Wikimedia Foundation: Difference between revisions

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{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2015}}
 
{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2015}}
 
{{Infobox organization
 
{{Infobox organization
| name = Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
 
 
| logo = Wikimedia Foundation RGB logo with text.svg
 
| logo = Wikimedia Foundation RGB logo with text.svg
 
| type = [[501(c)#501(c)(3)|501(c)(3)]], [[charitable organization]]
 
| type = [[501(c)#501(c)(3)|501(c)(3)]], [[charitable organization]]
  +
| key_people = Christophe Henner, [[Chairman|chair]] of the [[board of trustees|board]]<br />[[Katherine Maher]], [[Executive Director]]
  +
| footnotes =
  +
| name = Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
 
| founded_date = {{start date and age|2003|6|20}}<br>[[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]], [[Florida]], [[United States|U.S.]]
 
| founded_date = {{start date and age|2003|6|20}}<br>[[St. Petersburg, Florida|St. Petersburg]], [[Florida]], [[United States|U.S.]]
 
| founder = [[{{#property:p112}}]]
 
| founder = [[{{#property:p112}}]]
 
| location = <!-- Please do not add the street address of the WMF -->[[San Francisco]], [[California]], U.S. / [[Los Angeles]], California (registered agent)
 
| location = <!-- Please do not add the street address of the WMF -->[[San Francisco]], [[California]], U.S. / [[Los Angeles]], California (registered agent)
| key_people = Christophe Henner, [[Chairman|chair]] of the [[board of trustees|board]]<ref name="bot">{{cite web | accessdate =July 22, 2015 | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_of_Trustees | title = Board of Trustees | author = Cbrown1023 | authorlink = foundation:User:Cbrown1023 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation }}</ref><br />[[Katherine Maher]], [[Executive Director]]
 
 
| area_served = Worldwide
 
| area_served = Worldwide
 
| focus = Free, [[open content|open-content]], [[wiki]]-based [[Internet]] projects
 
| focus = Free, [[open content|open-content]], [[wiki]]-based [[Internet]] projects
 
| method = [[Wikipedia]], [[Wiktionary]], [[Wikiquote]], [[Wikibooks]], [[Wikisource]], [[Wikimedia Commons]], [[Wikispecies]], [[Wikinews]], [[Wikiversity]], [[Wikidata]], [[Wikivoyage]], Wikimedia Incubator, [[Meta-Wiki]]
 
| method = [[Wikipedia]], [[Wiktionary]], [[Wikiquote]], [[Wikibooks]], [[Wikisource]], [[Wikimedia Commons]], [[Wikispecies]], [[Wikinews]], [[Wikiversity]], [[Wikidata]], [[Wikivoyage]], Wikimedia Incubator, [[Meta-Wiki]]
| revenue = {{ublist|class=nowrap|{{increase}} [[US$]] 75.8 [[million]] (2015)|52.5 million (2014)<ref name=2014-2015 />}}
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| revenue = {{ublist|class=nowrap|{{increase}} [[US$]] 75.8 [[million]] (2015)|52.5 million (2014)}}
| expenses = {{ublist|class=nowrap|{{decrease}} US$ 52.6 million (2015)|45.9 million (2014)<ref name=2014-2015 />}}
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| expenses = {{ublist|class=nowrap|{{decrease}} US$ {{#expr:{{#time:U}}+52.6}} million (2015)|45.9 million (2014)}}
 
| endowment =
 
| endowment =
 
| num_volunteers =
 
| num_volunteers =
| num_employees = ~280 staff/contractors ({{as of|2015|10|lc=y}})<ref>{{cite web |url=https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Staff_and_contractors|title=Staff and contractors page (Wikimedia Foundation website)|accessdate=August 7, 2015|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation}}</ref>
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| num_employees = ~280 staff/contractors ({{as of|2015|10|lc=y}})
 
| num_members =
 
| num_members =
 
| owner =
 
| owner =
 
| Non-profit_slogan =
 
| Non-profit_slogan =
 
| homepage = {{URL|https://wikimediafoundation.org/}}
 
| homepage = {{URL|https://wikimediafoundation.org/}}
| footnotes =
 
 
}}
 
}}
   
'''Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.''' ('''WMF''') is an American non-profit and [[charitable organization]] headquartered in [[San Francisco]], [[California]]. It is mostly known for participating in the [[Wikimedia movement]]. It owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like [[Wikipedia]]. The [[Foundation (nonprofit)|foundation]] was founded in 2003 by [[Jimmy Wales]] as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means.<ref name="Rupert Neate">{{cite news | first = Rupert | last = Neate | title = Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales goes bananas | url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/3399843/Wikipedia-founder-Jimmy-Wales-goes-bananas.html |work=The Daily Telegraph | date= October 7, 2008 | accessdate =October 25, 2009 | quote = The encyclopedia's huge fan base became such a drain on Bomis's resources that Mr Wales, and co-founder Larry Sanger, thought of a radical new funding model&nbsp;– charity.}}</ref><ref name="Announcing Wikimedia Foundation" />
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'''Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.''' ('''WMF''') is an American non-profit and [[charitable organization]] headquartered in [[San Francisco]], [[California]]. It is mostly known for participating in the [[Wikimedia movement]]. It owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like [[Wikipedia]]. The [[Foundation (nonprofit)|foundation]] was founded in 2003 by [[Jimmy Wales]] as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means.
   
{{As of|2015}}, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of {{US$|75 million|link=yes}}.<ref name=2014-2015 /> Christophe Henner is [[chairman of the board]].<ref name=IrishExaminer2016>{{cite news |url=http://www.irishexaminer.com/examviral/technology-and-gaming/wikipedia-editors-force-trustee-to-resign-378715.html|title=Wikipedia editors force trustee to resign|date=January 28, 2016|work=[[Irish Examiner]]}}</ref> [[Katherine Maher]] is the executive director since March 2016.
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{{As of|2015}}, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of {{US$|75 million|link=yes}}. Christophe Henner is [[chairman of the board]]. [[Katherine Maher]] is the executive director since March 2016.
   
 
== Goal ==
 
== Goal ==
The Wikimedia Foundation's stated goal is to develop and maintain [[open content]], [[wiki]]-based projects and to provide the full contents of those projects to the public [[Gratis|free of charge]].<ref name="wikimedia-mission">{{cite web | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Mission_statement | title = Mission statement | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | accessdate =January 28, 2008 | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Mission_statement&oldid=21859 | archivedate = September 1, 2007 | first = Florence | last = Devouard | authorlink = Florence Devouard }}</ref>
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The Wikimedia Foundation's stated goal is to develop and maintain [[open content]], [[wiki]]-based projects and to provide the full contents of those projects to the public [[Gratis|free of charge]].
   
The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section [[501(c)#501(c)(3)|501(c)(3)]] status by the US [[Internal Revenue Code]] as a public charity in 2005.<ref>Charity Navigator
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The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section [[501(c)#501(c)(3)|501(c)(3)]] status by the US [[Internal Revenue Code]] as a public charity in 2005. Its [[National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities]] (NTEE) code is B60 ([[Adult education|Adult]], [[Continuing education]]). The foundation's [[by-law]]s declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally.
[http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.irs&ein=200049703#.Vq6z_FMrKV4 Charity Navigator IRS (Forms 990) Tab]. Page accessed January 31, 2016</ref> Its [[National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities]] (NTEE) code is B60 ([[Adult education|Adult]], [[Continuing education]]).<ref>{{cite web | url = http://www.guidestar.org/npo/ntee.jsp | title = NTEE Classification System | accessdate =January 28, 2008 }}</ref><ref>{{cite web | url = http://nccs2.urban.org/ntee-cc/b.htm#b60 | title = NCCS definition for Adult Education | accessdate =January 28, 2008|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071226053606/http://nccs2.urban.org/ntee-cc/b.htm|archivedate=December 26, 2007}}</ref> The foundation's [[by-law]]s declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally.<ref>{{cite web | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Wikimedia_Foundation_bylaws#ARTICLE_II_-_STATEMENT_OF_PURPOSE | title = Wikimedia Foundation bylaws | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | accessdate =January 28, 2008 | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Wikimedia_Foundation_bylaws&oldid=20641#ARTICLE_II_-_STATEMENT_OF_PURPOSE | author = Jd | authorlink = foundation:User:Jd | archivedate = April 20, 2007 }}</ref>
 
   
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
In 2001, [[Jimmy Wales]], an [[Internet entrepreneur]], and [[Larry Sanger]], a [[philosopher]] of knowledge and online community organizer, founded Wikipedia and [[Nupedia]] as Internet encyclopedias. The project was originally funded by [[Bomis]], Wales' for-profit business. As Wikipedia's popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled.<ref name="Rupert Neate" /> Since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis' resources, Wales and [[Larry Sanger|Sanger]] thought of a charity model to fund the project.<ref name="Rupert Neate" /> The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20, 2003.<ref name="Announcing Wikimedia Foundation">{{cite web|author=[[Jimmy Wales]]|url=http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2003-June/010743.html |title=Announcing Wikimedia Foundation|date=June 20, 2003|publisher=[[mail:wikipedia-l]]|accessdate=November 26, 2012}}</ref><ref>Florida Department of State, Division of Corporations. [http://search.sunbiz.org/Inquiry/CorporationSearch/SearchResultDetail?inquirytype=EntityName&directionType=Initial&searchNameOrder=WIKIMEDIAFOUNDATION%20N030000053230&aggregateId=domnp-n03000005323-6dc7ff3a-b7ba-4c97-9b9e-4545cef1ca0a&searchTerm=Wikimedia&listNameOrder=WIKIMEDIAFOUNDATION%20N030000053230 Wikimedia Foundation, Inc Record] and [http://search.sunbiz.org/Inquiry/CorporationSearch/ConvertTiffToPDF?storagePath=COR1%5C2003%5C0620%5C90039369.tif&documentNumber=N03000005323 Letters of Incoporation, Wikimedia Foundation], filed June 20, 2003</ref> It applied to the [[United States Patent and Trademark Office]] to trademark ''Wikipedia'' on September 17, 2004. The mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and, in the European Union, on January 20, 2005. There were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs.<ref>{{cite news |first=Vipin |last=Nair|title=Growing on volunteer power |date=December 5, 2005 |publisher=Business Line |url=http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/ew/2005/12/05/stories/2005120500070100.htm |accessdate=December 26, 2008}}</ref>
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In 2001, [[Jimmy Wales]], an [[Internet entrepreneur]], and [[Larry Sanger]], a [[philosopher]] of knowledge and online community organizer, founded Wikipedia and [[Nupedia]] as Internet encyclopedias. The project was originally funded by [[Bomis]], Wales' for-profit business. As Wikipedia's popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled. Since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis' resources, Wales and [[Larry Sanger|Sanger]] thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20, 2003. It applied to the [[United States Patent and Trademark Office]] to trademark ''Wikipedia'' on September 17, 2004. The mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and, in the European Union, on January 20, 2005. There were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs.
   
