Anders Behring Breivik: Difference between revisions

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==External links==
 
==External links==
 
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*Breivik's manifesto and video are posted at [[LiveLeak]]<sup>[http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=89a_1311444384]</sup> and on the (unaffiliated) [http://andersbreivik.co.uk/ andersbreivik.co.uk].
 
 
*[[Washington Times]]: ''[http://www.washingtontimes.com/blog/robbins-report/2011/jul/23/oslo-terrorist-his-own-words/ The Oslo Terrorist in His Own Words]'' – Summary of Breivik's political beliefs.
 
*[[Washington Times]]: ''[http://www.washingtontimes.com/blog/robbins-report/2011/jul/23/oslo-terrorist-his-own-words/ The Oslo Terrorist in His Own Words]'' – Summary of Breivik's political beliefs.
 
*[[BBC]]: ''[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14276074 Norway attacks: The victims]'' – The eight Oslo bomb victims and the 69 youth camp victims.
 
*[[BBC]]: ''[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14276074 Norway attacks: The victims]'' – The eight Oslo bomb victims and the 69 youth camp victims.

Revision as of 10:51, 9 August 2011

Anders Behring Breivik
Born (1979-02-13) 13 February 1979 (age 39)[1]
Oslo, Norway[2]
Other namesAndrew Berwick,[3] Sigurd (Jorsalfar)[4]
CitizenshipNorwegian
Alma materOslo Commerce School
OccupationBusinessman
Known for2011 Norway attacks

Anders Behring Breivik (Norwegian pronunciation: ['ɑnəʂ 'beːɾiŋ 'bɾæɪʋiːk]; born 13 February 1979)[1] is a Norwegian right-wing extremist[7] and the confessed perpetrator[8][9] of dual terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011: the bombing of government buildings in Oslo that resulted in 8 deaths, and the mass shooting at a camp of the Workers' Youth League (AUF) of the Labour Party on the island of Utøya where he killed 69 people, mostly teenagers.[10][11][12]

Breivik's far-right[13] militant ideology is described in a compendium of texts, titled 2083 – A European Declaration of Independence and distributed electronically by Breivik on the day of the attacks[13][14] under the anglicised pseudonym Andrew Berwick.[15][16] In it he lays out his xenophobic worldview, which includes support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, far-right Zionism and Serbian paramilitarism.[17][18] It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy, and argues for the violent annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe.[13][19][20][21] A video Breivik released on Youtube 6 hours before the attack, has been described as promoting violence towards Muslims and Marxists who reside in Europe.[22]

Breivik has confessed to what he calls "atrocious but necessary" actions, but denies criminal responsibility.[23][24] Breivik claimed contact with Norwegian and international far-right political movements,[25][26] and claims to belong to an international anti-Islam network with two cells in Norway and more in other countries. Police and experts doubt these claims but have not dismissed them completely.[24]

On 25 July 2011, Breivik was charged with "destabilising or destroying basic functions of society" and "creating serious fear in the population",[24] acts of terrorism under the criminal law, and ordered held for eight weeks—the first four in solitary confinement—pending further court proceedings.[11][27] Prosecutors are considering charging him with crimes against humanity under a 2008 law.[28]

Biography

Early life

Breivik was born in Oslo, on 13 February 1979,[29] the son of Wenche Behring, a nurse, and Jens David Breivik, a Siviløkonom (Norwegian professional title, literally "civil economist"), who worked as a diplomat for the Royal Norwegian Embassy in London and later Paris.[30] He spent the first year of his life in London until his parents divorced when he was one year old. His father, who later married a diplomat, fought for his custody but failed. Breivik lived with his mother and his half sister in the west-end of Oslo and regularly visited his father and stepmother in France, until they divorced when he was 12. His mother also remarried, to a Norwegian Army officer.[31]

Anders Breivik criticised both of his parents for supporting the policies of the Norwegian Labour Party, and his mother for being a moderate feminist. He wrote about his upbringing: "I do not approve of the super-liberal, matriarchal upbringing as it completely lacked discipline and has contributed to feminising me to a certain degree."

