Stuttgart today. The road ran as far west as Stammheim, which would bring Zuffenhausen into trouble repeatedly over its history. On August 29, 1797 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe drove on this road while on his third trip to Switzerland from Ludwigsburg.[2]

The system of settlements in the municipal area was determined both by the quality of the soil and proximity to the river as well as the ability to create settlements on the river and its tributaries that were relatively safe from flooding without being too far from the water while also being close to the trade routes.[3]

Geology[edit]

The geology of Zuffenhausen is, by the nature of a Cuesta landscape, determined in a topographically varied picture of the different layers of rock as they were deposited respectively in the 240-145 million years when the area was the bottom of a shallow tropical sea. This is particularly evident (thanks to quarries and fossil digs) at the bottom layer, which is made out of shells. Above that is Lettenkeuper Formation and the Gipskeuper Formation, which show that the area at that time was at sea level. The following formation is the Stuttgart Formation; sediment that originated from the Delta of an ancient river system that was located from Burgholzhof to Lemberg. The next layers above this are not to be expected in Zuffenhausen area due to the low elevation, and thus occur only (in very limited quantity) due to local faults. The higher layers of sediment are part of the Keuper Formation and Stubensandstein. Across Zuffenhausen runs a large fault line that originated 65 million years ago during the plate tectonics that formed the The Alps that forms part of the "Schwieberdinger-Zuffenhäuser-Cannstatter rejection." It has a step height of about 110 metres (360 ft), and mineral water rises from the fault in nearby Cannstatt. In the past, Zuffenhausen limestone quarries have alternately dug up Gipskeuper at about the same level, and gravel and even Stubensandstein in Neuwirtshaus to the west.[4]

Landscape, Flora, and Fauna[edit]

The troubled geological history with surface rocks of very different stability and solubility also the landforms make quite diverse.[5] The emergence of regional loess in this flat area with Brown and Black soil thanks to the ice age of the Pleistocene epoch were the optimal prerequisites for later agricultural use beginning in the Neolithic revolution, which began the Linear Pottery culture. However, despite the generous spread of fertility, some of Zuffenhausen is better suited for pastures than as farmland. In the succeeding Holocene epoch, the landscape changed from Tundra into a Forest landscape, the composition of which changed several times during the various climatic fluctuations of the last 10,000 years. With the beginning of the Linear Pottery culture in the mid 6th millennium and subsequent deforestation, the loess the forests left behind made the pastures and farmland so fertile that hunting only accounted for about 10% of the food consumed. Originally, when settled areas were rarer in the packed forest when Central Europe was covered in wooded pastures, logging and collection of fruits was economically indispensable, since pastures and meadows in our modern sense did not yet exist. But within decades the mighty forests of ancient Europe were thinned by intensive use, especially in areas with high amounts of loess, forever changing the composition of those regions. Although the native Linden and Elm trees have nearly gone extinct in the area of Zuffenhausen, there are still patches of that ancient forest left here. The forest, which has a total surface area of over 58 hectares (0.58 km2), is also called the "Hofkammerwald" (named after the man who once owned the land) and was taken over and operated by the City of Stuttgart as a community forest since 1968. The eastern part of the forest is the present city park, the northern section near Neuwirtshaus is now Schützenwies Forest, the westernmost part in Weilimdorf is now called the Maierwald.[6]

Also occurring during the Holocene period was the buildup of a floodplain thanks to the Feuerbach river at high tide, which created a deposit of fine material 8 metres (26 ft) deep that has earned the nickname "Alte Flecken" (German: Old Stains). In modern times, the entire water network is oriented on the Neckar, but the Feuerbach is still an important river with several tributary streams flowing into it from the west (and next to none from the east). The old town center, hardly affected by floods because of its location on the rising surface of the west bank, lies between the Schmerbach which once flowed between Böhringer and Colmar. A few creeks and streams would become streets in the city, such as the Hördtstraße / Bönnigheimer road and Beilsteiner street. The density of water network's bedrock depended on the presence of limestone because it caused numerous seepages resulting in the superficial outflow of columns of marl.

