Downtown Zvornik and Drina River
Location of Zvornik within Bosnia and Hercegovina
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Zoran Stevanović (SPRS) (Alliance of Independent Social Democrats)|
|• Urban||376,14 km2 (14,523 sq mi)|
|Elevation||146 m (479 ft)|
|Population (2013 census)|
|• Density||169,3/km2 (4,380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Zvornik (Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city on the Drina river in north-eastern, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Zvornik is located south of Bijeljina. The town Mali Zvornik ("little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia.
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Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the early 7th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.
During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides the sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač). In 1806, Zvornik was home to Mehmed-beg Kulenović.
World War II
Ustasha troops of the fascist Independent State of Croatia occupied Zvornik, along with most of Bosnia, in April 1941. The town was liberated in July 1943 by the 1st Proletarian Brigade during the Battle of Zvornik.
During the Bosnian War (1992-1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992. During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers occupied Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. The suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of local Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area. During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.
According to the 1991 census, the town of Zvornik had a total of 14,584 inhabitants, of which:
- Bosniaks - 8,854 (60.71%)
- Serbs - 4,235 (29.03%)
- Yugoslavs - 944 (6.47%)
- Croats - 76 (0.52%)
- Others and unknown - 475 (3.25%)
According to the 2013 census, the municipality of Zvornik was home to a total of 58,856 inhabitants, including:
- Bosniaks - 19,885 (33.78%)
- Serbs - 38,579 (65.54%)
- Croats - 106 (0.18%)
- Others - 316 (0.53%)
The city's demographic situation has changed drastically during the Bosnian War.
Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, is home to a Middle Age fort, Zvornik fortress, built in the 12th century. Zvornik also has a museum.
The Cultural Summer of Zvornik usually takes place in August; its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for the recognized cultural values.
- Samir Muratović, footballer
- Seka Aleksić, singer
- Nada Obrić, singer
- Rade Djokić, footballer
- Sejad Salihović, footballer
- Denis Omerbegović, footballer
- Zlatko Junuzović, footballer
- Said Husejinović, footballer
- Ermin Bičakčić, footballer
- Goran Ikonić, basketball player
- Aleksandar Kukolj, judoka
- Borisav Pisić, athlete
- Abdulah Sidran, writer
• Androvići • Baljkovica • Baljkovica Donja • Boškovići • Buložani • Čelopek • Divič • Donja Pilica • Donji Lokanj • Drinjača • Dugi Dio • Đevanje • Đulići • Glodi • Glumina • Goduš • Gornja Pilica • Gornji Lokanj • Grbavci Donji • Grbavci Gornji • Gušteri • Jardan • Jasenica • Jusići • Kamenica Donja • Kamenica Gornja • Kiseljak • Kitovnice • Klisa • Kostijerevo • Kozluk • Kraljevići • Križevići • Kučić Kula • Kula Grad • Liješanj • Liplje • Malešići • Marčići • Međeđa • Mehmedići • Nezuk • Novo Selo • Pađine • Paljevići • Petkovci • Potočani • Rastošnica • Roćević • Rožanj • Sapna • Skočić • Snagovo • Snagovo Donje • Snagovo Gornje • Sopotnik • Šepak Donji • Šepak Gornji • Šetići • Tabanci • Trnovica • Tršić • Ugljari • Vitinica • Vrela • Zaseok • Zelinje
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
- UN report on Zvornik Archived 10 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 8 October 1998. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "'Ethnic Cleansing Operations' in the northeast-Bosnian City of Zvornik from April through June 1992". Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights.
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