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City of Zvornik
|Country||Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|• Mayor||Bojan Ivanović (SNSD)|
|• City||376.14 km2 (145.23 sq mi)|
|Elevation||146 m (479 ft)|
|• City density||160/km2 (410/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
Zvornik (Serbian Cyrillic: Зворник, pronounced [zʋɔ̌rniːk]) is a city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is located in Republika Srpska, on the left bank of the Drina river. In 2013, it had a population of 58,856 inhabitants.
The town of Mali Zvornik ("Little Zvornik") lies directly across the river in Serbia. Kula Grad, a village that is part of Zvornik municipality, has a Middle Age fort, Zvornik fortress, built in the 12th century.
Zvornik is first mentioned in 1410, although it was known as Zvonik ("bell tower") at that time. The town's geographic location has made it an important trade link between Bosnia and the east. For instance, the main road connecting Sarajevo and Belgrade runs through the city. The medieval fort known as Kula grad was built in the early 7th century and still stands on the Mlađevac mountainous range overlooking the Drina Valley.
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During the Ottoman period, Zvornik was the capital of the Sanjak of Zvornik (an administrative region) within the Eyalet of Bosnia. This was primarily the case because of the city's crucial role in the economy and the strategic importance of the city's location. The Sanjak of Zvornik was one of six Ottoman sanjaks with most developed shipbuilding (besides the sanjaks of Vidin, Nicopolis, Požega, Smederevo and Mohač). In 1806, Zvornik was home to Mehmed-beg Kulenović.
World War II
Ustasha troops of the fascist Independent State of Croatia occupied Zvornik, along with most of Bosnia, in April 1941. The town was liberated in July 1943 by the 1st Proletarian Brigade during the Battle of Zvornik.
During the Bosnian War (1992–1995) Zvornik's Bosniak population was expelled. The military attack of paramilitary groups that came from Serbia on Zvornik Bosniaks commenced on 8 April 1992. During April 1992, many European news stations daily reported Serb armed attacks and mass killings of the Bosniak population of Zvornik and the surrounding villages.
On 19 May 1992, combined JNA, Serb paramilitary and Arkan's Tigers took control of Zvornik and Mali Zvornik. The suburbs of Karakaj and Čelopek were places of prisons where hundreds of local Bosniaks were killed. The remaining Bosniaks and non-Serbs were relegated to concentration camps and detention facilities throughout the area. During the war Serb forces destroyed mosques in and around the city.
Photograph of Stećci in Zvornik
Zvornik in 1897
Local policemen and US military personnel on their way to check a post-Dayton resettlement effort
Aside from the city proper area of Zvornik, the municipality comprises the following settlements:
- Baljkovica Donja
- Donja Pilica
- Donji Lokanj
- Dugi Dio
- Gornja Pilica
- Gornji Lokanj
- Grbavci Donji
- Grbavci Gornji
- Kamenica Donja
- Kamenica Gornja
- Kučić Kula
- Kula Grad
- Novo Selo
- Snagovo Donje
- Snagovo Gornje
- Šepak Donji
- Šepak Gornji
|Population of settlements – Zvornik municipality|
|Ethnic composition – Zvornik city|
|Bosniaks||5,736 (67.18%)||6,686 (55.04%)||8,854 (60.71%)|
|Serbs||2,424 (28.39%)||3,491 (28.74%)||4,235 (29.04%)|
|Yugoslavs||24 (0.281%)||1,597 (13.15%)||944 (6.473%)|
|Others||141 (1.651%)||72 (0.593%)||475 (3.257%)|
|Croats||83 (0.972%)||66 (0.543%)||76 (0.521%)|
|Roma||49 (0.574%)||135 (1.111%)|
|Albanians||26 (0.305%)||48 (0.395%)|
|Montenegrins||27 (0.316%)||35 (0.288%)|
|Slovenes||16 (0.187%)||7 (0.058%)|
|Macedonians||3 (0.035%)||6 (0.049%)|
|Hungarians||9 (0.105%)||4 (0.033%)|
|Ethnic composition – Zvornik municipality|
|Serbs||27,769 (45.59%)||30,064 (40.71%)||30,863 (37.96%)||38,579 (65.55%)|
|Bosniaks||32,504 (53.36%)||40,801 (55.,25%)||48,102 (59.17%)||19,855 (33.73%)|