Breivik attended Smestad Grammar School, Ris Junior High, Hartvig Nissen High School and Oslo Commerce School.[32] A former classmate has recalled that he was an intelligent student who often took care of people who were bullied.[33] Breivik chose to be baptised into the Protestant Church of Norway at the age of 15.[6][34] When he reached adolescence, Breivik's behaviour became more rebellious and wayward. He and his gang of friends would reportedly spend their evenings hanging around in Oslo, spraying tags and graffiti on buildings. He admits in his compendium that at the age of 15 and 16 he inflicted property damage of approximately € 700 000, including the destruction of 20 high tech ticket systems in a "war" against Oslo Sporveier, the Oslo public transport company at the time.

After he was caught spraying graffiti on walls, his father stopped contact with him in at age 16, in 1995.[35] They have not been in contact since then.

Adulthood

Breivik was exempt from conscription to military service in the Norwegian Army and has no military training.[36] The Norwegian Defence Security Department, who conducts the vetting process, say he was deemed "unfit for service" at the mandatory conscript assessment.[37] In 1997, at age 19, he lost 2 million kr. ($369,556[38]) in the stock market.[39] At age 21, he had plastic surgery performed to reshape his forehead, nose and chin.[39]

After the age of 21, Breivik was in the customer service department of an unnamed company, working with "people from all countries" and being "kind to everyone".[40] A former co-worker has described him as an "exceptional colleague",[41] while a close friend of his stated that he usually had a big ego and would be easily irritated by those of Middle Eastern or South Asian origin.[42]

Planning attacks

Breivik claims that he started a nine-year-plan to finance the attacks age 23 in 2002, founding his own "computer programming" business while working at the customer service company. He claims that his company grew to six employees and "several offshore bank accounts", and that he made his first million kroner at the age of 24.[43] The company was later declared bankrupt and Breivik was reported for several breaches of the law.[44] To save money, he moved back to his mother's home. His declared assets in 2007 were about 630,000 kr. ($116,410[38]), according to Norwegian tax authority figures.[40] He claims that by 2008 he had about two million kroner ($369,556[38]) and nine credit cards giving him access to €26,000 in credit.[43]

In May 2009 he founded a farming company under the name "Breivik Geofarm",[45] described as a farming sole proprietorship set up to cultivate vegetables, melons, roots and tubers.[46] In the same year he visited Prague in an attempt to buy illegal weapons. The attempt was a failure, and Breivik decided to obtain weapons through legal channels instead.[47] He had no declared income in 2009 and his assets amounted to 390,000 kroner ($72,063[38]), according to Norwegian tax authority figures.[40] In January 2010 he states that his funds are "depleting gradually". On 23 June 2011, a month before the attacks, he paid the outstanding amount on his nine credit cards in order to have access to funds while he continued his preparations.[43] In late June or early July 2011, he moved to a rural area south of Åsta in Åmot, Hedmark county, about 140 km (86 miles) northeast of Oslo,[48] the site of his farm. As he admits in his manifesto he used the company as a cover to legally obtain large amounts of artificial fertiliser and other chemicals for the manufacturing of explosives.[48] A farming supplier sold Breivik's company six tonnes of fertiliser in May.[49] Newspaper Verdens Gang reported that after Breivik bought large amounts of fertiliser from an online shop in Poland, his name was among 60 passed to the Police Security Service (PST) by Norwegian Customs as having used the store to buy products. Speaking to the newspaper, Jon Fitje of PST said the information they found gave no indication of anything suspicious. In his manifesto Breivik described his first experiments with explosives, and details a successful test detonation at a remote location on 13 June 2011.[50] He sets the cost of the preparations for the attacks at 317,000 – "130,000 out of pocket and 187,500 euros in lost revenue over three years." [sic][40]

2011 attacks

Downtown Oslo, shortly after the detonation there.
Flowers laid in front of Oslo Cathedral the day after the attacks.

On 22 July 2011, Breivik allegedly bombed government buildings in Oslo, which resulted in eight deaths.

