Otis Redding in January 1967
|Birth name||Otis Ray Redding, Jr.|
|Also known as|
September 9, 1941|
Dawson, Georgia, U.S.
|Died||December 10, 1967
Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.
Otis Ray Redding, Jr. (September 9, 1941 – December 10, 1967) was an American singer, songwriter, record producer, arranger, and talent scout. He is considered one of the greatest singers in the history of American popular music and a seminal artist in soul music and rhythm and blues. His singing style influenced many other soul artists of the 1960s. During his lifetime, his recordings were produced by Stax Records, based in Memphis, Tennessee.
Born and raised in the US state of Georgia, Redding quit school at age 15 to support his family, working with Little Richard's backing band, the Upsetters, and performing at talent shows for prize money. In 1958, he joined Johnny Jenkins's band, the Pinetoppers, with whom he toured the Southern states as a singer and driver. The person that discovered Otis Redding was James McEachin. James took Otis into the studio and brought the recordings to Al Kavelin who had just had a hit with “Alley-Oop” on Lute Records. Kavelin agreed to release a single and later released another single on Trans-World. The titles of these records were: “Tuff Enuff,” “She’s All Right,” “Gamma Lama,” and “Gettin’ Hip.” James McEachin wrote most of that material but at times collaborated with Otis.” A new book “Dreams to Remember ” an account of Stax Records and Otis Redding. The book tells of Otis Redding’s trip from his home to test the waters in Los Angeles. He worked hard meeting recording industry people and finally was more or less taken under the wing of McEachin who arranged for Redding to record his four sides at the Gold Coin studio in L.A. where several successful artists had recorded. McEachin had shopped the tracks all over the industry with no takers. McEachin was best known for being an actor but initially spent time as a record producer. An unscheduled appearance on a Stax recording session led to a contract and his first single to become a hit, "These Arms of Mine," in 1962. Stax released Redding's debut album, Pain in My Heart, two years later.
Initially popular mainly with African-Americans, Redding later reached a wider American pop music audience. Along with his group, he first played small gigs in the American South. He later performed at the popular Los Angeles night club Whisky a Go Go and toured Europe, performing in London, Paris and other major cities. He also performed at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967.
Shortly before his death in a plane crash, Redding wrote and recorded his iconic "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" with Steve Cropper. The song became the first posthumous number-one record on both the Billboard Hot 100 and R&B charts. The album The Dock of the Bay was the first posthumous album to reach number one on the UK Albums Chart.
Redding's premature death devastated Stax. Already on the verge of bankruptcy, the label soon discovered that Atlantic Records owned the rights to his entire song catalog.
Redding received many posthumous accolades, including the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In addition to "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay," "Respect" and "Try a Little Tenderness" are among his best-known songs.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Death
- 4 Personal life and wealth
- 5 Musicianship
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Discography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Redding was born in Dawson, Georgia, the fourth of six children, and the first son, of Otis Redding, Sr., and Fannie Mae Redding. Redding senior was a sharecropper and then worked at Robins Air Force Base, near Macon, and occasionally preached in local churches. When Otis was three the family moved to Tindall Heights, a predominantly African-American public housing project in Macon. At an early age, Redding sang in the Vineville Baptist Church choir and learned guitar and piano. From age 10, he took drum and singing lessons. At Ballard-Hudson High School, he sang in the school band. Every Sunday he earned $6 by performing gospel songs for Macon radio station WIBB, and he won the $5 prize in a teen talent show for 15 consecutive weeks. His passion was singing, and he often cited Little Richard and Sam Cooke as influences. Redding said that he "would not be here" without Little Richard and that he "entered the music business because of Richard – he is my inspiration. I used to sing like Little Richard, his Rock 'n' Roll stuff... My present music has a lot of him in it."
At age 15, Redding left school to help financially support his family; his father had contracted tuberculosis and was often hospitalized, leaving his mother as the family's primary income earner. He worked as a well digger, as a gasoline station attendant and occasionally as a musician. Pianist Gladys Williams, a locally well-known musician in Macon and another who inspired Redding, often performed at the Hillview Springs Social Club, and Redding sometimes played piano with her band there. Williams hosted Sunday talent shows, which Redding attended with two friends, singers Little Willie Jones and Eddie Ross.
Redding's breakthrough came in 1958 on disc jockey Hamp Swain's "The Teenage Party," a talent contest at the local Roxy and Douglass Theatres. Johnny Jenkins, a locally prominent guitarist, was in the audience and, finding Redding's backing band lacking in musical skills, offered to accompany him. Redding sang Little Richard's "Heebie Jeebies." The combination enabled Redding to win Swain's talent contest for fifteen consecutive weeks; the cash prize was $5. Jenkins later worked as lead guitarist and played with Redding during several later gigs. Redding was soon invited to replace Willie Jones as frontman of Pat T. Cake and the Mighty Panthers, featuring Johnny Jenkins. Redding was then hired by the Upsetters when Little Richard abandoned rock and roll in favor of gospel music. Redding was well paid, making about $25 per gig, but did not stay long.