|Others||316 (0.519%)||295 (0.399%)||960 (1.181%)||316 (0.537%)|
|Croats||107 (0.176%)||104 (0.141%)||122 (0.150%)||106 (0.180%)|
|Yugoslavs||49 (0.080%)||2,110 (2.857%)||1,248 (1.535%)|
|Roma||49 (0.080%)||335 (0.454%)|
|Albanians||31 (0.051%)||58 (0.079%)|
|Montenegrins||44 (0.072%)||47 (0.064%)|
|Macedonians||10 (0.016%)||12 (0.016%)|
|Slovenes||18 (0.030%)||12 (0.016%)|
|Hungarians||13 (0.021%)||7 (0.009%)|
The table shows the number of registered people employed in legal entities by their core activity in 2018:
|Agriculture, forestry and fishing||80|
|Mining and quarrying||19|
|Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply||186|
|Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities||173|
|Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles||1,444|
|Transportation and storage||603|
|Accommodation and food services||415|
|Information and communication||105|
|Financial and insurance activities||103|
|Real estate activities||12|
|Professional, scientific and technical activities||114|
|Administrative and support service activities||28|
|Public administration and defense; compulsory social security||688|
|Human health and social work activities||665|
|Arts, entertainment and recreation||76|
|Other service activities||126|
The Cultural Summer of Zvornik (Zvorničko kulturno ljeto) is an annual event held in the first week of August, usually for six days. Its main objective is to become a traditional cultural event which will open the doors of Zvornik for recognized cultural values.
The festival was first held in August 2001 as a local event and has grown to be one of the biggest festivals in the Balkans.
In 2007, famous singers such as Neda Ukraden and Sandi Cenov participated, but in 2008 theis festival featured some of the most notable stars from former Yugoslavia, like Željko Joksimović, Hari Mata Hari, Van Gogh and Marinko Rokvić. There is also a regatta on the river Drina, a fun marathon and many cultural events and competitions during day and night.
Zvornik is twinned with:
Other friendships and cooperations, protocols, memorandums:
The local football clubs, FK Drina Zvornik and ŽFK Drina Zvornik, play in the First League of the Republika Srpska. Members of the First league of Republika Srpska also are volleyball and handball clubs Zvornik.
- Seka Aleksić, singer
- Ermin Bičakčić, footballer
- Rade Đokić, footballer
- Amer Hrustanović, sports wrestler, European medallist
- Said Husejinović, footballer
- Goran Ikonić, basketball player
- Zlatko Junuzović, Austrian footballer
- Samir Muratović, footballer
- Nada Obrić, singer
- Denis Omerbegović, footballer
- Borisav Pisić, athlete
- Sejad Salihović, footballer
- Official results from the book: Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina population, by municipalities and settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.
- Godis̆njak grada Beograda. Beogradske novine. 1979. p. 35. Retrieved 7 September 2013 – via Google Books.
Ипак градња бродова се посебно везивала за шест санџака: никопољски, видински, смедеревски, зворнички, пожешки и мохачки.
- UN report on Zvornik Archived 10 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ""One of the biggest" mass graves found in Bosnia". BBC News. 8 October 1998. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- "Cities and Municipalities of Republika Srpska" (PDF). rzs.rs.ba. Republika Srspka Institute of Statistics. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "Zvornik's summer – Turistička organizacija grada Zvornik". zvornikturizam.org. Turistička organizacija grada Zvornika. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- "Zvornik odlučio da se pobratimi sa Sremskom Mitrovicom". Nadlanu (in Serbian). 30 September 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- "СПОРАЗУМ О САРАДЊИ ЗВОРНИКА И КОЉЧУГИНА | СРНА". www.srna.rs. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- First league of RS 2017/18