 
In April 2005, the US [[Internal Revenue Service]] approved the foundation as an educational foundation in the category "[[Adult education|Adult]], [[Continuing education]]", meaning all contributions to the foundation are [[Tax deduction|tax-deductible]] for US federal income tax purposes.
 
In April 2005, the US [[Internal Revenue Service]] approved the foundation as an educational foundation in the category "[[Adult education|Adult]], [[Continuing education]]", meaning all contributions to the foundation are [[Tax deduction|tax-deductible]] for US federal income tax purposes.
   
On December 11, 2006, the Foundation's board noted that the corporation could not become the [[Cooperative|membership organization]] initially planned but never implemented due to an inability to meet the registration requirements of Florida statutory law. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights and activities. The decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously.<ref>[[wmf:Resolution:Bylaws revision|Bylaws revision]].</ref>
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On December 11, 2006, the Foundation's board noted that the corporation could not become the [[Cooperative|membership organization]] initially planned but never implemented due to an inability to meet the registration requirements of Florida statutory law. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights and activities. The decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously.
   
On September 25, 2007, the foundation's board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the [[San Francisco Bay Area]]. Major considerations cited for choosing San Francisco were proximity to like-minded organizations and potential partners, a better talent pool, as well as cheaper and more convenient international travel than is available from [[St. Petersburg, Florida]].<ref name="MoncadaWikimoveTribune">{{cite web | url = http://www2.tbo.com/content/2007/sep/25/wikimedia-foundation-moving-another-bay-area/?news-breaking | title= Wikimedia Foundation Moving To Another Bay Area | first = Carlos| last = Moncada | work = [[The Tampa Tribune]] |date = September 25, 2007 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071228091301/http://www2.tbo.com/content/2007/sep/25/wikimedia-foundation-moving-another-bay-area/?news-breaking|archivedate=December 28, 2007}}</ref><ref name="MullinsWikimoveTribune">{{cite web | url= http://www.tbo.com/news/money/MGBNF5F517F.html | title = Online Encyclopedia To Leave St. Petersburg For San Francisco | first = Richard| last = Mullins | work = The Tampa Tribune |date = September 26, 2007 | archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20071228091316/http://www.tbo.com/news/money/MGBNF5F517F.html|archivedate=December 28, 2007}}</ref><ref name="KimWikimoveSFChronicle">{{cite web | url= http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/10/10/BU69SNMQ2.DTL&tsp=1 | title = Wikipedia team plans move to San Francisco | first = Ryan | last = Kim |work=San Francisco Chronicle | date = October 10, 2007 | quote = }}</ref>
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On September 25, 2007, the foundation's board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the [[San Francisco Bay Area]]. Major considerations cited for choosing San Francisco were proximity to like-minded organizations and potential partners, a better talent pool, as well as cheaper and more convenient international travel than is available from [[St. Petersburg, Florida]].
   
 
[[Lila Tretikov]] was appointed executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. She resigned in March 2016. Former chief communications officer [[Katherine Maher]] was appointed the interim executive director, a position made permanent in June 2016.
 
[[Lila Tretikov]] was appointed executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. She resigned in March 2016. Former chief communications officer [[Katherine Maher]] was appointed the interim executive director, a position made permanent in June 2016.
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{{Main article|Wikimedia movement}}
 
{{Main article|Wikimedia movement}}
   
Wikimedia movement affiliates are independent, but formally recognized, groups of people intended to work together to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement. The Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees has approved three active models for movement affiliates: chapters, thematic organizations, and user groups. Movement affiliates are intended to organize and engage in activities to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement, such as regional conferences, outreach, [[edit-a-thon]]s, [[hackathon]]s, [[public relation]]s, [[public policy]] advocacy, [[GLAM (industry sector)|GLAM]] engagement, and [[Wikimania]].<ref name="meta-wma">{{Cite web | title = Wikimedia movement affiliates | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | author=Various | work = meta.wikimedia.org | accessdate = 2015-10-27 |url=https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_movement_affiliates }}</ref><ref name="meta-wma-faq">{{Cite web | title = Wikimedia movement affiliates/Frequently asked questions | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | author=Various | work = meta.wikimedia.org | accessdate = 2015-10-27 |url=https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_movement_affiliates/Frequently_asked_questions }}</ref><ref name="meta-wma-models">{{Cite web | title = Wikimedia movement affiliates/Models - Meta | author = Various | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | work = meta.wikimedia.org | accessdate = 2015-10-27 |url=https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_movement_affiliates/Models }}</ref>
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Wikimedia movement affiliates are independent, but formally recognized, groups of people intended to work together to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement. The Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees has approved three active models for movement affiliates: chapters, thematic organizations, and user groups. Movement affiliates are intended to organize and engage in activities to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement, such as regional conferences, outreach, [[edit-a-thon]]s, [[hackathon]]s, [[public relation]]s, [[public policy]] advocacy, [[GLAM (industry sector)|GLAM]] engagement, and [[Wikimania]].
   
Recognition of a chapter and thematic organization is approved by the foundation's board. Recommendations on recognition of chapters and thematic organizations are made to the foundation's board by an [[m:Affiliations Committee|Affiliations Committee]], composed of Wikimedia community volunteers. The Affiliations Committee approves the recognition of individual user groups. While movement affiliates are formally recognized by the Wikimedia Foundation, they are independent of the Wikimedia Foundation, with no legal control of nor responsibility for the Wikimedia projects.<ref name="meta-wma-faq" /><ref name="meta-wma-models" /><ref name="meta-affcom">{{Cite web | title = Affiliations Committee | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | author=Various | work = meta.wikimedia.org | accessdate = 2015-10-27 |url=https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Affiliations_Committee }}</ref>
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Recognition of a chapter and thematic organization is approved by the foundation's board. Recommendations on recognition of chapters and thematic organizations are made to the foundation's board by an [[m:Affiliations Committee|Affiliations Committee]], composed of Wikimedia community volunteers. The Affiliations Committee approves the recognition of individual user groups. While movement affiliates are formally recognized by the Wikimedia Foundation, they are independent of the Wikimedia Foundation, with no legal control of nor responsibility for the Wikimedia projects.
   
The foundation began recognizing chapters in 2004.<ref name="MetaChap">{{cite web|url=http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_chapters|title=Wikimedia chapters|author=Various|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=2015-10-27}}</ref> In 2010, development on additional models began. In 2012, the foundation approved, finalized, and adopted the thematic organization and user group recognition models. An additional model, movement partners, was also approved but {{as of|2015|10|27|lc=y}} has not yet been finalized or adopted.<ref name="meta-wma" /><ref name="meta-wma-models" /><ref name="wmf-wma-resolution">{{Cite web | title = Resolution:Recognizing Models of Affiliations - Wikimedia Foundation | author = Various | work = wikimediafoundation.org | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | accessdate = 2015-10-27 |url=https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Resolution:Recognizing_Models_of_Affiliations | date = March 31, 2012 }}</ref>
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The foundation began recognizing chapters in 2004. In 2010, development on additional models began. In 2012, the foundation approved, finalized, and adopted the thematic organization and user group recognition models. An additional model, movement partners, was also approved but {{as of|2015|10|27|lc=y}} has not yet been finalized or adopted.
   