Within hours after the explosion he arrived at Utøya island, the site of a Labour Party youth camp, posing as a police officer and then opened fire on the unarmed adolescents present, reportedly killing 69.[12][51][52] The youngest victim was Sharidyn Svebakk-Bøhn[53], who had just turned 14 years old.[54]

Breivik confessed and stated the purpose of the attack was to save Norway and Western Europe from a Muslim takeover and "[t]he price for this they had to pay yesterday."

When armed police arrived on the island and confronted him, he surrendered without resistance.[55] After arrest and outside court, Breivik was met with an angry crowd, some of whom shouted "burn in hell" or "traitor of country", while some used stronger words.[52][56][57]

Preliminary psychological assessments

Breivik's lawyer Geir Lippestad has stated that Breivik may be insane.[58] The chief of the Norwegian Police Security Service disputes the claim Breivik is insane saying "His lawyer is not a psychologist and neither am I. But I have previously been a defense attorney and I perceive him as a sane person because he has been so focused over such a long time."[59] Breivik is currently undergoing examination by court-appointed psychiatrists[60].

Writings and video

Forums

Janne Kristiansen, Chief of the Norwegian Police Security Service (PST), has stated that Breivik "deliberately desisted from violent exhortations on the net [and] has more or less been a moderate, and has neither been part of any extremist network."[61] He is reported to have written many posts on the Islam-critical[62] website document.no.[63] He also attended meetings of "Documents venner" (Friends of Document), affiliated with the website.[64] Due to the media attention on his Internet activity following the 2011 attacks, document.no compiled a complete list of comments made by Breivik on its website between September 2009 and June 2010.[65][66][67]

In his writings Breivik displays admiration for the English Defence League (EDL), expressing an interest in starting a similar organisation in Norway, and writing that he had advised them to pursue a strategy of provoking overreaction from "Jihad Youth/Extreme-Marxists" which in turn might draw more people to join the organisation.[19][68] On 25 July 2011 British Prime Minister David Cameron announced a review of Britain's own security following the attacks.[69] EDL issued a statement on 24 July 2011 condemning the attacks, saying that "No form of terrorism can ever be justified and the taking of innocent lives, can never be justified".[70] Some editorialists criticised the EDL and other anti-Muslim groups in this context.[25][71][72] Dagens Næringsliv writes that Breivik sought to start a Norwegian version of the Tea Party movement in cooperation with the owners of document.no, but that they, after expressing initial interest, ultimately turned down his proposal because he did not have the contacts he promised.[73] He also expressed his admiration of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin (Putinism), finding him "a fair and resolute leader worth of respect", though he was "unsure at this point whether he has the potential to be our best friend or our worst enemy." Putin's spokesperson Dmitri Peskov has denounced Breivik's actions as the "delirium of a madman".[74]

Youtube video

Six hours before the attacks, Breivik posted a YouTube video urging conservatives to "embrace martyrdom" and showing himself wearing a compression garment and pointing a Special forces Assault Rifle 1.[75] He also posted a picture of himself pretending to be a military officer in a costume festooned with gold braid and multiple medals.[76] In the video he put an animation depicting Islam as a trojan horse in Europe.[77] Some analysts describe it as promoting physical violence towards Muslims and Marxists who reside in Europe.[78]

Manifesto

File:Anders Behring Breivik in diving suit with gun (self portrait).jpg
Breivik posing in a wet suit, in a photo released with his manifesto six hours before the attacks. The insignia on his left shoulder reads: "Marxist Hunter – Norway – Multiculti traitor hunting permit".[79]