Since the 19th century, Man has also considerably changed the geographical features of Zuffenhausen; the development of railway lines and roads, excavated material to fill sinks and draining local ponds. Until very recently, the settlement of Zuffenhausen itself was confined to the valley created by the Feuerbach eons ago. The landscape changed during the massive expansion of settlements beyond the Feuerbach valley, especially during the second half of the 19th century to the west and after 1945 to the east, because of the creation of Impervious surfaces and the relocation of streams in unprecedented scale. The Second World War had profound changes on the landscape as well thanks to the veritable mountain of garbage and debris that had to be disposed of. Other miscellaneous changes to the landscape includes the filling in of a few old quarries and clay pits in the Feuerbach river valley, and an old stream and ditch that came down from Stammheim was flattened for an expansion to Zuffenhausen's cemetery.

The fauna and flora is quite diverse, even though the fauna has declined sharply due to impervious surfaces.[7] Birds, however, are less affected by the loss of habitat thanks to generously sized home gardens and forests in the west. There also are located are larger forest areas and different types of semi-arid grassland between the marginal fields and absent meadows used for farmland and orchards (still visible on the Coat of Arms of Zazenhausen) were the most important boon of Zuffenhausen's economy until 1907. Since the emergence of a concern for the conservation of natural habitats in 2003, nature reserves have been declared by local government as conservation areas. Since 1976-1979, most of the vineyards on the western slope of Feuerbach river in the region are fully operational.

Environmental protection, as a response to pollution from nearby heavy traffic (Nitrogen oxide and Particulates) and Forest damage, has been established.[8] Noise pollution in the area can be attributed mostly to Bundesautobahn 81 and the federal highways 10, 27, and 27a, and the Stuttgart S-Bahn and Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen. Measures have been made to improve the fell situation faced by the landscape of Zuffenhausen, such as Land restoration, the creation of Wildlife corridors, and the establishment of Green development plans.

History[edit]

See Also: Zazenhausen, Neuwirtshaus, Rot
A drawing of Zuffenhausen from the west upon the Underland road in one of Andreas Kieser's books in 1682. St. John's Church towers over 17th Century Zuffenhausen. The hill on the left is now the site of the Rotwegsiedlung. To the right is the site of modern Burgholzhof and road up to Schnarrenberg. The valley between the two hills is the Haldenrain. Parts of the western and northeastern perimeter of the Etters, namely fences and hedges, are visible.

Overview[edit]

Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen has been inhabited consistently for about 7500 years, and hunter gatherers (evidenced by the discovery of early tools typically made of mammoth bones at Travertine nearby Cannstatt and Ludwigsburg) such as Neanderthals and Homo Erectus, have stalked the rich and abundant wildlife present for roughly 300,000 years.

During the Middle Ages, Zuffenhausen was often mistakenly documented as "Offenhausen" and "Ottohausen" due to differences in Alemannic German and later German tongues. For most of its history, Zuffenhausen has served as valuable farmland for its occupiers. On April 23, 1907, during the reign of King William II of Württemberg, Zuffenhausen became a city and would later be incorporated into Stuttgart on March 31, 1931, following financial difficulties symptomatic of the Great Depression.[9] The convenient location of Zuffenhausen on the bank of the Neckar river led to a sharp incline in population in the Industrial Revolution, when the purely rural character of Zuffenhausen was phased out by Industralization.[9]

May 1, 1933 saw the final union of Zazenhausen, Neuwirtshaus, and Zuffenhausen in one district. Starting in 1949, Zuffenhausen became increasing important to Stuttgart as an industrial district, and the "Rotwegsiedlung" municipality was founded in the northern part of the district for use by the SS in 1938. In the redivision of Stuttgart into the current municipalities in 1956, all administration in Stuttgart was once again completely restructured.

Since January 1, 2001, during yet another administrative reorganization of the municipalities of Stuttgart, Zuffenhausen is endowed with 11 municipalities. Today, Zuffenhausen is still an important location for industry, both local and international, as Porsche is headquartered here.[9]

Prehistory and Early History[edit]

Flint knappers of the Mousterian culture of Neanderthal peoples. Similarly shaped mammoth bone pieces at Hofacker's Brickyard, suggesting an ancient battleground. (This particular image is a set of stones found in the Grotte du Noisetier (French: Hazel cave) in the French department of Hautes-Pyrénées)

The prehistoric finds made in Zuffenhausen district and surrounding areas (Lemburg, Burgholzhof, Stammheim, and Viesenhäuser Hof) are among some of the oldest and most diverse in the urban area of Stuttgart. Finds in Zuffenhausen date back to the Neolithic period, suggesting that the first true settlers of Zuffenhausen were drawn to the location because of its rich and fertile farmland. Settlements in the Stuttgart area as a whole were likely lively and hardly disturbed for this reason.