 
=== Wikimania ===
 
=== Wikimania ===
 
{{Main article|Wikimania}}
 
{{Main article|Wikimania}}
   
Each year, an international conference called Wikimania brings the people together who are involved in the Wikimedia organizations and projects. The first Wikimania was held in [[Frankfurt]], Germany, in 2005. Nowadays, Wikimania is organized by a committee supported usually by the national chapter, in collaboration with the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikimania has been held in cities such as [[Buenos Aires]],<ref name="2009-website">{{cite web|url=http://wikimania2009.wikimedia.org/wiki/Portal|title=Wikimania|work=wikimedia.org|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref> [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]],<ref name=attendees2006>{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/07/technology/07wiki.html?ex=1312603200&en=c7f5a3bc5ad54239&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss|title=The Many Voices of Wikipedia, Heard in One Place|newspaper= [[New York Times]]|date= August 7, 2006}}</ref> [[Haifa]],<ref name="themarker">{{cite news|url=http://it.themarker.com/tmit/article/16395|title=Wikimania Conference at Its Peak; Founder Jimmy Wales to Speak Tomorrow|work=[[TheMarker]]|date=August 5, 2011|author=Levin, Verony|accessdate=August 12, 2011|language=he}}</ref> [[Hong Kong]],<ref>{{cite news
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Each year, an international conference called Wikimania brings the people together who are involved in the Wikimedia organizations and projects. The first Wikimania was held in [[Frankfurt]], Germany, in 2005. Nowadays, Wikimania is organized by a committee supported usually by the national chapter, in collaboration with the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikimania has been held in cities such as [[Buenos Aires]], [[Cambridge, Massachusetts|Cambridge]], [[Haifa]], [[Hong Kong]], and [[London]]. In 2015, Wikimania took place in [[Mexico City]]. In 2016, Wikimania will be held in [[Esino Lario]], [[Italy]].
| first = Keira
 
| last = Lu Huang
 
|title = Wikimania challenge for Hong Kong as conference comes to town
 
|url = http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/article/1291419/wikimania-challenge-hong-kong-conference-comes-town
 
|publisher= South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd.
 
|date = July 29, 2013}}</ref> and [[London]].<ref>{{cite news
 
|title = Wikimania! Head to Wikipedia’s first ever London festival
 
|url = http://now-here-this.timeout.com/2014/08/06/wikipedia-wikimania-2014-london/
 
|publisher= Time Out London
 
|date = August 6, 2014}}</ref> In 2015, Wikimania took place in [[Mexico City]].<ref>{{cite web|title = Main Page – Wikimania 2015 in Mexico City|url = https://wikimania2015.wikimedia.org|website = wikimania2015.wikimedia.org|accessdate = 2015-06-19}}</ref> In 2016, Wikimania will be held in [[Esino Lario]], [[Italy]].<ref>[https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimania_2016_bids/Esino_Lario Wikimania 2016 bids/Esino Lario], retrieved 2015-05-17</ref>
 
   
 
=== Strategic plan ===
 
=== Strategic plan ===
 
[[File:Wikimedia Strategic Plan.ogv|thumb|thumbtime=4:08.00|Video explaining the 2011 Wikimedia Strategic Plan]]
 
[[File:Wikimedia Strategic Plan.ogv|thumb|thumbtime=4:08.00|Video explaining the 2011 Wikimedia Strategic Plan]]
 
[[File:Katherine Maher.jpg|thumb|Executive director [[Katherine Maher]], 2016]]
 
[[File:Katherine Maher.jpg|thumb|Executive director [[Katherine Maher]], 2016]]
In response to the growing size and popularity of Wikipedia, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a Strategic Plan to improve and sustain the Wikimedia movement. The plan was announced in July 2009, followed by a process of interviews and surveys with people from across the Wikimedia movement, including board of trustees, members of staff and volunteer editors.<ref>{{cite web|title=Strategic Plan/Background and Context|url=http://strategy.wikimedia.org/wiki/Strategic_Plan/Background_and_Context|work=Wikimedia Strategy|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 13, 2011}}</ref> The ongoing plan was intended to be the basis of a five-year plan to further outreach, improve content quality and quality control, and optimising operational areas such as finance and infrastructure.<ref>{{cite web|title=Emerging strategic priorities|url=http://strategy.wikimedia.org/wiki/Emerging_strategic_priorities#Enhancing_Community|work=Wikimedia Strategy|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 13, 2011}}</ref>
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In response to the growing size and popularity of Wikipedia, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a Strategic Plan to improve and sustain the Wikimedia movement. The plan was announced in July 2009, followed by a process of interviews and surveys with people from across the Wikimedia movement, including board of trustees, members of staff and volunteer editors. The ongoing plan was intended to be the basis of a five-year plan to further outreach, improve content quality and quality control, and optimising operational areas such as finance and infrastructure.
   
 
=== Wikipedia Usability Initiative ===
 
=== Wikipedia Usability Initiative ===
In December 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a restricted donation grant of {{US$|890,000}} from the [[Stanton Foundation]], to improve Wikipedia's accessibility.<ref>{{cite web|author=Az1568|title=Press releases/Wikipedia to become more user-friendly for new volunteer writers|url=http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/Wikipedia_to_become_more_user-friendly_for_new_volunteer_writers|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 13, 2011|authorlink=wmf:User:Az1568}}</ref> Later named the Wikipedia Usability Initiative, the grant was used by the Wikimedia Foundation to appoint project-specific staff to the technology department.<ref>[http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2009-January/048592.html Mailing list post] by {{srlink|User:Brion VIBBER|Brion Vibber}}, chief technology officer to the Wikimedia Foundation (January 9, 2009)</ref>
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In December 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a restricted donation grant of {{US$|890,000}} from the [[Stanton Foundation]], to improve Wikipedia's accessibility. Later named the Wikipedia Usability Initiative, the grant was used by the Wikimedia Foundation to appoint project-specific staff to the technology department.
   
A series of surveys were conducted throughout 2009. This began with a qualitative environment survey on [[MediaWiki]] extensions, followed by a Qualitative Statistical Survey focusing on volume of edits, number of new users, and related statistics. In March 2009, a usability and experience study was carried out on new and non-editors of the English Wikipedia. The aim was to discover what obstacles participants encountered while editing Wikipedia, ranging from small changes to more complicated syntax such as templates. The study recruited 2500 people for in-person laboratory testing via the Wikipedia website, which was filtered down to ten participants. The results were collated and used by the technology team to improve Wikipedia's usability.<ref>{{cite web|title=Usability and Experience Study|url=http://usability.wikimedia.org/wiki/Usability_and_Experience_Study|work=Wikimedia Usability|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 14, 2011}}</ref> The Usability and Experience Study was followed up by the Usability, Experience and Progress Study in September 2009. This study recruited different new and non-editors for in-person trials on a new Wikipedia skin.<ref>{{cite web|title=Usability, Experience, and Progress Study|url=http://usability.wikimedia.org/wiki/Usability,_Experience,_and_Progress_Study|work=Wikimedia Usability|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 14, 2011}}</ref>
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A series of surveys were conducted throughout 2009. This began with a qualitative environment survey on [[MediaWiki]] extensions, followed by a Qualitative Statistical Survey focusing on volume of edits, number of new users, and related statistics. In March 2009, a usability and experience study was carried out on new and non-editors of the English Wikipedia. The aim was to discover what obstacles participants encountered while editing Wikipedia, ranging from small changes to more complicated syntax such as templates. The study recruited 2500 people for in-person laboratory testing via the Wikipedia website, which was filtered down to ten participants. The results were collated and used by the technology team to improve Wikipedia's usability. The Usability and Experience Study was followed up by the Usability, Experience and Progress Study in September 2009. This study recruited different new and non-editors for in-person trials on a new Wikipedia skin.
   
The initiative ultimately culminated in a new Wikipedia skin named Vector, constructed based on the results of the usability studies. This was introduced by default in stages, beginning in May 2010.<ref>[http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2010-May/058409.html Mailing list post] by Jay Walsh, Head of Communications to the Wikimedia Foundation (May 2010)</ref>
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The initiative ultimately culminated in a new Wikipedia skin named Vector, constructed based on the results of the usability studies. This was introduced by default in stages, beginning in May 2010.
   
 
=== Public Policy Initiative ===
 
=== Public Policy Initiative ===
   
In May 2010, the Wikimedia Foundation announced the Public Policy Initiative, following a {{US$|1.2 million}} donation by the Stanton Foundation. The Initiative was set up to improve articles relating to public policy–related issues.<ref name=pubpol>{{cite web|last=Pantages|first=Moka|title=Press releases/May 2010 Wikimedia Foundation will engage academic experts and students to improve public policy information|url=http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/May_2010_Wikimedia_Foundation_will_engage_academic_experts_and_students_to_improve_public_policy_information|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 13, 2011}}</ref> As part of the initiative, Wikipedia collaborated with ten universities to help students and professors create and maintain articles relating to public policy.<ref>{{cite web|last=Hicklin|first=Andrea|title=UC Berkeley students help improve Wikipedia's credibility|url=http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2010/11/05/wikipedia/|publisher=UC Berkeley News Center|accessdate=November 13, 2011}}</ref> Volunteer editors of Wikipedia, known as "ambassadors", provided assistance to students and professors. This was either done on campus sites or online.<ref>{{cite web|last=Nelson|first=Anne|title=Wikipedia Taps College 'Ambassadors' to Broaden Editor Base|url=http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2011/07/wikipedia-taps-college-ambassadors-to-broaden-editor-base200.html|work=Mediashift|publisher=[[Public Broadcasting Service]]|accessdate=November 13, 2011}}</ref>
+
In May 2010, the Wikimedia Foundation announced the Public Policy Initiative, following a {{US$|1.2 million}} donation by the Stanton Foundation. The Initiative was set up to improve articles relating to public policy–related issues. As part of the initiative, Wikipedia collaborated with ten universities to help students and professors create and maintain articles relating to public policy. Volunteer editors of Wikipedia, known as "ambassadors", provided assistance to students and professors. This was either done on campus sites or online.
   
 
== Technology ==
 
== Technology ==
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[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Servers-8055 13.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation servers]]
 
[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Servers-8055 13.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation servers]]
   
Wikipedia employed a single server until 2004, when the server setup was expanded into a distributed [[multitier architecture]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.aulinx.de/oss/code/wikipedia/|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20040710213535/http://www.aulinx.de/oss/code/wikipedia/|title=Aulinx|archivedate=July 10, 2004|publisher=}}</ref>
+
Wikipedia employed a single server until 2004, when the server setup was expanded into a distributed [[multitier architecture]].
   
In January 2005, the project ran on 39 [[Dedicated hosting service|dedicated servers]] in Florida.{{Citation needed|date=August 2014}} This configuration included a single master [[database server]] running [[MySQL]], multiple slave database servers, 21 [[web server]]s running the [[Apache HTTP Server]], and seven [[Squid (software)|Squid cache]] servers.
+
In January 2005, the project ran on 39 [[Dedicated hosting service|dedicated servers]] in Florida. This configuration included a single master [[database server]] running [[MySQL]], multiple slave database servers, 21 [[web server]]s running the [[Apache HTTP Server]], and seven [[Squid (software)|Squid cache]] servers.
   