At age 19, Redding met 15-year-old Zelma Atwood at "The Teenage Party." She gave birth to their son Dexter in the summer of 1960 and married Redding in August 1961. In mid-1960, Otis moved to Los Angeles with his sister, Deborah, while Zelma and Otis' children stayed in Macon, Georgia. In Los Angeles Redding wrote his first songs, including "She's Allright," "Tuff Enuff," "I'm Gettin' Hip" and "Gamma Lamma" (which he recorded as a single in 1962, under the title "Shout Bamalama").
A member of Pat T. Cake and the Mighty Panthers, Redding toured the Southern United States on the chitlin' circuit, a string of venues that were hospitable to African-American entertainers during the era of racial segregation, which lasted into the early 1960s. Johnny Jenkins left the band to become the featured artist with the Pinetoppers. Around this time, Redding met Phil Walden, the future founder of the recording company Phil Walden and Associates, and later Bobby Smith, who ran the small label Confederate Records. He signed with Confederate and recorded his second single, "Shout Bamalama" (a rewrite of "Gamma Lamma") and "Fat Girl", together with his band Otis and the Shooters. Around this time he and the Pinetoppers attended a "Battle of the Bands" show in Lakeside Park. Wayne Cochran, the only solo artist signed to Confederate, became the Pinetoppers' bassist.
When Walden started to look for a record label for Jenkins, Atlantic Records representative Joe Galkin showed interest and around 1962 sent him to the Stax studio in Memphis. Redding drove Jenkins to the session, as the latter did not have a driver's license. The session with Jenkins, backed by Booker T. & the M.G.'s, was unproductive and ended early; Redding was allowed to perform two songs. The first was "Hey Hey Baby", which studio chief Jim Stewart thought sounded too much like Little Richard. The second was "These Arms of Mine", featuring Jenkins on piano and Steve Cropper on guitar. Stewart later praised Redding's performance, saying, "Everybody was fixin' to go home, but Joe Galkin insisted we give Otis a listen. There was something different about [the ballad]. He really poured his soul into it." Stewart signed Redding and released "These Arms of Mine", with "Hey Hey Baby" on the B-side. The single was released by Volt in October 1962 and charted in March the following year. It became one of his most successful songs, selling more than 800,000 copies.
Apollo Theater and Otis Blue
Sample of "These Arms of Mine". Redding's first released Volt single, it became his most successful until "I've Been Loving You".
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"These Arms of Mine" and other songs from the 1962–1963 sessions were included on Redding's debut album, Pain in My Heart. "That's What My Heart Needs" and "Mary's Little Lamb" were recorded in June 1963. The latter is the only Redding track with both background singing and brass. It became his worst-selling single. The title track, recorded in September 1963, sparked copyright issues, as it sounded like Irma Thomas's "Ruler of My Heart". Despite this, Pain in My Heart was released on January 1, 1964, and peaked at number 20 on the R&B chart and at number 85 on the Billboard Hot 100.
In November 1963, Redding, accompanied by his brother Rodgers and an associate, former boxer Sylvester Huckaby (a childhood friend of Redding's), traveled to New York to perform at the Apollo Theater for the recording of a live album for Atlantic Records. Redding and his band were paid $400 per week, but had to pay $450 for sheet music for the house band, led by King Curtis, which left them in financial difficulty. The trio asked Walden for money. Huckaby's description of their circumstances living in the "big old raggedy" Hotel Theresa is quoted by Peter Guralnick in his book Sweet Soul Music. He noted meeting Muhammad Ali and other celebrities. Ben E. King, who was the headliner at the Apollo when Redding performed there, gave him $100 when he learned about Redding's financial situation. The resulting album featured King, the Coasters, Doris Troy, Rufus Thomas, the Falcons and Redding. Around this time Walden and Rodgers were drafted by the army; Walden's younger brother Alan joined Redding on tour, while Earl "Speedo" Simms replaced Rodgers as Redding's road manager.
Most of Redding's songs after "Security", from his first album, had a slow tempo. Disc jockey A. C. Moohah Williams accordingly labeled him "Mr. Pitiful", and subsequently Cropper and Redding wrote the eponymous song. That and top 100 singles "Chained and Bound", "Come to Me" and "That's How Strong My Love Is" were included on Redding's second studio album, The Great Otis Redding Sings Soul Ballads, released in March 1965. Jenkins began working independently from the group out of fear Galkin, Walden and Cropper would plagiarize his playing style, and so Cropper became Redding's leading guitarist. Around 1965, Redding co-wrote "I've Been Loving You Too Long" with Jerry Butler, the lead singer of the Impressions. That summer, Redding and the studio crew arranged new songs for his next album. Ten of the eleven songs were written in a 24-hour period on July 9 and 10 in Memphis. Two songs, "Ole Man Trouble" and "Respect", had been finished earlier, during the Otis Blue session. "Respect" and "I've Been Loving You" were later recut in stereo. The album, entitled Otis Blue: Otis Redding Sings Soul, was released in September 1965. Redding also released his much-loved cover of "A Change Is Gonna Come" in 1965.