Breivik is linked to a compendium entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence bearing the name "Andrew Berwick", the file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo.[80][81] CNN has not been able to independently verify that the document was written by Breivik. Police told the Norwegian newspaper VG that the document is “linked”. The compendium describes two years of preparation of unspecified attacks, supposedly planned for autumn 2011, involving a rented Volkswagen Crafter van (just small enough not to require a truck driving license) loaded with 1160 kg of ANFO, a Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic rifle ("the most 'army like' rifle allowed in Norway, although it is considered a 'poor man’s' AR-15"), a Glock 34 pistol, personal armor including a shield, caltrops, and police insignias. It also reports spending thousands of hours on "email farming" on Facebook for distribution of the compendium, and renting a farm as a cover for a fake farming company buying fertilizer and as a lab for production of the explosives. It describes burrying a crate with the armor etc. in July 2010 in the woods, and collecting it on July 4, 2011, and abandoning his plan to replace it with survival gear because he did not have a second pistol. The entry for the day of the attacks mentions blasting sequences, though at Kautokeino for mining, and dressing up as a police officer, though as something he planned to do at a costume party in the autumn.[82]

The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining "Cultural Marxism" is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation.[83][84][85] Major parts of the compendium are attributed to the pseudonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman.[86] The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while exchanging the words "leftists" for "cultural Marxists" and "black people" for "muslims".[87] The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length.[88] The work of Bat Ye'or[89] is cited dozens of times.[90] blogger Pamela Geller,[91] Middle-eastern expert Bernard Lewis, Edmund Burke, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Jefferson, and George Orwell.[92] Neo-pagan writer Koenraad Elst[93] and Daniel Pipes are also mentioned as sources of inspiration.[94] The compendium also quotes from Jeremy Clarkson's Sunday Times column as well as Melanie Phillips' Daily Mail column.[95] The publication has admiration of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković,[96] and Henryk M. Broder.[97] The compendium advocates a restoration of patriarchy which it claims would save European culture.[98][99]

Breivik wants to see European policies on multiculturalism and immigration more similar to those of Japan and South Korea,[100] which he said are "not far from cultural conservatism and nationalism at its best".[101] He expressed his admiration for the "monoculturalism" of Japan and for the two nations' refusal to accept refugees.[102][103]

The compendium contains some portraits of Breivik, and explains that he avoided a professional photographer because the regalia he intended to use in the photo session for marketing purposes would obviously generate suspicion. Lack of professional digital equipment, green sheet background and other related and expensive photo gear could be compensated by his Photoshop skills.

Religious views

Islamophobia

Following his apprehension, Breivik was characterized by officials as being a right-wing extremist. The acting police chief said the suspect’s Internet postings "suggest that he has some political traits directed toward the right, and Islamophobia views, but if that was a motivation for the actual act remains to be seen." He was at first described by many in the media as a Christian fundamentalist, Christian terrorist, nationalist and right-wing extremist.[7][21][52][104][105][106] He claims that the European Union is a project to create "Eurabia"[107][108][109] and describes the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia as being authorised by "criminal western European and American leaders".[110] The Jerusalem Post describes him as pro-Israel and strongly opposed to Islam, and asserts that his manifesto includes "extreme screed of Islamophobia" and "far-right Zionism".[13]

Breivik claimed he had contact with the English Defence League (EDL)[25] and claimed to have been involved with the Norwegian Defence League (NDL),[26] The NDL had held a failed rally in Norway in April 2011[111]On 26 July 2011 EDL leader Stephen Yaxley-Lennon denounced Breivik and his attacks and has denied any links with him.[70]

He sympathises with the Serbian paramilitarism.[18] He blames feminism for allowing the erosion of the fabric of European society.[112] The manifesto urges the Hindu nationalists to drive Muslims out of India.[113] He demands the gradual deportation of all Muslims from Europe through repatriation.[114]

Christianity

In 2009, he wrote "Today's Protestant church is a joke. Priests in jeans who march for Palestine and churches that look like minimalist shopping centres. I am a supporter of an indirect collective conversion of the Protestant church back to the Catholic."[115] On his Facebook profile, Breivik described himself as a Christian,[19] though he is critical of the Catholic and Protestant churches, objecting to their "current suicidal path". Before the attacks, he stated an intention to attend Frogner Church in a final "Martyr's mass".[116]