  +
Wikimedia currently runs on dedicated [[cluster (computing)|clusters]] of [[Linux]] servers (mainly [[Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]]). {{As of|2009|12}}, there were 300 in Florida and 44 in [[Amsterdam]].
Wikimedia currently runs on dedicated [[cluster (computing)|clusters]] of [[Linux]] servers (mainly [[Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]]).<ref>{{cite news |title=Wikipedia simplifies IT infrastructure by moving to one Linux vendor |first=Todd R. |last=Weiss |url=http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9116787/Wikipedia_simplifies_IT_infrastructure_by_moving_to_one_Linux_vendor?taxonomyId=154&pageNumber=1&taxonomyName=Servers%20and%20Data%20Center |newspaper=[[Computerworld]] |date=October 9, 2008 |accessdate=November 1, 2008}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=Wikipedia adopts Ubuntu for its server infrastructure |first=Ryan |last=Paul |url=http://arstechnica.com/open-source/news/2008/10/wikipedia-adopts-ubuntu-for-its-server-infrastructure.ars |newspaper=[[Ars Technica]] |date=October 9, 2008 |accessdate=November 1, 2008}}</ref> {{As of|2009|12}}, there were 300 in Florida and 44 in [[Amsterdam]].<ref name="servers">{{cite web|url=https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia_servers|title=Wikimedia servers|accessdate=August 16, 2013}}</ref>
 
The number of servers needed to run the infrastructure has been mostly stable since then: 520 servers are used in the main cluster (eqiad) as of November 2015.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://ganglia.wikimedia.org/latest/|title=Ganglia:: Wikimedia Grid Report|publisher=}}</ref>
+
The number of servers needed to run the infrastructure has been mostly stable since then: 520 servers are used in the main cluster (eqiad) as of November 2015.
   
As of 2015, the system still runs on central master database and application servers, but there are several [[Cache (computing)|cache layers]] with various ever-changing technologies, as well as a multitude of subsystems for DNS resolution, load balancing, metrics, monitoring, other system administration etc.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Upstream_projects|title=Upstream projects|publisher=}}</ref>
+
As of 2015, the system still runs on central master database and application servers, but there are several [[Cache (computing)|cache layers]] with various ever-changing technologies, as well as a multitude of subsystems for DNS resolution, load balancing, metrics, monitoring, other system administration etc.
   
 
=== Softwаrе ===
 
=== Softwаrе ===
 
{{See also|MediaWiki|VisualEditor}}
 
{{See also|MediaWiki|VisualEditor}}
   
The operation of Wikimedia depends on [[MediaWiki]], a custom-made, [[free software|free]] and [[open-source software|open-source]] [[wiki software]] platform written in [[PHP]] and built upon the [[MySQL]] database.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nedworks.org/~mark/presentations/san/Wikimedia%20architecture.pdf |format=PDF|title=Wikimedia Architecture |first=Mark|last=Bergman |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation Inc. |accessdate=June 27, 2008}}</ref> The software incorporates programming features such as a [[Macro (computer science)|macro language]], [[variable (programming)|variables]], a [[transclusion]] system for [[Web template|templates]], and [[URL redirection]]. MediaWiki is licensed under the [[GNU General Public License]] and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on [[UseModWiki]] written in [[Perl]] by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required [[CamelCase]] for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a [[PhpWiki|PHP wiki]] engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by [[Magnus Manske]]. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the [[Exponential growth|exponentially increasing]] demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by [[Lee Daniel Crocker]].
+
The operation of Wikimedia depends on [[MediaWiki]], a custom-made, [[free software|free]] and [[open-source software|open-source]] [[wiki software]] platform written in [[PHP]] and built upon the [[MySQL]] database. The software incorporates programming features such as a [[Macro (computer science)|macro language]], [[variable (programming)|variables]], a [[transclusion]] system for [[Web template|templates]], and [[URL redirection]]. MediaWiki is licensed under the [[GNU General Public License]] and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on [[UseModWiki]] written in [[Perl]] by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required [[CamelCase]] for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a [[PhpWiki|PHP wiki]] engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by [[Magnus Manske]]. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the [[Exponential growth|exponentially increasing]] demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by [[Lee Daniel Crocker]].
 
Several MediaWiki extensions are [[Special:Version#Installed extensions|installed]] to extend the functionality of MediaWiki software.
 
Several MediaWiki extensions are [[Special:Version#Installed extensions|installed]] to extend the functionality of MediaWiki software.
  +
In April 2005, a [[Lucene]] extension was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from [[MySQL]] to Lucene for searching. Currently Lucene Search 2.1, which is written in [[Java (programming language)|Java]] and based on Lucene library 2.3, is used. Wikimedia Foundation also uses [[CiviCRM]] and [[WordPress]].
In April 2005, a [[Lucene]] extension<ref>{{cite web|url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2005-04-18/Lucene_search |title=Lucene search: Internal search function returns to service|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation Inc.|first=Michael|last=Snow|accessdate=February 26, 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikitech-l/2005-April/016297.html
 
|title=[Wikitech-l] Lucene search|first=Brion|last=Vibber|accessdate=February 26, 2009}}</ref> was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from [[MySQL]] to Lucene for searching. Currently Lucene Search 2.1,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Lucene-search|title=Extension:Lucene-search|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation Inc.|accessdate=August 31, 2009}}</ref> which is written in [[Java (programming language)|Java]] and based on Lucene library 2.3,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://svn.wikimedia.org/svnroot/mediawiki/branches/lucene-search-2.1/lib/|title=mediawiki&nbsp;– Revision 55688: /branches/lucene-search-2.1/lib|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation Inc.|accessdate=August 31, 2009}}</ref> is used. Wikimedia Foundation also uses [[CiviCRM]]<ref>[http://blog.wikimedia.org/2009/06/10/wikimedia-fourkitchens-support-civicrm-development/ Wikimedia & FourKitchens support CiviCRM development] Wikimedia blog, June 10, 2009</ref> and [[WordPress]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blog.wikimedia.org |title=Wikimedia Blog |publisher=Blog.wikimedia.org |date= |accessdate=July 7, 2013}}</ref>
 
   
The Foundation published official Wikipedia [[mobile apps]] for [[Android (operating system)|Android]] and [[iOS]] devices and in March 2015, the apps were updated to include mobile user friendly features.<ref>[https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.wikipedia Wikipedia – Android Apps on Google Play]. Retrieved 15 April 2015.</ref>
+
The Foundation published official Wikipedia [[mobile apps]] for [[Android (operating system)|Android]] and [[iOS]] devices and in March 2015, the apps were updated to include mobile user friendly features.
   
 
== Finances ==
 
== Finances ==
Line 163: Line 151:
 
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements]]
 
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements]]
   
The Wikimedia Foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission.<ref name="financialstatements">{{cite web | url = http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/a/ac/FINAL_10_11From_KPMG.pdf | title = Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. – Financial Statements – June 30, 2011 and 2010 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation|format=PDF|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref> It is exempt from federal income tax<ref name="financialstatements" /><ref>See also Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code</ref> and from state income tax.<ref name="financialstatements" /><ref>See also Chapter 220.13 of the Florida Statutes</ref> It is not a private foundation, and contributions to it qualify as tax-deductible charitable contributions.<ref name="financialstatements" />
+
The Wikimedia Foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission. It is exempt from federal income tax and from state income tax. It is not a private foundation, and contributions to it qualify as tax-deductible charitable contributions.
   
The continued technical and economic growth of each of the Wikimedia projects is dependent mostly on donations but the Wikimedia Foundation also increases its revenue by alternative means of funding such as [[federal grant|grants]], sponsorship, services and brand merchandising. The Wikimedia [[OAI-PMH]] update feed service, targeted primarily at search engines and similar bulk analysis and republishing, has been a source of revenue for several years,<ref name="financialstatements" /> but is no longer open to new customers.<ref>[[meta:Wikimedia update feed service|Wikimedia update feed service]]</ref> [[DBpedia]] was given access to this feed free of charge.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web|first=C|last=Bizer|volume=7|issue=3|date=September 2009|pages=154–165|postscript=<!-- Bot inserted parameter. Either remove it; or change its value to "." for the cite to end in a ".", as necessary. -->{{inconsistent citations}}}}</ref> In July 2014, the Foundation announced it would be accepting [[Bitcoin]] donations.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/07/30/wikipedia-begins-taking-donations-in-bitcoin/ | title=Wikipedia Begins Taking Donations in Bitcoin | work=New York Times | date=July 31, 2014 | accessdate=July 31, 2014 | author=Ember, Sydney}}</ref>
+
The continued technical and economic growth of each of the Wikimedia projects is dependent mostly on donations but the Wikimedia Foundation also increases its revenue by alternative means of funding such as [[federal grant|grants]], sponsorship, services and brand merchandising. The Wikimedia [[OAI-PMH]] update feed service, targeted primarily at search engines and similar bulk analysis and republishing, has been a source of revenue for several years, but is no longer open to new customers. [[DBpedia]] was given access to this feed free of charge. In July 2014, the Foundation announced it would be accepting [[Bitcoin]] donations.
   