Whisky a Go Go and "Try a Little Tenderness"
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Redding's success allowed him to buy a 300-acre (1.2 km2) ranch in Georgia, which he called the "Big O Ranch." Stax was also doing well. Walden signed more musicians, including Percy Sledge, Johnnie Taylor, Clarence Carter and Eddie Floyd, and together with Redding they founded two production companies. "Jotis Records" (derived from Joe Galkin and Otis) released four recordings, two by Arthur Conley and one by Billy Young and Loretta Williams. The other was named Redwal Music (derived from Redding and Walden), which was shut down shortly after its creation. Since Afro-Americans still formed the majority of fans, Redding chose to perform at Whisky a Go Go on the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles. Redding was one of the first soul artists to perform for rock audiences in the western United States. His performance received critical acclaim, including positive press in the Los Angeles Times, and he penetrated mainstream popular culture. Bob Dylan attended the performance and offered Redding an altered version of one of his songs, "Just Like a Woman".
In late 1966, Redding returned to the Stax studio and recorded several tracks, including "Try a Little Tenderness", written by Jimmy Campbell, Reg Connelly and Harry M. Woods in 1932. This song had previously been covered by Bing Crosby and Frank Sinatra, and the publishers unsuccessfully tried to stop Redding from recording the song from a "negro perspective". Today often considered his signature song, Jim Stewart reckoned, "If there's one song, one performance that really sort of sums up Otis and what he's about, it's 'Try a Little Tenderness'. That one performance is so special and so unique that it expresses who he is." On this version Redding was backed by Booker T. & the M.G.'s, while staff producer Isaac Hayes worked on the arrangement. "Try a Little Tenderness" was included on his next album, Complete & Unbelievable: The Otis Redding Dictionary of Soul. The song and the album were critically and commercially successful—the former peaked at number 25 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and at number 4 on the R&B chart.
The spring of 1966 marked the first time that Stax booked concerts for its artists. The majority of the group arrived in London on March 13, but Redding had flown in days earlier for interviews, such as at "The Eamonn Andrews Show". When the crew arrived in London, the Beatles sent a limousine to pick them up. Booking agent Bill Graham proposed that Redding play at the Fillmore Auditorium in late 1966. The gig was commercially and critically successful, paying Redding around $800 to $1000 a night. It prompted Graham to remark afterwards, "That was the best gig I ever put on in my entire life." Redding began touring Europe six months later.
In March 1967, Stax released King & Queen, an album of duets between Redding and Carla Thomas, which became a certified gold record. It was Jim Stewart's idea to produce a duet album, as he expected that "[Redding's] rawness and [Thomas's] sophistication would work". The album was recorded in January 1967, while Thomas was earning her M.A. in English at Howard University. Six out of ten songs were cut during their joint session; the rest were overdubbed by Redding in the days following, because of his concert obligations. Three singles were lifted from the album: "Tramp" was released in April, followed by "Knock on Wood" and "Lovey Dovey". All three reached at least the top 60 on both the R&B and Pop charts. The album charted at number 5 and 36 on the Billboard Pop and R&B charts, respectively.
Redding returned to Europe to perform at the Paris Olympia. The live album Otis Redding: Live in Europe was released three months later, featuring this and other live performances in London and Stockholm, Sweden. His decision to take his protege Conley (whom Redding and Walden had contracted directly to Atco/Atlantic Records rather than to Stax/Volt) on the tour, instead of more established Stax/Volt artists such as Rufus Thomas and William Bell, produced negative reactions.
In 1967, Redding performed at the influential Monterey Pop Festival as the closing act on Saturday night, the second day of the festival. He was invited through the efforts of promoter Jerry Wexler. Until that point, Redding was still performing mainly for black audiences. His act, which included his own song "Respect" and a version of the Rolling Stones' "Satisfaction", was well received by the audience. Redding and his backing band (Booker T. & the M.G.'s with the Mar-Keys horn section) opened with Cooke's "Shake", after which he delivered an impulsive speech, asking the audience if they were the "love crowd" and looking for a big response. The ballad "I've Been Loving You" followed. The last song was "Try a Little Tenderness", including an additional chorus. "I got to go, y'all, I don't wanna go", said Redding and left the stage of his last major concert. According to Booker T. Jones, "I think we did one of our best shows, Otis and the MG's. That we were included in that was also something of a phenomenon. That we were there? With those people? They were accepting us and that was one of the things that really moved Otis. He was happy to be included and it brought him a new audience. It was greatly expanded in Monterey." According to Sweet Soul Music, musicians such as Brian Jones and Jimi Hendrix were captivated by his performance; Robert Christgau wrote in Esquire, "The Love Crowd screamed one's mind to the heavens."
