June 5, 1921|
Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil
April 5, 1976 (aged 54)|
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
|Cause of death||Car crash (possibly murdered)|
|Spouse(s)||Norman Angel Jones|
Stuart Angel Jones|
Zuleika Angel Jones (June 5, 1921 – April 14, 1976), better known as Zuzu Angel, was a Brazilian-American fashion designer, who became famous for opposing the Brazilian military dictatorship after the forced disappearance of her son, Stuart. She was also the mother of journalist Hildegard Angel.
In 2014, the National Truth Commission created to gather and review information about crimes committed during the years of the CIA and U.S. government-backed Brazilian military dictatorship, a former agent of the military repression named Cláudio Antônio Guerra, confirmed the participation of agents of the security apparatus in the death of Angel.
Life and career
Zuzu Angel was born on June 5, 1921, in Curvelo, Brazil. While still a child, she moved to Belo Horizonte, later living in Bahia. Bahian culture and colors significantly influenced the style of Angel's creations. In 1947, she went to live in Rio de Janeiro, then Brazil's capital city.
In the 1950s, Angel began her work as a seamstress, usually making clothing for close relatives. At the start of the 1970s, she opened up a store in Ipanema, at the same time beginning to exhibit her clothes on American catwalks. In her fashion expositions, she always harnessed the joy and richness of the colours of Brazilian culture, making a name for herself in the fashion world of her time.
Angel married an American salesman, Norman Angel Jones, and on January 11, 1946, they had a son, Stuart.
Forced disappearance of Stuart Angel
Stuart Angel was an undergraduate student at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro's School of Economics when he joined the left-wing urban guerrilla group Revolutionary Movement 8th October (Movimento Revolucionário 8 de Outubro – MR-8). He was known by his fellow guerrillas by the codenames "Paulo" and "Henrique". He married fellow militant Sônia Maria Morais Angel Jones, who would later die in the custody of the military dictatorship's political police.
Stuart was arrested in the neighborhood of Grajaú, Rio de Janeiro, near Av. 28 de Setembro, around 9 a.m. on June 14, 1971, by officers of the Aeronautics Information Center (Centro de Informações da Aeronáutica – CISA). He was then taken under custody to CISA headquarters, where he was reportedly tortured. According to political prisoner Alex Polari, who claimed to have witnessed the incident, Stuart was then tied to the back of a jeep with his mouth glued to the vehicle's exhaust pipe and dragged through the courtyard of the Aeronautics headquarters, resulting in his death by asphyxiation and carbon monoxide poisoning. His body was never found.
Alex Polari wrote a letter to Zuzu Angel explaining the circumstances of her son's death. Based on Polari's letter and other evidence, Angel denounced the murder to Ted Kennedy, who revealed the case during a speech at the United States Senate. Angel also handed to then Secretary of State of the United States, Henry Kissinger, a letter she wrote herself, a translation of Polari's letter, and a copy of the twentieth volume of the book History of the Brazilian Republic by Hélio Silva, in which Stuart's death is discussed. According to Silva, among the reactions of the regime to the protests of the American-Brazilian community were the removal and subsequent retirement of Brigadier João Paulo Burnier, who Polari accused of being responsible for Stuart's death, and the dismissal of then Minister of Aeronautics, Márcio de Sousa Melo.
Zuzu Angel was killed in a car crash on April 14, 1976. The suddenness of her death raised suspicions of further government involvement; the case was investigated by the Comissão de Mortos e Desaparecidos Políticos (Commission on Political Deaths and Disappearances), under process number 237/96, who found many reasons to doubt the official version of events.
In 2014, the involvement of agents of the military repression regime in Brazil in her death was confirmed. A former agent named Cláudio Antônio Guerra, wrote the book Memories of a Dirty War, in which he details several crimes in which he participated and he also revealed details about historical events of that time, among them the Riocentro May Day Attack, the death of Zuzu Angel and others.
Cláudio Antônio Guerra, who was director of the Department of Political and Social Order, known as DOPS, a department notorious for the involvement in torture, extrajudicial kilings and forced disappearance, pointed out to the presence at the scene of the accident at the moment it occurred of army Colonel Freddie Perdigão, a repression agent and known torturer. In a photo taken at the scene of the accident that killed the stylist, Freddie Perdigão is seen standing close to the car as if a passer-by. The photo had been taken on April 14, 1976 and was published by the press on the day of disaster but Perdigão had not been identified in the photo until Guerra identified him to the members of the Commission.
Homages and cultural references
Stuart Angel is the patron of Juventude Revolucionária 8 de Outubro, MR-8's youth branch. MR-8 is now a faction of the Brazilian Democratic Movement.
Stuart's probable death by asphyxiation and carbon monoxide poisoning was referred in the lyrics of the song "Cálice", written by Chico Buarque and Gilberto Gil. In homage to Zuzu Angel, and other mothers who were unable to bury their children, Buarque wrote the song "Angélica" in 1977.
In 2006, the events surrounding Stuart's death were dramatised in the film Zuzu Angel, directed by Sérgio Rezende. The movie, in which Daniel de Oliveira plays Stuart, is about Zuzu's struggle to find out the truth of her son's death.
In 2006, a film based on Zuzu Angel's life was released in Brazil. The title character was played by Patrícia Pillar.
In 2015, Angel was commemorated on her 94th birthday with a Google Doodle featuring a motif adapted from the prints she used in her designs.
- "Zuzu Angel" (in Portuguese). UOL Educação. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- pragmatismopolitico.com.br: Is the man who killed nearly 100 during the military dictatorship sorry? (in portugues-O homem que matou quase 100 na ditadura militar está arrependido?), accessdate: 5/8/2015
- "Ex-delegado diz que transportou 13 corpos para incineração na ditadura - O Globo" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2015-06-04.
- "Stuart Edgar Angel Jones" Archived January 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. (in Portuguese). Tortura Nunca Mais. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Stuart Edgar Angel Jones" (in Portuguese). Eremias Delizoicov. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Notorious Graduates from Brazil". School of the Americas Watch. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- "Direito à Memória e à Verdade" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Secretaria Especial de Direitos Humanos da Presidência da República. 2007: 414–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 5, 2007.
- Jornal O Globo: Truth Commission says photo proof of military involvement in the death of Zuzu Angel (in portugues-Comissão da Verdade diz que foto comprova envolvimento de militares na morte de Zuzu Angel) - Jornal O Globo, accessdate: 5/8/2015
- "'Bebida amarga' não era metáfora em 'Cálice'" (in Portuguese). Futepoca. January 29, 2010.
- Leite, Paulo Moreira.""Zuzu Angel até parece novela mas é um bom filme"". Archived from the original on June 14, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2013. (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo. August 17, 2006. Archived from the original Archived June 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. on June 14, 2007.
-  Google Doodle, June 5, 2015.