The manifesto states its author is "100 percent Christian",[6] and he is not "excessively religious"[6] and considers himself a "cultural Christian" and a "modern-day crusader".[5][6] His manifesto states "I'm not going to pretend I'm a very religious person, as that would be a lie", calls religion a crutch and a source for drawing mental strength, and says "I've always been very pragmatic and influenced by my secular surroundings and environment"; regarding the term "cultural Christian" which he says means preserving European culture, he notes "It is enough that you are a Christian-agnostic or a Christian atheist (an atheist who wants to preserve at least the basics of the European Christian cultural legacy..."[106][5] Furthermore, Breivik stated that "myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God."[5][117] Nevertheless, he stated that he planned to pray to God seeking for his help during his attacks.[118]

Breivik condemns Pope Benedict XVI for his dialogue with Islam: "Pope Benedict has abandoned Christianity and all Christian Europeans and is to be considered a cowardly, incompetent, corrupt and illegitimate Pope." It will thus be necessary, writes Breivik, to overthrow the Protestant and Catholic hierarchies, after which a "Great Christian Congress" would set up a new European Church.[119] He has also condemned Christian missionary activity in India as it would lead to the "total destruction of the Hindu faith and culture", and he expresses support for the Hindutva movement against Indian Communist movements.[120]

American Christian press has also highlighted that Breivik appears to have addressed followers of the Neopagan religion of Odinism – the ethnocentric branch of Greater European Heathenry – in his writ. In regards to them, he says, “even Odinists can fight with us or by our side as brothers” in the Knights Templar organization that Breivik claims to be a founding member of. He later says to reject Odinism, saying that the Thor's Hammer cannot unify the people of Europe, but that the Christian cross will.[121]

Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that information on Breivik's websites was "so to speak, Christian fundamentalist"[52][122][123][124] Subsequently, others have disputed Andresen's characterisation of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist.[119][125] Rev. Olav Fykse Tveit, head of the World Council of Churches and himself Norwegian, accused Breivik of blasphemy for citing Christianity as a justification in his murderous attack.[5][126]

Links to organisations

Clubs and political movements

Breivik was an active member of an Oslo shooting club between 2005 and 2007, and since 2010. According to the club, which has banned him for life, Breivik had taken part in 13 organised training sessions and one competition since June 2010.[127] The club states that it does not evaluate the members' suitability regarding possession of weapons. Oslo Pistolklubb

31 July 2011, Interpol requested Maltese police to investigate the blogger Lionheart, real name Paul Ray. He is a former member of the English Defence League. Mr Ray conceded that he may have been the inspiration for the Norwegian mass murderer, but deplored his actions. Mr Ray is an associate of Neo-Nazi Nick Greger, whose photograph in the Sunday Times, Malta edition bears the caption "Order Commander". The group including Johnny "Mad Dog" Adair, a notorious name in Northern Ireland connected with The Troubles met in Malta in March.[128][129]

Breivik listed Freemasonry as one of his interests on his Facebook page.[130] He had displayed photographs of himself in Masonic regalia on his Facebook profile,[131][132] although the regalia in the photo was incomplete,[citation needed] and was a member of St. Olaus T.D. Tre Søiler No. 8 in Oslo.[133] In interviews after the attacks, his lodge stated they had only minimal contact with him, and that when made aware of Breivik's membership, Grand Master of the Norwegian Order of Freemasons, Ivar A. Skaar issued an edict immediately excluding him from the fraternity based upon the acts he carried out and the values that appear to have motivated them.[134][135] His manifesto said that he took three degrees of Freemasonry and commended them as "keepers of cultural heritage" while also criticising it for being “not in any way political.”[136] The Norwegian Order of Freemasons said that during the four and a half years he was a member he only took part in four meetings and held no offices or functions within the Lodge.[137]

Progress Party

Breivik was previously a member of the anti-immigration Progress Party (FrP), which promotes libertarian, conservative and right-wing populist viewpoints[138][139][140] and its youth wing FpU from 1997 to 2007, acting as deputy chairman for one of the local Oslo chapters.[141] According to current FpU leader Ove Vanebo, Breivik was active early in the 2000s, but left the party in 2007 as his viewpoints became more extreme.[142]