Since the end of fiscal year ended 2004, the Foundation's net assets have grown from {{US$|57,000}}<ref name="financialstatements2006">{{cite web | url = //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/2/28/Wikimedia_2006_fs.pdf | title = Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. – Financial Statements – June 30, 2006–2004 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation|format=PDF}}</ref> to {{US$|53.5 million}} at the end of fiscal year ended June 30, 2014.<ref name=2013-2014>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/b/bf/Audit_Report_-_FY_13-14_-_Final_v2.pdf|title= Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June, 2014 and 2013|publisher=Upload.wikimedia.org|accessdate=December 11, 2014|format=PDF}}</ref> Under the leadership of Sue Gardner, who joined the Wikimedia Foundation in 2007, the Foundation's staff levels, number of donors and revenue have seen very significant growth.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.forbes.com/profile/sue-gardner/ |title=Sue Gardner |publisher=Forbes |date=April 18, 2012 |accessdate=November 26, 2012}}</ref>
+
Since the end of fiscal year ended 2004, the Foundation's net assets have grown from {{US$|57,000}} to {{US$|53.5 million}} at the end of fiscal year ended June 30, 2014. Under the leadership of Sue Gardner, who joined the Wikimedia Foundation in 2007, the Foundation's staff levels, number of donors and revenue have seen very significant growth.
   
 
[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Interview with Chief of Finance and Administration Garfield Byrd October 7, 2011.webm|thumb|right|Interview with Garfield Byrd, Chief of Finance and Administration at the Wikimedia Foundation. Recorded October 7, 2011]]
 
[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Interview with Chief of Finance and Administration Garfield Byrd October 7, 2011.webm|thumb|right|Interview with Garfield Byrd, Chief of Finance and Administration at the Wikimedia Foundation. Recorded October 7, 2011]]
   
In 2007, [[w:Charity Navigator|Charity Navigator]] gave Wikimedia an overall rating of three out of four possible stars<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5tLAjg4fo |title=Charity Navigator Rating – Wikimedia Foundation |publisher=charitynavigator.org |date=October 8, 2010 |accessdate=October 8, 2010}}</ref> (one out of four in efficiency, which has been criticised).<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/12/20/cash_rich_wikipedia_chugging/ |title=Wikipedia doesn't need your money – so why does it keep pestering you? |publisher=theregister.co.uk | date=December 20, 2012 | accessdate=December 24, 2012}}</ref> Charity Navigator gave three out of four possible stars in overall rating for fiscal years 2008 and 2009 which improved to four-stars in 2010.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.history&orgid=11212 |title=Charity Navigator Rating – Wikimedia Foundation – Historical Data (Note: Requires free login)|publisher=charitynavigator.org|accessdate=December 24, 2012}}</ref> As of June 2016, the current overall rating had returned down to three stars – dragged down by an 85.17 (out of 100) for its Financial performance.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=11212 |title=Charity Navigator Rating – Wikimedia Foundation |publisher=Charitynavigator.org|accessdate=7 June 2016}}</ref>
+
In 2007, [[w:Charity Navigator|Charity Navigator]] gave Wikimedia an overall rating of three out of four possible stars (one out of four in efficiency, which has been criticised). Charity Navigator gave three out of four possible stars in overall rating for fiscal years 2008 and 2009 which improved to four-stars in 2010. As of June 2016, the current overall rating had returned down to three stars – dragged down by an 85.17 (out of 100) for its Financial performance.
   
 
=== Grants ===
 
=== Grants ===
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[[File:Finance Meeting Paris 2012-02-18 n06.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation and chapters finance meeting 2012, Paris]]
 
[[File:Finance Meeting Paris 2012-02-18 n06.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation and chapters finance meeting 2012, Paris]]
   
In March 2008, the Foundation announced a large donation, at the time its largest donation yet: a three-year, {{US$|3 million}} grant from the [[Alfred P. Sloan Foundation]].<ref name="3mill">{{cite news|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5i8x-wlh7nMm12x_kVQ6MZxrYWK9QD8VKMV1G0|agency=Associated Press|title=Sloan Foundation to Give Wikipedia $3M|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080329221240/http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5i8x-wlh7nMm12x_kVQ6MZxrYWK9QD8VKMV1G0|archivedate=March 29, 2008}}</ref>
+
In March 2008, the Foundation announced a large donation, at the time its largest donation yet: a three-year, {{US$|3 million}} grant from the [[Alfred P. Sloan Foundation]].
   
In 2009, the Foundation received four grants&nbsp;– the first grant was a {{US$|890,000}} [[Frank Stanton (executive)|Stanton Foundation]] grant which was aimed to help study and simplify user interface for first-time authors of Wikipedia.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/StantonGrantQA |title=Stanton Grant Q&A |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation |date=December 3, 2008}}</ref> The second was a {{US$|300,000}} [[Ford Foundation]] Grant, given in July 2009, for [[Wikimedia Commons]] that aimed to improve the interfaces and workflows for multimedia uploading on Wikimedia websites.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://blog.wikimedia.org/2009/07/02/ford-foundation-awards-300k-grant-for-wikimedia-commons/ |title=Blog.wikimedia.org |publisher=Blog.wikimedia.org |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref> In August 2009, the Foundation received a {{US$|500,000}} grant from The William and Flora [[Hewlett Foundation]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/Hewlett_Foundation_grant_August_2009 |title=Wikimediafoundation.org |publisher=Wikimediafoundation.org |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref> Lastly, in August 2009, the [[Omidyar Network]] issued a potential{{clarify|date=August 2015}} {{US$|2 million}} in "grant" funding to Wikimedia.<ref>[http://news.prnewswire.com/DisplayReleaseContent.aspx?ACCT=104&STORY=/www/story/08-25-2009/0005082868&EDATE= Press release], ''Omidyar Network Commits , Million Grant to Wikimedia Foundation'', August 25, 2009.</ref>
+
In 2009, the Foundation received four grants&nbsp;– the first grant was a {{US$|890,000}} [[Frank Stanton (executive)|Stanton Foundation]] grant which was aimed to help study and simplify user interface for first-time authors of Wikipedia. The second was a {{US$|300,000}} [[Ford Foundation]] Grant, given in July 2009, for [[Wikimedia Commons]] that aimed to improve the interfaces and workflows for multimedia uploading on Wikimedia websites. In August 2009, the Foundation received a {{US$|500,000}} grant from The William and Flora [[Hewlett Foundation]]. Lastly, in August 2009, the [[Omidyar Network]] issued a potential {{US$|2 million}} in "grant" funding to Wikimedia.
   
In 2010, the [[Google]] corporation donated {{US$|2 million}} to the Foundation.<ref>{{cite web|first=Ben|last=Parr |url=http://mashable.com/2010/02/16/google-wikipedia-donation/ |title=Google Gives $2 Million to Wikipedia's Foundation |publisher=Mashable.com |date=February 16, 2010 |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref> Also in 2010, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation pledged a {{US$|800,000}} grant and all was funded during 2011.{{citation needed|date=August 2015}}
+
In 2010, the [[Google]] corporation donated {{US$|2 million}} to the Foundation. Also in 2010, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation pledged a {{US$|800,000}} grant and all was funded during 2011.
   
In March 2011, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation authorized another {{US$|3 million}} grant to continue to develop and maintain the Foundation's mission. The grant was to be funded over three years with the first {{US$|1 million}} funded in July 2011 and the remaining {{US$|2 million}} was scheduled to be funded in August 2012 and 2013. In August 2011, the Stanton Foundation pledged to fund a {{US$|3.6 million}} grant of which {{US$|1.8 million}} was funded and the remaining was due to be funded in September 2012. As of 2011, this was the largest grant received by the Wikimedia Foundation to-date.<ref>{{cite web |first=Jay|last=Walsh |url=http://blog.wikimedia.org/2011/10/05/wikimedia-receives-3-5million-usd-grant-from-stanton-foundation/ |title=Wikimedia receives US$3.5 million grant from Stanton Foundation |work=Wikimedia Community blog |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation |date=October 5, 2011 |accessdate=October 10, 2011}}</ref> In November 2011, the Foundation received a {{US$|500,000}} donation from Google co-founder [[Sergey Brin]] and his wife.<ref name="foundationgrants">{{cite web|url=http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fundraising_2011/Foundation_Grants |title=Foundation Grants|publisher=Meta.wikimedia.org|accessdate=November 26, 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Shaw|first=Lucas|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/18/idUS309090140520120118 |title=More Anti-Piracy Bill Co-Sponsors Bail (Updated)|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref>
+
In March 2011, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation authorized another {{US$|3 million}} grant to continue to develop and maintain the Foundation's mission. The grant was to be funded over three years with the first {{US$|1 million}} funded in July 2011 and the remaining {{US$|2 million}} was scheduled to be funded in August 2012 and 2013. In August 2011, the Stanton Foundation pledged to fund a {{US$|3.6 million}} grant of which {{US$|1.8 million}} was funded and the remaining was due to be funded in September 2012. As of 2011, this was the largest grant received by the Wikimedia Foundation to-date. In November 2011, the Foundation received a {{US$|500,000}} donation from Google co-founder [[Sergey Brin]] and his wife.
   
In 2012, the Foundation was awarded a grant of {{US$|1.25 million}} from the historians [[Lisbet Rausing]]<ref name="foundationgrants" /> and [[Peter Baldwin (professor)|Peter Baldwin]] through [[Charities Aid Foundation]], scheduled to be funded in five equal installments. The first installment of {{US$|250,000}} was received in April 2012 and the remaining were to be funded in December 2012 through 2015. In 2014, the Foundation received the largest single gift in its history, a $5 million unrestricted donation from an anonymous donor supporting $1 million worth of expenses annually for the next five years.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/2014-2015_Fundraising_Report|title=2014-2015 Fundraising Report|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|date=October 1, 2015}}</ref>
+
In 2012, the Foundation was awarded a grant of {{US$|1.25 million}} from the historians [[Lisbet Rausing]] and [[Peter Baldwin (professor)|Peter Baldwin]] through [[Charities Aid Foundation]], scheduled to be funded in five equal installments. The first installment of {{US$|250,000}} was received in April 2012 and the remaining were to be funded in December 2012 through 2015. In 2014, the Foundation received the largest single gift in its history, a $5 million unrestricted donation from an anonymous donor supporting $1 million worth of expenses annually for the next five years.
   