Before Monterey, Redding wanted to record with Conley, but Stax was against the idea. The two moved from Memphis to Macon to continue writing. The result was "Sweet Soul Music" (based on Cooke's "Yeah Man"), which peaked at number 2 on the Billboard Hot 100. By that time Redding had developed polyps on his larynx, which he tried to treat with tea and lemon or honey. He was hospitalized in September 1967 at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York to undergo surgery.
"Dock of the Bay"
In early December 1967, Redding again recorded at Stax. One new song was "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay", which was written with Cropper while they were staying with their friend, Earl "Speedo" Simms, on a houseboat in Sausalito. Redding was inspired by the Beatles album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and tried to create a similar sound, against the label's wishes. His wife Zelma disliked its atypical melody. The Stax crew were also dissatisfied with the new sound; Stewart thought that it was not R&B, while bassist Donald "Duck" Dunn feared it would damage Stax's reputation. However, Redding wanted to expand his musical style and thought it was his best song, correctly believing it would top the charts. He whistled at the end, either forgetting Cropper's "fadeout rap" or paraphrasing it intentionally.
By 1967, the band was traveling to performances in Redding's Beechcraft H18 aeroplane. On December 9, 1967, they appeared on the Upbeat television show produced in Cleveland. They played three concerts in two nights at a club called Leo's Casino. After a phone call with his wife and children, Redding's next stop was Madison, Wisconsin; the next day, Sunday, December 10, they were to play at the Factory nightclub, near the University of Wisconsin.
Although the weather was poor, with heavy rain and fog, and despite warnings, the plane took off. Four miles (6.4 km) from their destination at Truax Field in Madison, the pilot radioed for permission to land. Shortly thereafter, the plane crashed into Lake Monona. Bar-Kays member Ben Cauley, the accident's only survivor, was sleeping shortly before the accident. He woke just before impact to see bandmate Phalon Jones look out a window and exclaim, "Oh, no!" Cauley said the last thing he remembered before the crash was unbuckling his seat belt. He then found himself in frigid water, grasping a seat cushion to keep afloat. A non-swimmer, he was unable to rescue the others. The cause of the crash was never determined. James Brown claimed in his autobiography The Godfather of Soul that he had warned Redding not to fly in the plane.
The other victims of the crash were four members of the Bar-Kays—guitarist Jimmy King, tenor saxophonist Phalon Jones, organist Ronnie Caldwell and drummer Carl Cunningham; their valet, Matthew Kelly; and the pilot, Richard Fraser.
Redding's body was recovered the next day when the lake was searched. The family postponed the funeral from December 15 to December 18 so that more could attend. The service took place at the City Auditorium in Macon. More than 4,500 people came to the funeral, overflowing the 3,000-seat hall. Johnny Jenkins and Isaac Hayes did not attend, fearing their reaction would be worse than Zelma Redding's. Redding was entombed at his ranch in Round Oak, about 20 miles (32 km) north of Macon. Jerry Wexler delivered the eulogy. Redding died just three days after recording "The Dock of the Bay". He was survived by Zelma and three children, Otis III, Dexter and Karla. Otis, Dexter and cousin Mark Lockett later founded the Reddings, a band managed by Zelma. She also maintained or worked at the janitorial service Maids Over Macon, several nightclubs and booking agencies. On November 8, 1997, a memorial plaque was placed on the lakeside deck of the Madison convention center, Monona Terrace.
Posthumous releases and proposed recordings and television appearances
"(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" was released in January 1968. It became Redding's only single to reach number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and the first posthumous number-one single in U.S. chart history. It sold approximately four million copies worldwide and received more than eight million airplays. The album The Dock of the Bay was the first posthumous album to reach the top spot on the UK Albums Chart.
Shortly after Redding's death, Atlantic Records, distributor of the Stax/Volt releases, was purchased by Warner Bros. Stax was required to renegotiate its distribution deal and was surprised to learn that Atlantic actually owned the entire Stax/Volt catalog. Stax was unable to regain the rights to its recordings and severed its Atlantic relationship. Atlantic also held the rights to all unreleased Otis Redding masters. It had enough material for three studio albums—The Immortal Otis Redding (1968), Love Man (1969), and Tell the Truth (1970)—all issued on its Atco Records label. A number of successful singles emerged from these LPs, among them "Amen" (1968), "Hard to Handle" (1968), "I've Got Dreams to Remember" (1968), "Love Man" (1969), and "Look at That Girl" (1969). Singles were also lifted from two live Atlantic-issued Redding albums, In Person at the Whisky a Go Go, recorded in 1966 and issued in 1968 on Atco, and Monterey International Pop Festival, a Reprise Records release featuring some of the live performances at the festival by the Jimi Hendrix Experience on side one and Redding on side two.
In September 2007, the first official DVD anthology of Redding's live performances was released by Concord Music Group, then owners of the Stax catalog. Dreams to Remember: The Legacy of Otis Redding featured 16 full-length performances and 40 minutes of new interviews documenting his life and career. On May 18, 2010, Stax Records released a two-disc recording of three complete sets from his Whisky a Go Go date in April 1966.