Knights Templar (PCCTS)

In his manifesto and during interrogation, Breivik claimed membership in an "international Christian military order", which he calls the new Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici (PCCTS, Knights Templar).[141] According to Breivik, the order was established as an "anti-Jihad crusader-organisation" that "fights" against "Islamic suppression" in London in April 2002 by nine men: two Englishmen, a Frenchman, a German, a Dutchman, a Greek, a Russian, a Norwegian (apparently Breivik), and a Serb (supposedly the initiator, not present, but represented by Breivik). The compendium gives a "2008 estimate" that there are between 15 and 80 "Justiciar Knights" in Western Europe, and an unknown number of civilian members, and Breivik expects the order to take political and military control of Western Europe.[143]

Breivik gives his own code name in the organization as Sigurd and that of his assigned "mentor" as Richard, after the twelfth-century crusaders and kings Sigurd Jorsalfare of Norway and Richard the Lionheart of England.[4] He calls himself a one-man cell of this organization, and claims that the group has several other cells in Western countries, including two more in Norway.[24] On 2 August 2011 Breivik made a list of unrealistic demands, in exchange for information about these cells.[144]

Influences

Breivik has identified himself in a multitude of social media services as an admirer of, among others Serbian paramilitarism,[18] the Freedom Party of Austria,[145][146] Hindu nationalism (Hindutva),[147] the right-wing Swiss People's Party,[148] Winston Churchill,[149] Max Manus,[122][149] Robert Spencer,[150] former Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso,[103] Patrick Buchanan,[98] Ayaan Hirsi Ali,[151] and Dutch politician Geert Wilders (whose political party he described on the website of the periodical Minerva as one among the few that could "truly claim to be conservative parties in their whole culture").[152] On Twitter, he paraphrased philosopher John Stuart Mill: "One person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests".[48][153]

According to Belarusian opposition figure Mikhail Reshetnikov, Anders Breivik underwent paramilitary training in a camp organized by retired KGB colonel Valery Lunev. According to Reshetnikov, Breivik visited Belarus three times and had lasting connections with the country. According to official data, however, Breivik visited Belarus only once, as a tourist in 2005.[154]

