Zulfiqar Ali Khan
- This article is about the Pakistani air marshal, for the Indian politician and army officer see Zulfikar Ali Khan.
|Zulfiqar Ali Khan|
ACM Zulfiqar Ali Khan (1930–2005)
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States|
12 July 1989 – 15 September 1990
|President||Ghulam Ishaq Khan|
|Prime Minister||Benazir Bhutto|
|Preceded by||Jamsheed Marker|
|Succeeded by||Najmuddin Shaikh|
|Pakistan Ambassador to Switzerland|
|Chief of Air Staff|
16 April 1974 – 22 July 1978
|Preceded by||Air Mshl Zafar Chaudhry|
|Succeeded by||ACM Anwar Shamim|
December 10, 1930|
Lahore, Punjab, India
(Present-day Lahore, Punjab in Pakistan)
|Died||March 8, 2005
PAF Hospital Islamabad
|Cause of death||Cardiac arrest|
|Resting place||Military Cemetery in Islamabad|
|Citizenship||British India (1930–47)
|Spouse(s)||Begum Sajida Zulfiqar
(1965–2005; d. 2012 )
|Relations||Brig. Agha Ali Hassan
|Alma mater||PAF Academy
Air War College
|Service/branch||Pakistan Air Force|
|Years of service||1948–78|
|Rank||Air Chief Marshal (General)|
|Commands||COS AHQ Dhaka
Mushaf Air Force Base, Sargodha
Director-General Air Operations (DGAO)
|Battles/wars||Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Bangladesh Liberation War
He is noted as a first four-star rank air officer who commanded the Pakistan Air Force as its second Chief of Air Staff from 15 April 1974 to 22 July 1978.:199 Upon retirement, he served on the defence diplomatic assignment, first headed the diplomatic missions in the United States as an Pakistan Ambassador from 1989 until 1990.
Zulfikar Ali Khan was in Lahore, Punjab, British India, on 10 December 1930. His family was of the Punjabi-Pathan decent and attended a local school in Lahore where he did his matriculation.:100–103
From 1947, he attended the Military College Jhelum but joined the Pakistan Air Force in 1948 when he made a transfer to the Air Force Academy in Risalpur, NWFP in Pakistan. He gained commissioned in the Air Force as a F/O (2nd Lt.) and graduated from the Academy in 1950 in the class of 7th GD pilot course (GD(P) Course) on 21 December 1950. FL/Lt. (Captain) first command assignment was to No. 20 Squadron in 1956.:46
In 1960s, Sq. Ldr. (Major) Khan was educated at the Air War College where he gained a degree in staff course. In 1965, Sq. Ldr Zulfikar Ali Khan participated in the second war with India in 1965 where he commanded No. 9 Sq. Griffins against the Indian Air Force.:76–80 From 1966–68, Wg. Cdr Zulfiqar Ali Khan was posted in the Foreign ministry and briefly tenured as air attaché at the High Commission of Pakistan in New Delhi led by H.E. Arshad Hussain.:46
In 1968–71, he was promoted as Gp. Capt. (Col.) in the Air Force and was posted in East Pakistan where he was appointed as chief of staff of Air AHQ Dhaka under its AOC-in-C Air Cdre Inamul Haq.:101–102 He participated in liberation war that took place in East Pakistan, serving against the Indian Air Force.:101–102
He was taken war prisoner by the Indian Army after the Eastern Command was surrendered by its GOC-in-C Lieutenant-General A.A.K. Niazi.:103–104 In 1973, he was repatriation to Pakistan and was allowed to continue his military service and was promoted to a one-star rank, Air Commodore, and took over the Air Force Academy as its Commandant in 1973, but later posted as commandant of the Air War College for a short brief of time.:101–102
Chief of Air Staff
In 1974, Air Commodore (Brigadier) Zulfiqar Ali Khan was promoted as Air Vice Marshal (Major-General) in the Air Force, and was appointed as Deputy Chief of Air Staff of Aerial Planning (DCAS(P)) at the Air AHQ in Islamabad but was later posted as Director-General of Air Operations (DGAO).
On 14 April 1974, AVM (Maj.Gen.) Zulfiqar Ali Khan was surprisingly appointed second Chief of Air Staff to take over the command of the Air Force as an Air Marshal (Lieutenant-General).:199 The appointment was controversial since Air Marshal Zafar Chaudhry was dismissed from his service, and AM Khan had succeeded seven senior air marshals in the Air Force.:144
In 1975, he helped established the Northern Air Command based in PAF Base Kalabagh, oversaw the induction of MiG-15 as jet trainer, establishment of the Air Defence Command, and provided his support to rebuilt Mirage III aircraft at the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex.
On 1 January 1976, AM Khan was elevated and promoted to four-star rank, Air Chief Marshal (General), becoming the first four-star rank air force general in the Pakistan Air Force.:199 ACM Ali Khan was then made senior member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, and honored with the MI(M) for meritorious services.:144 During this same time, ACM Zulfikar Ali Khan helped establish the Combat Commanders School set up under Gp. Capt. (Col.) Cecil Chaudhry.
Over the issue of clandestine atomic bomb programme, ACM reportedly advised Prime Minister Bhutto against the acquisition of the aging A-7 and F-5 military aircraft in order to stop the work on the Reprocessing plant for plutonium development, noting that "atomic bomb programme should not for any reason be compromised."
On 5 July 1978, ACM Zulfikar Ali Khan was appointed Deputy CMLA alongside with naval chief Admiral Moh'd Sharif, army chief General Zia-ul-Haq, and Chairman joint chiefs General Muh'd Shariff after the military coup d'état against the civilian government led by Prime Minister Bhutto. On 2 July 1978, ACM Zulfiqar Ali Khan seek his retirement from the command of the air force, and handed over the command to newly appointed ACM Anwar Shamim.:190
Upon retirement, Zulfikar Ali Khan joined the Foreign Service and was appointed Pakistan Ambassador to Switzerland which he tenured from 1979 until 1981.:362 In 1989, he was appointed as chief investigator to lead investigations on possible military funding to political parties by the intelligence community.:contents:188
In 1989, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto appointed him as the Pakistan Ambassador to the United States and took over the charge shortly in Washington DC.:978 However, his tenureship was marked with controversy involving the continuation of atomic deterrence which he failed to cover-up in the United States. In 1990, he was removed from his post and returned the Pakistan after serving ambassador for only an year.
On 8 March 2005, Air Chief Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan died of cardiac arrest in Islamabad when hesuffered a heart attack at his residence and was taken to the PAF Hospital, but the doctors pronounced him dead. He was given a state funeral with full honours. Begum Sajida Zulifqar, wife of Air Chief Marshal Zulifqar Ali Khan, died on 30 September 2012 and her funeral prayers were attended by all former PAF Air Chiefs, politicians, bureaucrats, senior serving and retired military officials and a large number of people from all walks of life.
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- Bio of Air Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan
- PAF s' Chief of the Air Staffs
- Air Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan, Former chief of air staff, dies
|Chief of Air Staff
|Pakistan Ambassador to the United States