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Temporal range: 17–2.5 Ma
Zygolophodon skull fossil.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Mammutidae
Genus: Zygolophodon
Vacek, 1877
Type species
Zygolophodon tapiroides
Cuvier, 1824
  • Z. aegyptensis Sanders & Miller, 2002
  • Z. chinjiensis Chow & Chang, 1978
  • Z. lufengensis Zhang Xingyong, 1982
  • Z. nemonguensis Chow & Chang, 1961
  • Z. tapiroides
  • Z. turicensis Schintz, 1824
Zygolophodon distribution.svg
The inferred range of Zygolophodon
  • Mastodon tapiroides
  • Mastodon turicensis
  • Mammut tapiroides
  • Mammut turicensis

Zygolophodon is an extinct genus of African, Asian, and European mammutid that lived from the Miocene to the Late Pliocene.[1]


Zygolophodon tapiroides tusks excavated in Milia (Greece)

Zygolophodon belongs in the family Mammutidae, whose best known member is the American mastodon. Zygolophodon tapiroides and Z. turicensis are known from the Early-Middle Miocene of Europe, while Z. aegyptensis is known from the Early Miocene of Egypt,[2] while Z. lufengensis, Z. chinjiensis, and Z. nemonguensis have been found in Miocene deposits in East Asia.[3]

Miomastodon was previously synonymized with Zygolophodon, but is apparently a distinct genus similar to Gomphotherium in having bunodont cheek teeth.[4]


  1. ^ Youping, Yuzhu, Hongxiang, Suyin, Zhang, Long, Ji, Ding (November 1999) [March 1989]. "The Cenozoic Deposits of the Yunnnan Region (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology, Paleoanthropology Academia Sinica)" (PDF). Professional Papers on Stratigraphy and Paleontology, No. 7 Geological Publishing House, Peking, China, Pp. 1-21.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ W. J. Sanders and E. R. Miller. 2002. New proboscideans from the early Miocene of Wadi Mogahara, Egypt. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(2):388-404
  3. ^ Duangkrayom, J., Wang, S., Deng, T., & Jintasakul, P. (2017). The first Neogene record of Zygolophodon (Mammalia, Proboscidea) in Thailand: Implications for the mammutid evolution and dispersal in Southeast Asia. Journal of Paleontology, 91(1), 179-193. doi:10.1017/jpa.2016.143
  4. ^ http://www.ivpp.cas.cn/cbw/gjzdwxb/pressonline/202003/P020200313436889779476.pdf