Carla Thomas claimed that the pair had planned to record another duet album in December the same year, but Phil Walden denied this. Redding had proposed to record an album featuring cut and rearranged songs in different tempos; for example, ballads would be uptempo and vice versa. Another suggestion was to record an album entirely consisting of country standards.
Personal life and wealth
Redding, who was 6 feet 1 inch (1.85 m) tall and weighed 220 pounds (100 kg), was an athletic family man who loved football and hunting. He was described as vigorous, trustworthy, full of fun and a successful businessman. He was active in philanthropic projects. His keen interest in black youth led to plans for a summer camp for disadvantaged children.
Redding's music made him wealthy. According to several advertisements, he had around 200 suits and 400 pairs of shoes, and he earned about $35,000 per week for his concerts. He spent about $125,000 in the "Big O Ranch". As the owner of Otis Redding Enterprises, his performances, music publishing ventures and royalties from record sales earned him more than a million dollars in 1967 alone. That year, one columnist said, "he sold more records than Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin combined." After the release of Otis Blue, Redding became a "catalogue" artist, meaning his albums were not immediate blockbusters, but rather sold steadily over time.
Early on Redding copied the rock and soul style of his role model Little Richard. He was also influenced by soul musicians such as Sam Cooke, whose live album Sam Cooke at the Copa was a strong influence, but later explored other popular genres. He studied the recordings of the Beatles and Bob Dylan. His song "Hard to Handle" has elements of rock and roll and influences of Eric Clapton and Jimi Hendrix. Most of his songs were categorized as Southern soul and Memphis soul.
His hallmark was his raw voice and ability to convey strong emotion. Richie Unterberger of Allmusic noted his "hoarse, gritty vocals, brassy arrangements, an emotional way with both party tunes and aching ballads." In the book Rock and Roll: An Introduction, authors Michael Campbell and James Brody suggested that "Redding's singing calls to mind a fervent black preacher. Especially in up-tempo numbers, his singing is more than impassioned speech but less than singing with precise pitch." According to the book, "Redding finds a rough midpoint between impassioned oratory and conventional singing. His delivery overflows with emotion" in his song "I Can't Turn You Loose". Booker T. Jones described Redding's singing as energetic and emotional, but said that his vocal range was limited, reaching neither low nor high notes. Peter Buckley, in The Rough Guide to Rock, describes his "gruff voice, which combined Sam Cooke's phrasing with a brawnier delivery" and later suggested he "could testify like a hell-bent preacher, croon like a tender lover or get down and dirty with a bluesy yawp".
Redding received advice from Rufus Thomas about his clumsy stage appearance. Jerry Wexler said Redding "didn't know how to move", and stood still, moving only his upper body, although he acknowledged that Redding was well received by audiences for his strong message. Guralnick described Redding's painful vulnerability in Sweet Soul Music, as an attractive one for the audience, but not for his friends and partners. His early shyness was well known.
In his early career Redding mostly covered songs from popular artists, such as Richard, Cooke and Solomon Burke. Around the mid-1960s he began writing his own songs—always taking along his cheap red acoustic guitar—and sometimes asked for Stax members' opinion of his lyrics. He often worked on lyrics with other musicians, such as Simms, Rodgers, Huckaby, Phil Walden and Cropper. During his recovery from his throat operation, Redding wrote about 30 songs in two weeks. Redding was the sole copyright holder on all of his songs.
In "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay" he abandoned familiar romantic themes for "sad, wistful introspections, amplified by unforgettable descending guitar riffs by Cropper". The website of the Songwriters Hall of Fame noted that the song "was a kind of brooding, dark voicing of despair, ('I've got nothin' to live for/Look like nothin' gonna come my way')" although "his music, in general, was exultant and joyful." According to journalist Ruth Robinson, author of the liner notes for the 1993 box set, "It is currently a revisionist theory to equate soul with the darker side of man's musical expression, blues. That fanner of the flame of 'Trouble's got a hold on me' music, might well be the father of the form if it is, the glorified exaltation found in church on any Sunday morning is its mother." The Songwriters Hall of Fame website adds that "glorified exaltation indeed was an apt description of Otis Redding's songwriting and singing style." Booker T. Jones compared Redding with Leonard Bernstein, stating, "He was the same type person. He was a leader. He'd just lead with his arms and his body and his fingers."
Redding favored short and simple lyrics; when asked whether he intended to cover Dylan's "Just Like a Woman", he responded that the lyrics contained "too much text". Furthermore, he stated in an interview,
- Basically, I like any music that remains simple and I feel this is the formula that makes "soul music" successful. When any music form becomes cluttered and/or complicated you lose the average listener's ear. There is nothing more beautiful than a simple blues tune. There is beauty in simplicity whether you are talking about architecture, art or music.