In 2015 a grant agreement was reached with the ''[[John S. and James L. Knight Foundation]]'' to build a search engine called ''[[Knowledge Engine (Wikimedia Foundation)]]''.<ref>[[wmf:File:Knowledge engine grant agreement.pdf]], 18 September 2015. Published 11 February 2016, retrieved 16 February 2016.</ref>
+
In 2015 a grant agreement was reached with the ''[[John S. and James L. Knight Foundation]]'' to build a search engine called ''[[Knowledge Engine (Wikimedia Foundation)]]''.
   
 
=== Financial summary ===
 
=== Financial summary ===
Line 202: Line 190:
 
! style="text-align: right; vertical-align: top" | Year-over-year ratio<br /><small>(net assets)</small>
 
! style="text-align: right; vertical-align: top" | Year-over-year ratio<br /><small>(net assets)</small>
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2003–2004
| 2003–2004<ref name=2004-2006>{{cite web|url=//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/2/28/Wikimedia_2006_fs.pdf |title=Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June 30, 2006, 2005 and 2004 |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 26, 2012|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="80129" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="80129" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2004–2005<ref name=2004-2006 />
+
| 2004–2005
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="379088" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="379088" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2005–2006<ref name=2004-2006 />
+
| 2005–2006
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="1508039" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="1508039" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2006–2007
| 2006–2007<ref>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/4/49/Wikimedia_2007_fs.pdf |title=Microsoft Word – {F0900CC7-D37E-4CDF-95E3-B1F38D7DCD03}.doc |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=November 26, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="2734909" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="2734909" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2007–2008
| 2007–2008<ref>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/4/4c/Wikimedia_20072008_fs.pdf |title=Microsoft Word – 31935 SFO Wikimedia fs.doc |format=PDF |date= |accessdate=November 26, 2012}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="5032981" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="5032981" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2008–2009
| 2008–2009<ref>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/4/4f/FINAL_08_09From_KPMG.pdf |title=Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June 30, 2009 and 2008 |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 26, 2012|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="8658006" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="8658006" |
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
 
{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2009–2010
| 2009–2010<ref>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/c/cc/FINAL_09_10From_KPMG.pdf |title=Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June 30, 2010 and 2009 |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 26, 2012|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="17979312" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="17979312" |
 
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2010–2011
| 2010–2011<ref>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/a/ac/FINAL_10_11From_KPMG.pdf |title=Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June, 2011 and 2010 |publisher=Wikimedia Foundation| format=PDF|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="24785092" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="24785092" |
 
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{| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" style="width:100%;"
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2011–2012
| 2011–2012<ref name=2011-2012>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/0/09/FINAL_11_12From_KPMG.pdf|title= Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June, 2012 and 2011|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=December 26, 2012|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="38479665" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="38479665" |
 
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|}
 
|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2012–2013
| 2012–2013<ref name=2012-2013>{{cite web|url=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/6/6e/FINAL_12_13From_KPMG.pdf|title= Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June, 2013 and 2012|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=December 14, 2013|format=PDF}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="48635408" |
 
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|}
 
|-
 
|-
| 2013–2014<ref name=2014-2015 />
+
| 2013–2014
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="48635408" |
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="48635408" |
 
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|}
 
|-
 
|-
  +
| 2014–2015
| 2014–2015<ref name=2014-2015>{{cite web|url=https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/foundation/0/0b/Audit_Report_-_FY_14-15_-_Final.PDF|title=Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements June, 2015 and 2014|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=November 6, 2015}}</ref>
 
 
| style="text-align: right" data-sort-value="48635408" |
 
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[[File:Christophe Henner défend son bilan.JPG|thumb|Christophe Henner, the current Chairman of the Board]]
 
[[File:Christophe Henner défend son bilan.JPG|thumb|Christophe Henner, the current Chairman of the Board]]
   
The [[foundation:Board of Trustees|Board of Trustees]] has ultimate authority of all the businesses and affairs of the Foundation. It is composed of ten members:
+
The Board of Trustees has ultimate authority of all the businesses and affairs of the Foundation. It is composed of ten members:
 
* four who are appointed by the Board itself;
 
* four who are appointed by the Board itself;
 
* three who are selected by the community encompassed by all the different Wikimedia projects;
 
* three who are selected by the community encompassed by all the different Wikimedia projects;
 
* two who are selected by the local chapters and thematic organizations;
 
* two who are selected by the local chapters and thematic organizations;
  +
* and one [[emeritus]] for the foundation's founder, [[Jimmy Wales]].
* and one [[emeritus]] for the foundation's founder, [[Jimmy Wales]].<ref name="April2008">{{cite web | accessdate =April 26, 2008 | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_of_Trustees/Restructure_Announcement | title = Board of Trustees Restructure Announcement | last = Walsh | first = Jay | authorlink = foundation:User:JayWalsh | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Board_of_Trustees/Restructure_Announcement&oldid=26599 | archivedate = April 27, 2008 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation }}</ref>
 
   
Three permanent entities support the board on its mission and responsibilities: an executive director, who leads and oversees the operational arm of the foundation; an advisory board composed of individuals selected by the board itself that advise the board on different matters; and [[standing committee]]s to which the board delegates certain matters while retaining ultimate authority. The board has also at times created other orthodox entities{{clarify|date=July 2015}} to support itself, such as [[executive secretary|executive secretaries]] and ad-hoc committees established for specific tasks.
+
Three permanent entities support the board on its mission and responsibilities: an executive director, who leads and oversees the operational arm of the foundation; an advisory board composed of individuals selected by the board itself that advise the board on different matters; and [[standing committee]]s to which the board delegates certain matters while retaining ultimate authority. The board has also at times created other orthodox entities to support itself, such as [[executive secretary|executive secretaries]] and ad-hoc committees established for specific tasks.
   
The current board comprises [[Christophe Henner]] as Chairman and María Sefidari as Vice-Chairman, together with Alice Wiegand, Nataliia Tymkiv, Kelly Battles, [[Dariusz Jemielniak]], [[Guy Kawasaki]], and [[Jimmy Wales]] as members at-large.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Board_of_Trustees|title=Board of Trustees|publisher=Wikimedia Foundation|accessdate=2016-02-06}}</ref> There are two vacant seats, most recently occupied by Denny Vrandečić and [[Arnnon Geshuri]].
+
The current board comprises Christophe Henner as Chairman and María Sefidari as Vice-Chairman, together with Alice Wiegand, Nataliia Tymkiv, Kelly Battles, [[Dariusz Jemielniak]], [[Guy Kawasaki]], and [[Jimmy Wales]] as members at-large. There are two vacant seats, most recently occupied by Denny Vrandečić and [[Arnnon Geshuri]].
   
In a [[Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2016-01-13/In focus|high-profile decision]] of 2015, [[James Heilman]] was removed from the board,<ref name=Lih2016/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heise.de/newsticker/meldung/Wikimedia-Foundation-feuert-Vorstandsmitglied-3056680.html|title=Wikimedia Foundation feuert Vorstandsmitglied|author=Torsten Kleinz|date=December 29, 2015|work=heise online}}</ref> with little explanation.<ref name=Lih2016>{{cite news|last1=Lih|first1=Andrew|title=Wikipedia just turned 15 years old. Will it survive 15 more?|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2016/01/15/wikipedia-just-turned-15-years-old-will-it-survive-15-more/|accessdate=16 January 2016|work=[[The Washington Post]]|date=15 January 2016|language=en-US}}</ref> In January 2016, [[Arnnon Geshuri]] stepped down from the board following a controversy about an agreement he executed when at google, violating US anti-trust law. The participating companies paid US$ 415 million in a class action suit on behalf of affected employees.<ref name=Mullin2016>{{cite news |last=Mullin |first=Joe |url=http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2016/01/wikimedias-newest-board-appointment-steps-down-amid-editor-hostility/ |title=Wikimedia's newest board appointment steps down amid editor hostility |website=Ars Technica |date=January 27, 2016}}</ref><ref>[http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2016/01/editors-demand-ouster-of-wikimedia-board-member-involved-in-no-poach-deal/ Wikipedia editors revolt, vote “no confidence” in newest board member], ArsTechnica, 2016-01-25.</ref>
+
In a [[Wikipedia:Wikipedia Signpost/2016-01-13/In focus|high-profile decision]] of 2015, [[James Heilman]] was removed from the board, with little explanation. In January 2016, [[Arnnon Geshuri]] stepped down from the board following a controversy about an agreement he executed when at google, violating US anti-trust law. The participating companies paid US$ 415 million in a class action suit on behalf of affected employees.
   
 
=== Advisory board ===
 
=== Advisory board ===
   
The Advisory Board, according to the Wikimedia Foundation, is an international network of experts who have agreed to give the foundation meaningful help on a regular basis in many different areas, including law, organizational development, technology, policy, and outreach.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Advisory_Board | title = Advisory Board | accessdate = September 29, 2013 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation }}</ref>
+
The Advisory Board, according to the Wikimedia Foundation, is an international network of experts who have agreed to give the foundation meaningful help on a regular basis in many different areas, including law, organizational development, technology, policy, and outreach.
 
{{colend}}
 
{{colend}}
   
Line 544: Line 532:
 
[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Offices in San Francisco.webm|thumb|Staff and workplace at Wikimedia Foundation's [[San Francisco]] office]]
 
[[File:Wikimedia Foundation Offices in San Francisco.webm|thumb|Staff and workplace at Wikimedia Foundation's [[San Francisco]] office]]
   
In 2004, the foundation appointed Tim Starling as developer liaison to help improve the [[MediaWiki]] software, Daniel Mayer as chief financial officer ([[management accounting|finance]], [[budgeting]], and coordination of fund drives), and [[Erik Möller]] as content partnership coordinator. In May 2005, the foundation announced seven more official appointments.<ref>{{cite news | last = Snow | first = Michael | title = Wikimedia names seven to official positions | url = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2005-05-30/Foundation_official_positions | work = [[The Signpost]] | date = May 30, 2005 | accessdate =2016-04-26 }}</ref>
+
In 2004, the foundation appointed Tim Starling as developer liaison to help improve the [[MediaWiki]] software, Daniel Mayer as chief financial officer ([[management accounting|finance]], [[budgeting]], and coordination of fund drives), and [[Erik Möller]] as content partnership coordinator. In May 2005, the foundation announced seven more official appointments.
   