Paleolithic and Mesolithic Zuffenhausen[edit]

Paleolithic:[10] Numerous findings and excavations of paleolithic rest stops, especially on the higher locations in the Neckar river valley, suggest the usage of these locations as far back as the Middle Paleolithic (300,000 years ago) and that early peoples came through the region frequently. Tools and processed bones have been discovered at Travertinbrüchen in nearby Bad Cannstatt.[11][12]

The first finds made in Zuffenhausen itself are only from the Upper Paleolithic. In 1879, four Hand scrapers and pieces of Flint were discovered at Hofäcker brickyard with Mammoth bones. Whether they have a connection to the extinct Neanderthal peoples or other, once present early humans of Cro-Magnon origin is unknown, as scrapers tend not to differ from culture group to culture group. At this time, Europe's landscape was glacial tundra, where ancient hunter gatherer societies were enticed by the large herds of Mammoths, Reindeer, and Wild horses that migrated around ancient Stuttgart.

Mesolithic:[13] Initially, the people living here during the Mesolithic era were nomadic. Several tool storage bins dating back to the Mesolithic period have been discovered in the Stuttgart area, primarily in Bad Cannstatt and Burgholzhof in the Zuffenhausen district, that contained microliths that are characteristic to the Mesolithic era.

Neolithic Zuffenhausen[edit]

Early Neolithic (Linear Pottery):[14] The primary discoveries dating back to this period include the remains of a settlement with its usual banded ceramics in the northern and eastern areas of the district. Such settlements developed there at the southern edge of the Long Field, where good amounts of loess were available. Since crop rotation was a yet unknown practice, early settlements and their residents had to practice Shifting cultivation (as evidenced by the aforementioned ceramic bands) as the nutrients in the soil became depleted. Even with the practice of shifting cultivation, archeological evidence shows that dimensions of the fields and the settlements were too large. After about three years of use, the field would deplete and require decades to regain the lost fertility (longhouses typically would stand for about 30–50 years).[15][16] Due to the existence of such types of soils it is implied that there used to be a warmer climate and open wooded steppes during the Holocene period that were suitable for clearing and could be found in valleys. A few "Stool tombs" from this period have been discovered in hollow ditches, complete with grave goods. One of these graves contained one of the oldest examples of prepared food (legumes, toasted bread, hazelnuts and flaxseed), which was intended likely for provision in the afterlife journey and allow conclusions regarding their religious ideas which probably included ancestor worship. They cultivated einkorn, emmer and wheat, but only after the cutting down and incineration of nearby mixed oak forests by early settlements in need of new lands for crops.

As is common knowledge, the Neolithic Revolution saw the birth of civilization and true human settlement and Zuffenhausen was no different. As the longhouses on the various farmsteads that would soon become small farming villages began to stand at a length of about 40 feet (12 m), man began to keeping domesticated Sheep, Pigs, and Goats. The remains of several of these early sites have been discovered in the Zuffenhausen area from many different phases of the Early Neolithic period. The largest of these sites, located in Rot, yielded many individual finds of flint tools (blades, scrapers, axes, Quern-stones) and even inkstones and ceramics. The large amount of flint tools, blades in particular, suggests that the production of the tools using techniques such as stone grinding had become traditional. Such findings are spread across the region between Neuwirtshaus, Friedrichswahl, Zazenhausen and Rot and even beyond the Feuerbach river valley. The site of the old town center was an unsuitable location for the longhouses of the Linear Pottery culture (usually about 20 metres (66 ft)-40 metres (130 ft) long, typically held up to 60 persons and their cattle) as it was a swampy floodplain (the average temperatures of the then climate were about 2-3 degrees higher than they are now), so they built their villages (typically a cluster of 10 or so buildings) at more elevated locations that still had a decent amount of loess.[17][18] Another notable series of local discoveries are the about 200 tombs belonging to the Bandkeramik peoples in the 6th millennium BC have been unearthed. These findings, when combined with the roughly 4000 traces of prehistoric settlement like Hallstatt houses would indicate that this area was a favorite haunt of early civilization.[19]

