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Zymology, also known as zymurgy,[a] is an applied science that studies the biochemical process of fermentation and its practical uses. Common topics include the selection of fermenting yeast and bacteria species and their use in brewing, wine making, fermenting milk, and the making of other fermented foods.
Pasteur performed careful research and concluded:
Je pense que la fermentation alcoolique ne se produit jamais sans une organization simultanée, une développement, une multiplication de cellules … . Si l'on me demandai en quoi consiste la réaction chimique par laquelle le sucre et décomposé … je l'ignore complètement.
I am of the opinion that alcoholic fermentation never occurs without simultaneous organization, development and multiplication of cells … . If asked, in what consists the chemical act whereby the sugar is decomposed … I am completely ignorant of it.— La Fermentation Alcoolique
The research efforts undertaken by the Danish Carlsberg scientists greatly accelerated understanding of yeast and brewing. The Carlsberg scientists are generally acknowledged[by whom?] as having jump-started the entire field of molecular biology.
- All alcoholic drinks including beer, cider, kombucha, kvass, mead, perry, tibicos, wine, pulque, hard liquors (brandy, rum, vodka, sake, schnapps), and soured by-products including vinegar and alegar
- Yeast leavened breads including sourdough, salt-rising bread, and others
- Cheese and some dairy products including kefir and yogurt
- Dishes including fermented fish, such as garum, surströmming, and Worcestershire sauce
- Some vegetables such as kimchi, some types of pickles (most are not fermented though), and sauerkraut
- A wide variety of fermented edibles made from soy beans, including fermented bean paste, nattō, tempeh, and soya sauce
- From the Ancient Greek: ζύμωσις + ἔργον, "the workings of fermentation".
- Demain, Arnold L.; Martens, Evan; Knol, Wieger (2017). "Production of valuable compounds by molds and yeasts". The Journal of Antibiotics. 70 (4): 347–360. doi:10.1038/ja.2016.121. ISSN 0021-8820. PMC 7094691. PMID 27731337.
- Sreeramulu, Guttapadu; Zhu, Yang; Knol, Wieger (2000). "Kombucha Fermentation and Its Antimicrobial Activity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 48 (6): 2589–2594. doi:10.1021/jf991333m. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 10888589.