Redding also authored his (sometimes difficult) recordings' horn arrangements, humming to show the players what he had in mind. The recording of "Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa-Fa (Sad Song)" captures his habit of humming with the horn section.
Redding has been called the "King of Soul", an honorific also given to Brown and Cooke. He remains one of the genre's most recognized artists. His lean and powerful style exemplified the Stax sound; he was said to be "the heart and soul of Stax", while artists such as Al Jackson, Dunn and Cropper helped to expand its structure. His open-throated singing, the tremolo/vibrato, the manic, electrifying stage performances and perceived honesty were particular hallmarks, along with the use of interjections (such as "gotta, gotta, gotta"), some of which came from Cooke. Producer Stewart thought the "begging singing" was stress-induced and enhanced by Redding's shyness.
Artists from many genres have named Redding as a musical influence. George Harrison called "Respect" an inspiration for "Drive My Car". The Rolling Stones also mentioned Redding as a major influence. Other artists influenced by Redding include Led Zeppelin, Grateful Dead, Lynyrd Skynyrd, the Doors, and virtually every soul and R&B musician from the early years, such as Al Green, Etta James, William Bell, Aretha Franklin, Marvin Gaye and Conley. Musicians have covered or mixed his songs, notably Kanye West and Jay-Z in their Grammy Award–winning song "Otis". Janis Joplin was influenced by his singing style, according to Sam Andrew, a guitarist in her band Big Brother and the Holding Company. She stated that she learned "to push a song instead of just sliding over it" after hearing Redding.
The Bee Gees' Barry Gibb and Robin Gibb wrote the song "To Love Somebody" for him to record. He loved it, and he was going to "cut it", as Barry put it, on his return from his final concert. They dedicated the song to his memory.
Awards and honors
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inducted Redding in 1989, declaring his name to be "synonymous with the term soul, music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm and blues into a form of funky, secular testifying." Readers of the British music newspaper Melody Maker voted him the top vocalist of 1967, superseding Elvis Presley, who had topped the list for the prior 10 years. In 1988, he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. Five years later, the United States Post Office issued a 29-cent commemorative postage stamp in his honor. Redding was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1994, and in 1999 he received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame included three Redding recordings, "Shake", "(Sittin' On) The Dock of the Bay", and "Try a Little Tenderness," on its list of "The 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll." American music magazine Rolling Stone ranked Redding at number 21 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" and eighth on their list of the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time". Q ranked Redding fourth among "100 Greatest Singers", after only Frank Sinatra, Franklin and Presley.
Five of his albums, Otis Blue: Otis Redding Sings Soul, Dreams to Remember: The Otis Redding Anthology, The Dock of the Bay, Complete & Unbelievable: The Otis Redding Dictionary of Soul and Live in Europe, were ranked by Rolling Stone on their list of the "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". The first album was singled out for praise by music critics; apart from the Rolling Stone listing at number 74, NME ranked it 35 on their list of the "Greatest Albums of All Time". Music critic Robert Christgau said that Otis Blue was "the first great album by one of soul's few reliable long-form artists", and that Redding's "original LPs were among the most intelligently conceived black albums of the '60s".
In 2002, the city of Macon honored its native son by unveiling a memorial statue (Otis Redding Memorial Bridge, which crosses the Ocmulgee River. The Otis Redding Memorial Library is also housed in the city. The Rhythm and Blues Foundation named Redding as the recipient of its 2006 Pioneer Award. Billboard awarded Redding the "Otis Redding Excellence Award" the same year. A year later he was inducted into the Hollywood's Rockwalk in California. On August 17, 2013, in Cleveland, Ohio, the city where he did his last show at Leo's Casino, Redding was inducted into the inaugural class of the Official Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame at Cleveland State University.) in the city's Gateway Park. The park is next to the
Posthumous studio albums
- Labrie 1968, p. 38.
- Phelps 1997, p. 179.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 164–167.
- Bowman 1997, p. 40.
- Brown 2001, p. 10.
- Wall Street Journal; "Singing You Out of Your Shoes"; Dean, Eddie; May 27, 2017
- White 2003, p. 229.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 395–396.
- Brown 2001, p. 11.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 397–399.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 167–168.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 166.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 168.
- Gulla 2007, p. 398.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 401–408.
- "Otis Redding's 'Unfinished Life' Still Resonates". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-05-14.
- Reed, William (April 26, 2012). "The Howard Theatre: "The People's Place"". Washington Informer. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 400–401.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 159.
- Brown 2001, p. 16.
- "Otis Redding". Stax Museum of American Soul Music. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- Freeman 2002, p. 77.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 175.
- Gulla 2007, p. 396.
- Brown 2001, pp. 39–40.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 175–176.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 177–179.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 183.
- "Otis Redding – Awards". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Bowman 1997, p. 57.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 178–180.
- Mendelsohn, Jason; Klinger, Eric (December 9, 2011). "Counterbalance No. 61: 'Otis Blue/Otis Redding Sings Soul'". Popmatters. SPIN Music Group. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
- Bowman 1997, p. 105.