Middle Neolithic:[20] Starting at the end of the 6th Millennium BC, the decoration on the pottery changed, stone axes began to actually pierce the handle or were hammered on instead of the usage of a splice. The dead were no longer buried in fetal position but instead lying on their backs as is the modern custom. In Southern Germany, the Mesolithic cultures at that point present were replaced by the Hinkelstein culture, the Großgartacher culture, the Planig-Friedberg culture, and the Rössen culture. These groups made little to no record of their existence in Zuffenhausen; the site of a village belonging to the Großgartach culture was discovered in the district.[21]

As the Neolithic Age began in earnest, the Schwieberdinger culture that had developed in the 5th Millennium BC and spread over much of Western Germany died out and was replaced by the Schussenrieder culture.[20]

Late Neolithic, Chalcolithic:[22] Though it is only slightly evident in Zuffenhausen, the usage and creation of copper tools by the Goldberg III culture had become apparent by the mid-4th Millennium BC, and vice versa with the Wheel and the Horgen culture. The Beaker culture, another Mid-4th Millennium group of early Europeans, left behind multiple examples of their pottery in a region stretching from Zuffenhausen to Kornwestheim. Included in these discoveries are their flat graves and trinkets. Other notable early Bronze Age items left in the Zuffenhausen area are various potteries left behind by the Corded ware culture.

Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)

Anatolia, Caucasus, Elam, Egypt, Levant, Mesopotamia, Sistan, Canaan
Bronze Age collapse

South Asia (c. 3000– 1200 BC)

Ochre Coloured Pottery
Cemetery H

Europe (c. 3200–600 BC)

Aegean, Caucasus, Catacomb culture, Srubna culture, Beaker culture, Unetice culture, Tumulus culture, Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, Apennine culture, Canegrate culture, Golasecca culture,
Atlantic Bronze Age, Bronze Age Britain, Nordic Bronze Age

China (c. 2000–700 BC)

Erlitou, Erligang

arsenical bronze
writing, literature
sword, chariot

Iron Age

Bronze Age Zuffenhausen[edit]

Next to no barrows from the Bronze Age can be found in the area of Zuffenhausen, even though barrows from the Hallstatt peoples and other cultures from later times are present. However, in nearby Ludwigsburg and Weilimdorf, bronze age barrows do exist, but they are of considerable size, due to smaller tombs usually being destroyed by hapless farmers.

Bodies belonging to the Urnfield people, found in a trench under Friedrichshaller Street in Zuffenhausen itself and Neuwirtshaus with ceramics and bronze brooches and Rainbow cups, are some of the only demonstrable pieces of evidence for the settlement of Zuffenhausen during the bronze age.[23] The aforementioned Hallstatt culture houses are yet another assurance that people lived in Zuffenhausen and enjoyed its fertile soils.

Pre-Roman Iron Age Zuffenhausen[edit]

Inside the city district of Zuffenhausen, six hills inside Schelmenwasen (the city park) have been identified as grave mounds. They stand at about 0.3 to 2 meters, or one to six feet above ground and have a diameter of 15 to 33 meters, or 49 to 108 feet. Unfortunately, when the mounds were opened, they only wielded bones and a few minor trinkets. Outside the city, another nine burial mounds have been identified. Waste pits and a storage cellar located in the Hallstatt settlements seem to suggest a relationship between earlier Bronze Age folk and the Iron Age ones that came after. Similarly underground, there are other such grave findings in Rot and Neuwirtshaus with a base ring made of bronze. By far the largest discovery in the area is a massive Iron Age earthwork made up of walls that contained about 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft) of space.

La Tène:[24] In Zuffenhausen, two Celtic coins, minted in the Roman fashion, were unearthed in and near the La Tène settlement foundations at Elbelen/Wollinstraße, Nonnenäcker, Hummelbrunnental, Rot. Earlier La Tène ceramics have also been discovered in these foundations.

Roman Zuffenhausen[edit]

Plan of a Roman Villa rustica. About half a dozen examples of these structures have been discovered in and around Zuffenhausen. The farms attached to these villae often extended for a few more square kilometers.

