The population was reported at 7,891 inhabitants in the 2010 census. Almost all of the population lives in the reservation headquarters community of Zuni Pueblo, located near the reservation's center, or in nearby Black Rock, to its east.
Also on the main reservation are the Hawikuh Ruins. The ancient Zuni pueblo of Hawikuh was the largest of the Seven Cities of Cibola. It was established in the 13th century and abandoned in 1680. It was also the first pueblo seen by the Spanish explorers. The African scout Estevanico was the first non-Native to reach this area.
The Zuni Tribe is governed by an elected governor, lieutenant governor, and a six member Tribal Council with elections being held every four years. The governor is the administrative head of the Tribal Council, which is the final decision-making body on the reservation. The council oversees finances, business decisions, taxes and contracts.