Zygophyllaceae

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Zygophyllaceae
Larrea tridentata 1.jpg
Larrea tridentata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Zygophyllales
Family: Zygophyllaceae
R.Br.
Subfamilies

Larreoideae
Morkillioideae
Seetzenioideae
Tribuloideae
Zygophylloideae

Synonyms

Balanitaceae Endl. (1841)
Krameriaceae Dumort. (1829) (optional synonym)
Tribulaceae Trautv. (1853)[1]

Zygophyllaceae (/ˌzɡfəˈlsi, ˌzɪ-/[2]) is a family, of flowering plants, that contain the bean-caper and caltrop. The family includes around 285 species in 22 genera.[3]

In the APG III system of classification, the families Zygophyllaceae and Krameriaceae compose the order Zygophyllales. In the previous version of their classification system, the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group had included the option of placing Krameria within Zygophyllaceae.

Zygophyllaceae are divided into five subfamilies. Molecular phylogenies of the family were published in 2000,[4] and 2018.[5] Phylogenies of groups within the family, particularly the predominantly southern African species of Zygophylloideae have also been published.[6] [7] [8]

Plants in the family Zygophyllaceae may be trees, shrubs, or herbs. They are often found in dry habitats. The leaves are usually opposite, often with stipules and spines. Some are cultivated as ornamental plants, such as Guaiacum, Zygophyllum, Tribulus, and Larrea species.[9] King Clone, a creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in California, may be the oldest living organism.

Genera[edit]

Subfamily Larreoideae
Subfamily Morkillioideae
Subfamily Seetzenioideae
Subfamily Tribuloideae
Subfamily Zygophylloideae[15]
Unplaced

Peganum was in Zygophyllaceae before being moved to the newly created family Nitrariaceae.

Systematics[edit]

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[4][15]

Zygophyllales

Krameriaceae (outgroup)

Zygophyllaceae
Morkillioideae

Sericodes

Viscainoa

Morkillia

Tribuloideae

Sisyndite

Neoluederitzia

Balanites

Kallstroemia

Tribulopis

Kelleronia

Tribulus

Seetzenioideae

Seetzenia

Larreoideae

Guaiacum

Porlieria

Bulnesia

Pintoa

Larrea

Zygophylloideae

Tetraena

Zygophyllum sensu stricto

Roepera

Augea

Melocarpum

Fagonia

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zygophyllaceae R. Br., nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
  2. ^ "zygophyllaceous". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
  3. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  4. ^ a b Sheahan MC, Chase MW. (2000). "Phylogenetic Relationships within Zygophyllaceae Based on DNA Sequences of Three Plastid Regions, with Special Emphasis on Zygophylloideae". Syst Bot. 25 (2): 371–384. doi:10.2307/2666648. JSTOR 2666648.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Wu, Sheng-Dan; Zhang, Lin-Jing; Lin, Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Wang, Wei (2018). "Insights into the historical assembly of global dryland floras: the diversification of Zygophyllaceae". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18 (1). doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1277-z. ISSN 1471-2148.
  6. ^ Bellstedt, D.U.; van Zyl, L.; Marais, E.M.; Bytebier, B.; de Villiers, C.A.; Makwarela, A.M.; Dreyer, L.L. (2008). "Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution and biogeography of southern African members of Zygophyllum (Zygophyllaceae) based on three plastid regions". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 47 (3): 932–949. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.02.019. ISSN 1055-7903.
  7. ^ Bellstedt, Dirk U.; Galley, Chloé; Pirie, Michael D.; Linder, H. Peter (2012). "The Migration of the Palaeotropical Arid Flora: Zygophylloideae as an Example". Systematic Botany. 37 (4): 951–959. doi:10.1600/036364412X656608. ISSN 0363-6445.
  8. ^ Lauterbach, Maximilian; van der Merwe, Pieter de Wet; Keßler, Lisa; Pirie, Michael D.; Bellstedt, Dirk U.; Kadereit, Gudrun (2016). "Evolution of leaf anatomy in arid environments – A case study in southern African Tetraena and Roepera (Zygophyllaceae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 97: 129–144. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.01.002. ISSN 1055-7903.
  9. ^ Zygophyllaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval.
  10. ^ Navarro G. (1997). "Izozogia nellii (Zygophyllaceae), nuevo género y especie del Gran Chaco de Santa Cruz (Bolivia)" [Izozogia nellii (Zygophyllaceae), a new genus and species from the Gran Chaco de Santa Cruz (Bolivia)]. Novon. 7 (1): 1–5.
  11. ^ "Genera of Zygophyllaceae subfam. Larreoideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  12. ^ "Genera of Zygophyllaceae subfam. Morkillioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  13. ^ "Genera of Zygophyllaceae subfam. Seetzenioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  14. ^ "Genera of Zygophyllaceae subfam. Tribuloideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-15.
  15. ^ a b Beier, B.-A.; Chase, M. W. & Thulin, M. (2003), "Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of subfamily Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) based on molecular and morphological data", Plant Systematics and Evolution, 240 (1–4): 11–39, doi:10.1007/s00606-003-0007-0
  16. ^ "Genera of Zygophyllaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-08-15.

External links[edit]