The then sparsely inhabited land north of the Danube river and east of the Rhine river that Roman geographer Claudius Ptolemy called the "Helvetii Wastes" came under Roman administration in the late 1st Century AD. Gradually, border fortresses and the Rhaetian Limes as well as towns and cities for civilian inhabitance were established. As is proven by written sources, a Roman provincial culture emerged in Agri Decumates and Germania Superior with Mainz (Then known as Mogontiacum) serving as the region's capital and seat of the governor of the province. From 85 to 90 AD, one of the most important Roman forts north of the Alps was built in nearby Bad-Cannstatt and christened Altenburg (German: Old Castle). This fortress, now known as Castrum Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, spanned about 37,400 square metres (403,000 sq ft), held 500 horsemen, and had about 20 towers. Civilian estates (mostly Villa rustica), while being nowhere near as gigantic as the Castrum, were still numerous throughout the region and existed to supply the plebeian soldiers and patrician officers alike. In Baden-Württemberg alone, at least a thousand such estates are known to exist and the majority thereof in the fertile Neckar river valley around Zuffenhausen, Cannstatt, Ludwigsburg, and Heilbronn. With the Romans came horticulture, the vineyards that still blanket the hills around Stuttgart, the orchards, Roman roads, factory produced pottery (Terra sigillata), and culture of the Romans.[25] Overall, Roman archeological sites inside Stuttgart are extremely numerous.[19]

The area of Zuffenhausen contains numerous of these cultural testimonies, such as several estates spread across the south and southeastern parts of the river valley that made intensive use of the soil (regardless of its fertility), as the need for food was enormous and required an extensive road network. One of the main southwestern Roman roads in Germany, marked by Roman milestones, started at Mainz (Mogontiacum) and passed through Schwieberdingen, up the alps and finally to Heidenheim an der Brenz. Even 2,000 years later, this rectilinear route to Schwieberdingen is nearly identical to its modern counterpart. In Neuwirtshaus, a waystation where travelers could exchange their horses for fresh mounts existed on this highway.

By about 232/233 AD, Germanic peoples (the Alemanni especially) began to cause the destruction of the Empire from within and without. The cracks started showing in earnest when the Alemanni overran Agri Decumates in 260 and the wars of 353 to 378 AD (thus bringing Old High German into the region). Later, the Alemanni would also expand into Alsace before being conquered by Clovis and the Franks. As Roman central leadership slowly withered and died with the rest of the Empire, the Romans left the region to its own devices. When the Alemanni became the new masters of the region, they began to organize it into territories.[26]

Alemanni and Merovingian Zuffenhausen[edit]

Model of a Alemannic hamlet with individual farms (Pit and Post houses). As they may have existed in Zuffenhausen.

With the Romans left writing down one's history for a time, so what is known of Zuffenhausen's history during the Migration Period is known thanks to discovery and Archaeological excavation.

This period in the Alemanni era experienced a small explosion of places using the suffixes "-hausen" and "-hofen" that developed in the region (especially in the north: Zuffenhausen, Zazenhausen, Mühlhausen, Viesenhausen, Hofen). Toponyms with the ending "-hausen" are often characterized by names of settlements, like is presumably the case in Zazenhausen und Zuffenhausen (the "Z" in Zuffenhausen probably has its roots in a datival "zu"), or a specific feature of the place (for instance in Mühlhausen). The derivative was "Offo" or "Uffo" rather than "uffe," meaning that until about the 1150s AD, Zuffenhausen was still sometimes being referred to as "Offohausen," an annoyance for later historians. Without a doubt, the Alemanni period in Zuffenhusen's history was the most influential for the layout of the town and its municipalities.

Zuffenhausen Begins:[27] The plot of land that made up Zuffenhausen at the time was about 10 km and was determined by Burgholzhof (now part of Bad Cannstatt), the Lemberg and by such landmarks as abandoned Roman forts and old burial mounds. Initially, it is to be believed, the settlement was dominated by two estates - the first on the old Roman road near a large cemetery and the other on the site of a previous Pre-Roman settlement (likely built to protect a east-west river crossing) as marked by the existence of large Alemanni burial mounds with substantial goods. By the mid-7th Century, these two settlements were joined, creating Zuffenhausen as we know it. In the so-called "Expansion Phase" of 7th Century Frankish Merovingian Christendom, the organization and influence swelled with the growing population of Catholics living inside the Merovingian Empire. This Christianization also meant the end of placing burial goods with the dead - a boon for future archaeologists.