In January 2006, the foundation created several committees, including the Communication Committee, in an attempt to further organize activities essentially handled by volunteers at that time.<ref>{{cite web | accessdate =February 4, 2008 | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Resolutions | title = Resolutions | first = Florence | last = Devouard | authorlink = Florence Devouard | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Resolutions&oldid=24632 | archivedate = January 21, 2008 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation }}</ref> Starling resigned that month to spend more time on his PhD program.
+
In January 2006, the foundation created several committees, including the Communication Committee, in an attempt to further organize activities essentially handled by volunteers at that time. Starling resigned that month to spend more time on his PhD program.
   
 
=== Employees ===
 
=== Employees ===
Line 553: Line 541:
 
The foundation's functions were, for the first few years, executed almost entirely by volunteers. In 2005, it had only two employees, Danny Wool, a coordinator, and Brion Vibber, a software manager.
 
The foundation's functions were, for the first few years, executed almost entirely by volunteers. In 2005, it had only two employees, Danny Wool, a coordinator, and Brion Vibber, a software manager.
   
{{As of|2006|10|04|df=US}}, the foundation had five paid employees:<ref>{{cite video | people = [[Jimmy Wales]] | date= October 4, 2006 | title = Charlie Rose (46:22) | url = http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5184822358876183858 | format = internet video | accessdate =December 8, 2006 | medium = TV-Series | location = Google Video | publisher = Charlie Rose |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20061014133227/http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5184822358876183858|archivedate=October 14, 2006}}</ref> two programmers, an administrative assistant, a coordinator handling fundraising and grants, and an interim [[chief executive officer|executive director]],<ref>{{cite web | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Press_releases/Wikimedia_Foundation_Announces_Interim_Executive_Director | title = Wikimedia Foundation Announces Interim Executive Director | archivedate = June 12, 2006 | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | accessdate =June 12, 2006 | author = Korg | authorlink = foundation:User:Korg | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Press_releases/Wikimedia_Foundation_Announces_Interim_Executive_Director&oldid=13996 }}</ref> Brad Patrick, previously the foundation's [[general counsel]]. Patrick ceased his activity as interim director in January 2007, and then resigned from his position as legal counsel, effective April 1, 2007. He was replaced by [[Mike Godwin]], who served as general counsel and legal coordinator from July 2007<ref>[http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/foundation-l/2007-July/031128.html Mailing list post] by the Chair of the Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees announcing the appointment.</ref> until 2010.
+
{{As of|2006|10|04|df=US}}, the foundation had five paid employees: two programmers, an administrative assistant, a coordinator handling fundraising and grants, and an interim [[chief executive officer|executive director]], Brad Patrick, previously the foundation's [[general counsel]]. Patrick ceased his activity as interim director in January 2007, and then resigned from his position as legal counsel, effective April 1, 2007. He was replaced by [[Mike Godwin]], who served as general counsel and legal coordinator from July 2007 until 2010.
   
In January 2007, Carolyn Doran was named chief operating officer and Sandy Ordonez joined as [[wmf:Head of Communications|head of communications]].<ref>{{cite web | title = Current staff | publisher = Wikimedia Foundation | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Current_staff | accessdate =February 1, 2007 | author = Danny | authorlink = foundation:User:Danny | archiveurl = https://wikimediafoundation.org/w/index.php?title=Current_staff&oldid=19370 | archivedate = February 1, 2007 }}</ref> Doran began working as a part-time bookkeeper in 2006 after being sent by a [[Temporary work|temporary agency]]. Doran later left the foundation in July 2007, and [[Sue Gardner]] was hired as consultant and special advisor (later CEO). Her departure from the organization was cited by Florence Devouard as one of the reasons the foundation took about seven months to release its fiscal 2007 financial audit.<ref>{{cite news | author = Ral315 | title = ''Signpost'' interview: Florence Devouard | url = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2007-11-19/Anthere_interview | work = The Wikipedia Signpost | date = November 19, 2007 | accessdate =February 19, 2008 }}</ref>
+
In January 2007, Carolyn Doran was named chief operating officer and Sandy Ordonez joined as head of communications. Doran began working as a part-time bookkeeper in 2006 after being sent by a [[Temporary work|temporary agency]]. Doran later left the foundation in July 2007, and [[Sue Gardner]] was hired as consultant and special advisor (later CEO). Her departure from the organization was cited by Florence Devouard as one of the reasons the foundation took about seven months to release its fiscal 2007 financial audit.
   
 
[[File:149 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco.jpg|thumb|The location of the Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco headquarters]]
 
[[File:149 New Montgomery Street, San Francisco.jpg|thumb|The location of the Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco headquarters]]
   
Danny Wool, officially the grant coordinator but also largely involved in [[fundraising]] and business development, resigned in March 2007. He accused Wales of misusing the foundation's funds for recreational purposes, and said that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, a claim Wales denied.<ref name=Moses>{{cite news|last=Moses |first=Asher |date=March 5, 2008 |url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/biztech/wikipedia-head-accused-of-expenses-rort/2008/03/05/1204402516874.html |title=Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales accused of expenses rort |work=[[Sydney Morning Herald]] |accessdate=October 25, 2013}}</ref> In February 2007, the foundation added a new position, chapters coordinator, and hired Delphine Ménard,<ref>{{cite web | title = Resolution: Chapters coordinator | url = https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Resolution:Chapters_coordinator_-_Delphine_M%C3%A9nard}}, wikimediafoundation.org</ref> who had been occupying the position as a volunteer since August 2005. Cary Bass was hired in March 2007 in the position of volunteer coordinator. Oleta McHenry was brought in as accountant in May 2007, through a temporary placement agency and made the official full-time accountant in August 2007. In January 2008, the foundation appointed Veronique Kessler as the new chief financial and operating officer, Kul Wadhwa as head of business development, and Jay Walsh as head of communications.
+
Danny Wool, officially the grant coordinator but also largely involved in [[fundraising]] and business development, resigned in March 2007. He accused Wales of misusing the foundation's funds for recreational purposes, and said that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, a claim Wales denied. In February 2007, the foundation added a new position, chapters coordinator, and hired Delphine Ménard, who had been occupying the position as a volunteer since August 2005. Cary Bass was hired in March 2007 in the position of volunteer coordinator. Oleta McHenry was brought in as accountant in May 2007, through a temporary placement agency and made the official full-time accountant in August 2007. In January 2008, the foundation appointed Veronique Kessler as the new chief financial and operating officer, Kul Wadhwa as head of business development, and Jay Walsh as head of communications.
   
 
By early 2015, the foundation had well over 200 employees.
 
By early 2015, the foundation had well over 200 employees.
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[[File:Post-Sopa Blackout Party for Wikimedia Foundation staff-3.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation post-[[Stop Online Piracy Act|SOPA]] party, 2012]]
 
[[File:Post-Sopa Blackout Party for Wikimedia Foundation staff-3.jpg|thumb|Wikimedia Foundation post-[[Stop Online Piracy Act|SOPA]] party, 2012]]
   
  +
Many disputes have resulted in [[litigation]] while others have not. Attorney Matt Zimmerman stated, "Without strong liability protection, it would be difficult for Wikipedia to continue to provide a platform for user-created encyclopedia content."
Many disputes have resulted in [[litigation]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mondaq.com/article.asp?articleid=91968 |title=Mondaq.com |publisher=Mondaq.com |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Neuburger |first=Jeffrey D. |url=http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/2008/11/canadian-court-rules-linking-to-libel-isnt-necessarily-libel318.html |title=PBS.org |publisher=PBS.org |date=November 13, 2008 |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pr-inside.com/wikipedia-wikimedia-fraud-lawsuit-r1645034.htm |title=PS-Inside.com |publisher=Pr-inside.com |accessdate=December 5, 2011|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110812190333/http://www.pr-inside.com/wikipedia-wikimedia-fraud-lawsuit-r1645034.htm|archivedate=August 12, 2011}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Timmer |first=John |url=http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2008/08/judge-puts-defamation-lawsuit-against-wikipedia-to-the-sword/ |title=Judge puts defamation lawsuit against Wikipedia to the sword |website=Ars Technica |date=August 13, 2008 |accessdate=March 10, 2015}}</ref> while others have not.<ref>{{cite web|last=Foresman |first=Chris |url=http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2009/04/wikipedia-suit-could-put-it-on-the-wrong-side-of-fair-use.ars?utm_source=microblogging&utm_medium=arstch&utm_term=Main+Account&utm_campaign=microbloggin |title=ArsTechnica.com |publisher=ArsTechnica.com |date=April 23, 2009 |accessdate=December 5, 2011}}</ref> Attorney Matt Zimmerman stated, "Without strong liability protection, it would be difficult for Wikipedia to continue to provide a platform for user-created encyclopedia content."<ref>{{cite press release|title=EFF and Sheppard Mullin Defend Wikipedia in Defamation Case|url=https://www.eff.org/press/archives/2008/05/02|publisher=[[Electronic Frontier Foundation]]|accessdate=March 11, 2014|date=May 2, 2008}}</ref>
 
   
In December 2011, the Foundation hired Washington, DC lobbyist [[Dow Lohnes]] Government Strategies LLC to lobby the [[United States Congress]] with regard to "Civil Rights/Civil Liberties" and "Copyright/Patent/Trademark."<ref>[http://disclosures.house.gov/ld/pdfform.aspx?id=300433882 New Client Registration] ''House of Representatives Lobbying Disclosure'' December 12, 2011 {{wayback|url=http://disclosures.house.gov/ld/pdfform.aspx?id=300433882 |date=20121016202104 }}</ref> At the time of the hire the Foundation was concerned specifically about a bill known as the [[Stop Online Piracy Act]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.techdirt.com/articles/20111214/04212117082/wikipedia-explains-great-detail-how-even-updated-sopa-hurts-web-wikipedia.shtml | title=Wikipedia Explains, In Great Detail, How Even An Updated SOPA Hurts The Web & Wikipedia | work=[[Techdirt]] | date=December 14, 2011 | accessdate=January 15, 2012 | author=Masnick, Mike}}</ref>
+
In December 2011, the Foundation hired Washington, DC lobbyist [[Dow Lohnes]] Government Strategies LLC to lobby the [[United States Congress]] with regard to "Civil Rights/Civil Liberties" and "Copyright/Patent/Trademark." At the time of the hire the Foundation was concerned specifically about a bill known as the [[Stop Online Piracy Act]].
   
