Zvornik

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Zvornik

Зворник
Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Coat of arms of Zvornik
Coat of arms
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
Coordinates: 44°23′3″N 19°6′9″E / 44.38417°N 19.10250°E / 44.38417; 19.10250
Country Bosnia and Herzegovina
Entity Republika Srpska
City statusDecember 2015
Government
 • MayorZoran Stevanović (SNSD)
 • City376.14 km2 (145.23 sq mi)
Elevation
146 m (479 ft)
Population
(2013 census)
 • Urban
12,674
 • City
58,856
 • City density160/km2 (410/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Area code(s)56
Websitewww.opstina-zvornik.org

Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in entity of Republika Srpska, on the left bank of the Drina river. As of 2013, it has a population of 58,856 inhabitants.

The town of Mali Zvornik ("little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia. Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, is home to a Middle Age fort, Zvornik fortress, built in the 12th century.

History[edit]

Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the early 7th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.

Ottoman rule[edit]

During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides the sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač).[1] In 1806, Zvornik was home to Mehmed-beg Kulenović.[citation needed]

World War II[edit]

Ustasha troops of the fascist Independent State of Croatia occupied Zvornik, along with most of Bosnia, in April 1941. The town was liberated in July 1943 by the 1st Proletarian Brigade during the Battle of Zvornik.[citation needed]

Bosnian war[edit]

During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992.[2] During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.[3]

On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik.[2] The suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of local Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area.[2] During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.[citation needed]

Settlements[edit]

Aside from the city proper area of Zvornik, the municipality comprises the following settlements:

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194850,011—    
195353,639+1.41%
197160,910+0.71%
198173,845+1.94%
199167,217−0.94%
201358,856−0.60%

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 1991 census, the town of Zvornik had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:

  • Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
  • Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
  • Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
  • Croats - 76 (0.52%)
  • Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)

According to the 2013 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 58,856 inhabitants, including:

  • Bosniaks - 19,885 (33.78%)
  • Serbs - 38,579 (65.54%)
  • Croats - 106 (0.18%)
  • Others - 316 (0.53%)

The city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War.[4]

Economy[edit]

The following table gives a preview of total number of registred employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[5]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 62
Mining and quarrying 25
Manufacturing 2,759
Distribution of power, gas, steam and air-conditioning 187
Distribution of water and water waste management 157
Construction 433
Wholesale and retail, repair 1,445
Transportation and storage 576
Hotels and restaurants 372
Information and communication 90
Finance and insurance 106
Real estate activities 8
Professional, scientific and technical activities 115
Administrative and support services 19
Public administration and defence 621
Education 765
Healthcare and social work 656
Art, entertainment and recreation 37
Other service activities 127
Total 8,560

Culture[edit]

Cultural Summer of Zvornik 2007
River Drina

The Cultural Summer of Zvornik (Zvorničko kulturno ljeto) is an annual event held in the first week of August and usually lasts for six days. Its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for recognized cultural values.

The festival was first held in August 2001 as a local event and until now (2015) it grew up to one of to biggest festivals on the Balkans.

In 2007, famous singers such as Neda Ukraden and Sandi Cenov participated, but in 2008 this festival managed to feature some of the most notable stars from former Yugoslavia, like Željko Joksimović, Hari Mata Hari, Van Gogh, Marinko Rokvić and others.

Music is not the only thing that this fest offers, there is also a regatta on the river Drina, a fun marathon and many cultural events and competitions during day and night.[6]

Sport[edit]

The local football clubs, FK Drina Zvornik and ŽFK Drina Zvornik, play in the First League of the Republika Srpska.[7] Members of the First league of Republika Srpska also are volleyball and handball clubs Zvornik.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
  1. ^ Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013. Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
  2. ^ a b c UN report on Zvornik Archived 10 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 8 October 1998. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  4. ^ "'Ethnic Cleansing Operations' in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
  5. ^ "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska 2017" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba (in Serbian). December 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  6. ^ "Zvornik's summer – Turistička organizacija grada Zvornik". zvornikturizam.org. Turistička organizacija grada Zvornika. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  7. ^ First league of RS 2017/18

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°23′3″N 19°6′9″E / 44.38417°N 19.10250°E / 44.38417; 19.10250