- "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. December 9, 2004. Archived from the original on June 25, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- "Biography". Otis Redding Official Website. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Bowman 1997, p. 59.
- Inglis 2006, pp. 28–38.
- Bowman 1997, pp. 105–107.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 408–410.
- "Complete & Unbelievable: The Otis Redding Dictionary of Soul". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
- Bowman 1997, p. 117.
- Brown 2001, pp. 116–117.
- Brown 2001, p. 117.
- Graham & Greenfield 2004, p. 173.
- Bowman 1997, p. 103.
- Bowman 1997, pp. 110–111.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 379–380.
- Comaratta, Len (October 3, 2010). "Rock History 101: Otis Redding at the Monterey Pop Festival". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
- Echols 2000, p. 164.
- Inglis 2006, pp. 34–37.
- Brown 2001, p. 2.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 387.
- Gulla 2007, pp. 411–413.
- Richie Unterberger. "Sweet Soul Music". Rovi Corporation. Allmusic. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- Jet 1967, p. 55.
- Everitt 2004, p. 53.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 388–391.
- Bowman 1997, pp. 132, 391.
- Talevski 2006, p. 540.
- "Leo's Casino". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. May 23, 2001. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Knutsen, Kristian (October 12, 2007). "Otis Redding at The Factory: One night only in Madison". The Daily Page. Isthmus Publishing Company, Inc. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- According to the historical marker as seen here. Fraser had had a mechanic check the plane for possible issues.
- Brown 2001, p. 137.
- "CHI68A0053". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Brown 2001, p. 140.
- Jet 1967, p. 58.
- Jet 1967, p. 52, 63.
- "Body of Singer Recovered from Crashed Plane". Bridgeport Telegram. Associated Press. 12 December 1967. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 395–396.
- Sime, John H. (June 12, 2007). "Otis Redding Funeral". Sime Funeral Home. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- Gilliland 1969, Show 51.
- Jet 1967, p. 60.
- Jet 1967, p. 62.
- Jet 1985, p. 64.
- Jet 1987, pp. 17–18.
- Foley, Ryan J (December 3, 2007). "Otis Redding remembered". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
- Lichter-Marck, Rose (March 25, 2011). "The undying soul of Otis". The Daily Holdings, Inc. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Otfinoski 2003, p. 194.
- "Honors". Otis Redding Official Website. Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "1968 Top 40 Official UK Albums Archive 22nd June 1968". London: The Official Charts Company. 2010. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
- Bowman 1997, pp. 138–142.
- "Dreams To Remember: The Legacy of Otis Redding (2007)". Amazon.com, Inc. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- Jurek, Thom. "Live on the Sunset Strip". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Bowman 1997, p. 107.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 390.
- Gulla 2007, p. 397.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 182.
- Labrie 1968, p. 40.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 381.
- Jet 1967, pp. 61–62.
- Gulla 2007, p. 412.
- Gulla 2007, p. xxi.
- "Otis Redding". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Allmusic – Otis Redding – Biography". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
- Campbell & Brody 2007, pp. 189–191.
- "8) Otis Redding". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Archived from the original on June 25, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- Buckley 2003, p. 858.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 176–177.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 161.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 184.
- Unterberger 1999, p. 224.
- "Otis Redding". Songwriters Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- Bowman 1997, pp. 103–104.
- Seidenberg, Robert (December 9, 1994). "Death of the King of Soul". Entertainment Weekly (252). Retrieved November 25, 2012.
Paying tribute to the King of Soul – Twenty-seven years after his death, Otis Redding's influences is still strong
- "James Brown Crowned "King of Soul' at the Apollo Theater". Jet. 43 (3): 59. October 12, 1972. ISSN 0021-5996.
To Mark the ten years, officials at the Apollo crowned Brown 'King of Soul'
- Appiah 2004, p. 146.
- P. Browne & R. Browne 2001, p. 672.
- Ripani 2006, p. 85.
- "Otis Redding – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". library.eb.co.uk. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
- Stanton 2003, p. 206.
- Guralnick 1999, pp. 161–162.
- Inglis 2006, pp. 34–35.
- MacDonald 2005, p. 166.
- Buckley 2003, p. 171.
- Rollin 1967, p. 207.
- Palmer & DeCurtis 2009, p. 241.
- Bream 2010, p. 227.
- "In Popular Culture". Otis Redding Official Website. Retrieved July 2, 2011.[dead link]
- P. Browne & R. Browne 2001, p. 502.
- Gulla 2007, p. 414.
- "Music: Otis Redding". Janis Joplin Official Website. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Otis Redding Biography". The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- Guralnick 1999, p. 389.
- "African-American Subjects on United States Postage Stamps" (PDF). United States Post Office. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- "Lifetime Achievement Award". The Recording Academy. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- "500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll". HighBeam Research, LLC. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- Steve Cropper. "Otis Redding". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Archived from the original on June 20, 2011. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- "Q – 100 Greatest Singers". Rocklistsmusic.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- "Greatest Albums of All Time". NME. IPC Media: 29. February 10, 1993. ISSN 0028-6362. Retrieved October 6, 2011.