Breivik has frequently praised the writings of blogger Fjordman.[155] He used Fjordman's thinking to justify his actions, citing him 111 times in the manifesto.[156] He also endorsed the writings of Australian historian Keith Windschuttle in the manifesto 2083, as well as former Australian Prime Minister John Howard and Treasurer Peter Costello.[157] He expressed admiration for historical military leaders such as Charles Martel, Richard Lionheart, El Cid, Vlad III the Impaler, Jacques de Molay, Nicholas I of Russia, and John III Sobieski.[158]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rayment, Sean (25 July 2011). "Modest boy who became a mass murderer". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  2. ^ "Dagens navn". Aftenposten, morgen. 15 February 1979. p. 10. Aker hospital, Oslo, 13. February 1979. A boy. Name of parents. In Norwegian: (Aker sykehus, 13. ds.: En gutt. Wenche og Jens Breivik)
  3. ^ Erlanger, Steven; Shane, Scott (23 July 2011). "Christian Extremist Charged in Norway". New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Skulle drepe 4848 nordmenn" (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help)
  5. ^ a b c d e "Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key". International Business Times. (25 July 2011). Accessed 26 July 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d e Gibson, David (28 July 2011). "Is Anders Breivik a 'Christian' terrorist?". Times Union. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  7. ^ a b "Man held after Norway attacks right-wing extremist: report". Reuters. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  8. ^ "Norway suspect admits responsibility". Sky News. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  9. ^ "Slik var dramaet på Utøya". Verdens Gang. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  10. ^ Gavin Hewitt. "Norway gunman 'has accomplices'". BBC. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  11. ^ a b Steven Erlanger and Alan Cowell (25 July 2011). "Norway suspect hints that he did not act alone". The New York Times.
  12. ^ a b "Death Toll in Norway Attacks Rises to 77". ABC News. 29 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  13. ^ a b c d 'Norway attack suspect had anti-Muslim, pro-Israel views'. Ben Hartman, The Jerusalem Post, 24 July 2011
  14. ^ Kumano-Ensby, Anne Linn (23 July 2011). "Sendte ut ideologisk bokmanus en time før bomben". NRK News (in Norwegian). Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  15. ^ AVKRISTINA OVERN  . "Var aktiv i norsk antiislamsk organisasjon – Nyheter – Innenriks". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  16. ^ Bjoern Amland and Sarah Dilorenzo (24 July 2011). "Lawyer: Norway suspect wanted a revolution". Forbes. Associated Press. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  17. ^ http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/in-diary-norwegian-crusader-details-months-of-preparation-for-attacks/2011/07/24/gIQACYnUXI_story.html
  18. ^ a b c eurasiareview.com. 26 July 2011 title=Norway’s Bomber Should Leave The Balkans Alone http://www.eurasiareview.com/norway%E2%80%99s-bomber-should-leave-the-balkans-alone-oped-26072011/ title=Norway’s Bomber Should Leave The Balkans Alone Check |url= value (help). Text " authorBalkan Insight" ignored (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. ^ a b c "Norwegian Massacre Gunman was a Right-Wing Extremist who hated Muslims". The Daily Mail. 24 July 2011.
  20. ^ Norwegian Crime and Punishment by Debra J. Saunders, San Francisco Chronicle, 26 July 2011 ~ "... the anti-multiculturalism, anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist message of his 1,500-page manifesto."
  21. ^ a b Goodman, J. David (23 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  22. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/norway/8657669/Norway-shootings-Anders-Behring-Breiviks-YouTube-video-posted-hours-before-killings.html
  23. ^ "Suspect mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik denies criminal responsibility". Herald Sun. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  24. ^ a b c d Reuters (26 July 2011). "Norway massacre suspect appears to be insane, his lawyer says". Haaretz.
  25. ^ a b c Craig Murray. "Norwegian Killer Linked to Tea Party and EDL". Craig Murray.
  26. ^ a b "CH4, 25th July 2011". Channel4.com. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  27. ^ "Court ruling in Norwegian from the arraignment hearing in ''Oslo tingrett'' (Oslo District Court), 25 July 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  28. ^ "Norway: Police ponder new Anders Behring Breivik charge". 26 July 2011. Text "BBC" ignored (help)
  29. ^ "Dagens navn". Aftenposten, morgen. 15 February 1979. p. 10. Aker hospital, Oslo, 13. February 1979. A boy. Name of parents. In Norwegian: (Aker sykehus, 13. ds.: En gutt. Wenche og Jens Breivik)
  30. ^ Allen, Peter (23 July 2011). "Norway Killer: Father horrified by Anders Behring Breivik killing spree". Telegraph. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  31. ^ Allen, Peter; Fagge, Nick; Cohen, Tamara (25 July 2011). "Mummy's boy who lurched to the Right was 'privileged' son of diplomat but despised his liberal family". The Telegraph.
  32. ^ Norway gunman's father speaks out: 'He should have taken his own life' The Guardian, 25 July 2011.
  33. ^ Bundgaard, Maria (23. jul. 2011 kl. 18:12), Skolekammerat: Han hjalp mobbeofre Check date values in: |date= (help)
  34. ^ Sadhbh, Walshe (28 July 2011). "The Right Word: Telling left from right". The Guardian (UK).
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  36. ^ Aune, Oddvin, "32-åringen skal tilhøre høyreekstremt miljø", NRK, Oslo Text " "Etter det NRK får opplyst, har ikke den pågrepne noen yrkesmilitær bakgrunn. Han ble fritatt fra verneplikt, og dermed har han ikke spesialutdanning eller utenlandsoppdrag for Forsvaret." – "From what NRK have been informed, the suspect has no military background. He was exempt from conscription and therefore has no special military training or service abroad."" ignored (help)
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