Middle Ages[edit]

Twin towns[edit]

Trivia[edit]

  • Zuffenhausen is also a kennel name used by UK Dobermann enthusiasts.[28]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gerhard Hanus Bio
  2. ^ von Goethe's Diary
  3. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 19. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  4. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. pp. 19–28. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  5. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. pp. 28–32. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  6. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. pp. 181–193. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  7. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. pp. 32–36. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  8. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 36. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  9. ^ a b c Official Site
  10. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 41. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  11. ^ Müller-Beck, Hansjürgen (1984). Prehistory of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag. pp. 252, 257–260. ISBN 3-8062-0217-6. 
  12. ^ Schukraft, Harald (1999). How Stuttgart Became What It Is: A Short Walk Through the City's History. Stuttgart: Silberburg Verlag. p. 12. ISBN 3-87407-222-3. 
  13. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 42. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  14. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. pp. 42–44. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  15. ^ Keefer, Erwin (1993). Stone Age. Collections of the Württemberg State Museum, Vol 1. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. pp. 90–107. ISBN 3-8062-1106-X. 
  16. ^ Müller-Beck, Hansjürgen (1984). Prehistory of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag. p. 464. ISBN 3-8062-0217-6. 
  17. ^ Keefer, Erwin (1993). Stone Age. Collections of the Württemberg State Museum, Vol 1. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. pp. 90, 106. ISBN 3-8062-1106-X. 
  18. ^ Hoffmann, Emil (1999). Encyclopedia of the Stone Age. Munich: Verlag CH Beck. p. 236. ISBN 3-406-42125-3. 
  19. ^ a b Schukraft, Harald (1999). How Stuttgart Became What It Is: A Short Walk Through the City's History. Stuttgart: Silberburg Verlag. p. 14. ISBN 3-87407-222-3. 
  20. ^ a b Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 45. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  21. ^ Keefer, Erwin (1993). Stone Age. Collections of the Württemberg State Museum, Vol 1. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. pp. 126–139, 145. ISBN 3-8062-1106-X. 
  22. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 46. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  23. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 47. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  24. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 48. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  25. ^ Waßner, Manfred (2003). A Short History of Baden-Württemberg (2 ed.). Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. p. 24. ISBN 3-8062-1665-7. 
  26. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 52. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  27. ^ Gühring, Albrecht (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. p. 55. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  28. ^ Archive: Dobermann

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bassler, Siegfried (1987). With Us For freedom. 100 Years of the SPD in Stuttgart. Stuttgart: Thienemanns Verlag. ISBN 3-522-62570-6. 
  • Bedürftig, Friedemann (1997). Glossary of the Third Reich (2 ed.). Munich: Piper. ISBN 3-492-22369-9. 
  • Benz, Wolfgang; Graml, Hermann; White, Hermann (2001). Encyclopedia of Nazism (4 ed.). Munich: dtv. ISBN 3-423-33007-4. 
  • Gühring, Albrecht; Matthias, Beer; Binder, Petra; Ehmer, Hermann; Friederich, Susanne; Gühring, Albrecht; Heinz, Reinhard; Juréwitz, Peter; Kull, Ulrich; Meyle, Wolfgang; Müller, Roland; Raberg, Frank; Rees, Werner (2004). Zuffenhausen. Village - Town - City District. Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen: Association For the Promotion of Home and Care Partnership and of Young and Old People. ISBN 3-00-013395-X. 
  • Müller-Beck, Hansjürgen (1984). Prehistory of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Konrad Theiss Verlag. pp. 252, 257–260. ISBN 3-8062-0217-6. </ref><ref>Schukraft, Harald (1999). How Stuttgart Became What It Is: A Short Walk Through the City's History. Stuttgart: Silberburg Verlag. ISBN 3-87407-222-3. 
  • Schukraft, Harald (1999). How Stuttgart Became What It Is: A Short Walk Through the City's History. Stuttgart: Silberburg Verlag. ISBN 3-87407-222-3. 
  • Keefer, Erwin (1993). Stone Age. Collections of the Württemberg State Museum, Vol 1. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. pp. 90–107. ISBN 3-8062-1106-X. 

External links[edit]