- Christgau, Robert (May 2008). "Otis Redding: Otis Blue". Blender. New York. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (September 1, 1987). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
- "African American Heritage". Macon-Bibb County Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
- "Pioneer Awards". Rhythm & Blues Foundation. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
- Appiah, Kwame Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis; Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (2004). Africana: An A-to-Z Reference of Writers, Musicians, and Artists of the African American Experience. Running Press. ISBN 978-0-7624-2042-1. OCLC 57444998.
- Bowman, Rob (1997). Soulsville U.S.A.: The Story of Stax Records. Schirmer Trade. ISBN 978-0-8256-7284-2. OCLC 36824884.
- Bream, Jon (2010). Whole Lotta Led Zeppelin: The Illustrated History of the Heaviest Band of All Time. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-3955-8.
- Brown, Geoff (2001). Otis Redding: Try a Little Tenderness (new ed.). Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-316-8.
- Browne, Pat; Browne, Ray B. (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Bowling Green State University Popular Press. ISBN 978-0-87972-821-2. OCLC 44573365.
- Buckley, Peter (November 20, 2003). The Rough Guide Rock: The Definitive Guide to More than 1200 Artists and Bands. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-105-0. OCLC 41389620.
- Campbell, Michael; Brody, James (2007). Rock and Roll: An Introduction. Schirmer. ISBN 978-0-534-64295-2. OCLC 40861912.
- Echols, Alice (2000). Scars of Sweet Paradise: The Life and Times of Janis Joplin. H. Holt. ISBN 978-0-8050-5394-4. OCLC 43510359.
- Everitt, Rich (2004). Falling Stars: Air Crashes That Filled Rock and Roll Heaven. Harbor House. ISBN 978-1-891799-04-4. OCLC 55846282.
- Freeman, Scott (2002). Otis!: The Otis Redding Story. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-30297-9. OCLC 47443887.
- Gilliland, John (1969). "The Soul Reformation: Phase Three, Soul Music at the Summit" (audio). Pop Chronicles. University of North Texas Libraries.
- Graham, Bill; Greenfield, Robert (2004). Bill Graham Presents: My Life Inside Rock and Out. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81349-8. OCLC 474578246.
- Gulla, Bob (2007). Icons of R&B and Soul: An Encyclopedia of the Artists Who Revolutionized Rhythm, Volume 1. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-34044-4. OCLC 220310006.
- Guralnick, Peter (1999). Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom. Back Bay Books. ISBN 978-0-316-33273-6. OCLC 41950519.
- Inglis, Ian (2006). Performance and Popular Music: History, Place, and Time. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-4057-8. OCLC 57893942.
- MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (Second Revised ed.). Pimlico (Rand). ISBN 978-0-8050-2780-8.
- Higgins, Chester (December 28, 1967). "Eyewitness Tells of Otis Redding's Violent Death". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 33 (12). ISSN 0021-5996.
- Johnson, John J, ed. (June 10, 1985). "Otis Redding's Sons, Nephew Chart Own Musical Course". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 68 (13). ISSN 0021-5996.
- Johnson, John J, ed. (July 27, 1987). "20 Years Later Otis Redding Still Buried in Tomb on Family's Ga. Farm". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 72 (18). ISSN 0021-5996.
- Labrie, Peter (April 1968). "The Flame That Died". Black World/Negro Digest. Johnson Publishing Company. 17 (6).
- Otfinoski, Steven (2003). African Americans in the Performing Arts (A to Z of African Americans). Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-4807-6. OCLC 49558659.
- Palmer, Robert; DeCurtis, Anthony (2009). Blues & Chaos: The Music Writing of Robert Palmer. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-9974-6.
- Phelps, Shirelle (November 21, 1997). Contemporary Black Biography. 16. Gale Research Inc. ISBN 978-0-7876-1225-2. OCLC 38062510.
- Ripani, Richard J. (2006). The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-862-3. OCLC 69732900.
- Rolling Stone Magazine Staff (1967). The Rolling Stone Record Review. 1. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-78531-4.
- Stanton, Scott (September 2, 2003). The Tombstone Tourist: Musicians. Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-7434-6330-0. OCLC 38752235.
- Talevski, Nick (2006). Knocking on Heaven's Door. Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-1-84609-091-2. OCLC 64555765.
- Unterberger, Richie (1999). The Rough Guide to Music USA. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-421-7.
- White, Charles (2003). The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Authorized Biography (3 ed.). Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-7119-9761-5. OCLC 52947711.
- Schiesel, Jane (1973). The Otis Redding Story (1st ed.). Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-02335-1.
- Delehant, Jim (2004). David Brackett, ed. The Pop, Rock, and Soul Reader: Histories and Debates. New York: Oxford University Press. "The Blues Changes from Day to Day" "Otis Redding Interview". OCLC 628872571.