In October 2013, a German Court ruled that the Wikimedia Foundation can be held liable for content added to Wikipedia.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/2067460/wikimedia-is-liable-for-contents-of-wikipedia-articles-german-court-rules.html#tk.rss_all |title=Wikimedia is liable for contents of Wikipedia articles, German court rules |publisher=PCWorld |date=November 27, 2013 |accessdate=December 5, 2013}}</ref>
+
In October 2013, a German Court ruled that the Wikimedia Foundation can be held liable for content added to Wikipedia.
   
In June 2014, a copyright infringement lawsuit was filed by Bildkonst Upphovsrätt i Sverige against Wikimedia Sweden.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://wikimediasverige.wordpress.com/2014/06/13/angaende-stamningsansokan-fran-bus-mot-offentligkonst-se/|title=Angående stämningsansökan från BUS mot offentligkonst.se|work=Wikimedia Sverige|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref>
+
In June 2014, a copyright infringement lawsuit was filed by Bildkonst Upphovsrätt i Sverige against Wikimedia Sweden.
   
On June 20, 2014, a defamation lawsuit (Law Division civil case No. L-1400-14) involving Wikipedia editors was filed with the Mercer County Superior Court in New Jersey seeking, inter alia, compensatory and punitive damages.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://njcourts.judiciary.state.nj.us/web15z/ACMSPA/|title=ACMS Public Access|author=Bob.Reaman|work=state.nj.us|accessdate=2015-10-25}}</ref><ref>http://www.williamslopatto.com/uploads/2/5/8/4/25843913/blacklight_power_inc._complaint.pdf</ref>
+
On June 20, 2014, a defamation lawsuit (Law Division civil case No. L-1400-14) involving Wikipedia editors was filed with the Mercer County Superior Court in New Jersey seeking, inter alia, compensatory and punitive damages.
   
In a March 10, 2015, op-ed for ''[[The New York Times]]'', Wales and Tretikov announced the Foundation was filing [[ACLU and others v. NSA|a lawsuit]] against the [[National Security Agency]], calling into question its practice of [[mass surveillance]], which they argued infringed the constitutional rights of the Foundation's readers, editors and staff.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Wales|first1=Jimmy|last2=Tretikov|first2=Lila|authorlink1=Jimmy Wales|authorlink2=Lila Tretikov|title=Stop Spying on Wikipedia Users|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/10/opinion/stop-spying-on-wikipedia-users.html|website=[[The New York Times]]|accessdate=March 10, 2015|location=San Francisco|date=March 10, 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last1=Paulson|first1=Michelle|last2=Brigham|first2=Geoff|title=Wikimedia v. NSA: Wikimedia Foundation files suit against NSA to challenge upstream mass surveillance|url=http://blog.wikimedia.org/2015/03/10/wikimedia-v-nsa/|website=Wikimedia blog|accessdate=March 10, 2015|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150310140413/http://blog.wikimedia.org/2015/03/10/wikimedia-v-nsa/|archivedate=March 10, 2015|deadurl=no|date=March 10, 2015}}</ref><ref name="rayman">{{cite news |last=Rayman |first=Noah |title=Saving Wikipedia: Meet Lila Tretikov |magazine=[[Time (magazine)|Time]] |date=April 14, 2015 |url=http://time.com/wikipedia/ }}</ref> On October 23, 2015, the [[United States District Court for the District of Maryland]] dismissed the suit ''[[Wikimedia Foundation v. NSA]]'' on grounds of [[Standing (law)|standing]]. US District Judge [[T. S. Ellis III]] ruled that the plaintiffs could not plausibly prove they were subject to [[upstream surveillance]], and that their argument is riddled with assumptions, speculations and mathematical gymnastics.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Farivar|first1=Cyrus|date =October 23, 2015|title=Judge tosses Wikimedia’s anti-NSA lawsuit because Wikipedia isn’t big enough. Not enough facts to "plausibly establish that the NSA is using upstream surveillance."|url=http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2015/10/judge-tosses-wikimedias-anti-nsa-lawsuit-because-wikipedia-isnt-big-enough/|publisher=[[Ars Technica]]|accessdate=March 4, 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Wikimedia v. NSA - D. MD. Opinion|url=https://www.aclu.org/legal-document/wikimedia-v-nsa-d-md-opinion|publisher=[[American Civil Liberties Union|ACLU]]|date =October 23, 2015|accessdate=March 4, 2016}}</ref> The plaintiffs filed an appeal with the [[United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit]] on February 17, 2016.<ref>{{cite web|title=Appeal No. 15-2560. Brief for plaintiffs–appellants|url=https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/field_document/23._aclu_appeal_brief_2.17.2016.pdf|publisher=[[American Civil Liberties Union|ACLU]]|date =February 17, 2016|accessdate=March 5, 2016}}</ref>
+
In a March 10, 2015, op-ed for ''[[The New York Times]]'', Wales and Tretikov announced the Foundation was filing [[ACLU and others v. NSA|a lawsuit]] against the [[National Security Agency]], calling into question its practice of [[mass surveillance]], which they argued infringed the constitutional rights of the Foundation's readers, editors and staff. On October 23, 2015, the [[United States District Court for the District of Maryland]] dismissed the suit ''[[Wikimedia Foundation v. NSA]]'' on grounds of [[Standing (law)|standing]]. US District Judge [[T. S. Ellis III]] ruled that the plaintiffs could not plausibly prove they were subject to [[upstream surveillance]], and that their argument is riddled with assumptions, speculations and mathematical gymnastics. The plaintiffs filed an appeal with the [[United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit]] on February 17, 2016.
   
In February 2016, Lila Tretikov announced her resignation as executive director, as a result of the WMF's controversial [[Knowledge Engine (Wikimedia Foundation)|Knowledge Engine]] project and disagreements with the staff.<ref name=Hern2016>{{cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/feb/26/wikimedia-head-lila-tretikov-resigns-search-engine-plans |title=Head of Wikimedia resigns over search engine plans |last=Hern |first=Alex |date=February 26, 2016 |work=[[The Guardian]]}}</ref><ref name=Spiegel2016>{{cite news |url=http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/web/wikipedia-streit-um-knowledge-engine-lila-tretikov-tritt-zurueck-a-1079448.html |title=Online-Enzyklopädie: Chefin der Wikipedia-Stiftung tritt zurück |date=February 26, 2016 |work=[[Spiegel Online]]}}</ref>
+
In February 2016, Lila Tretikov announced her resignation as executive director, as a result of the WMF's controversial [[Knowledge Engine (Wikimedia Foundation)|Knowledge Engine]] project and disagreements with the staff.
   
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Line 586: Line 574:
   
 
* [[Wikipedia:Wikimedia Foundation]], an "internal" Wikipedia page—not an encyclopedia article—for an English Wikipedia editing audience
 
* [[Wikipedia:Wikimedia Foundation]], an "internal" Wikipedia page—not an encyclopedia article—for an English Wikipedia editing audience
{{clear}}
+
{{clear}}{{Wikimedia Foundation}}
 
== References ==
 
{{reflist|30em}}
 
 
== External links ==
 
 
{{wikimedia|Wikimedia|collapsible=true}}
 
 
* [[wmf:Contact us|Official website]]
 
* {{official blog|1=//blog.wikimedia.org/}}
 
* [https://www.wikimedia.org/ Official site navigation]
 
* {{freenode|wikimedia}} Wikimedia on [[freenode]]
 
* [[mailarchive:foundation-l/|WMF mailing list archives]]
 
* [[mailarchive:wikien-l/2003-March/001887.html|Sheldon Rampton's 2003 post on mail.wikipedia.org]]
 
* [[wmf:File:2010-11 Wikimedia Foundation Annual Plan FINAL FOR WEBSITE.pdf|Wikimedia Foundation 2010–11 Annual Plan]], WMF wiki
 
* [[wmf:Finance report Wikimedia|Foundation's financial report]], WMF wiki
 
* [[wmf:Annual Report|Wikimedia Foundation annual report]], WMF wiki
 
* [[wmf:Bylaws|The Wikimedia Foundation bylaws]], WMF wiki
 
 
=== Other ===
 
 
* {{OpenCorp|Wikimedia movement}}
 
* [http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=11212 The Wikimedia Foundation] profile at [[Charity Navigator]], charitynavigator.org
 
* [http://nccsweb.urban.org/communityplatform/nccs/organization/profile/id/200049703/popup/1 Organizational Profile] – [[National Center for Charitable Statistics]] ([[Urban Institute]])
 
* {{Twitter|Wikimedia}}
 
 
{{Wikimedia Foundation}}
 
 
{{Wikipedia}}
 
{{Wikipedia}}
 
{{Wikipedias}}
 
{{Wikipedias}}

Revision as of 13:56, 20 July 2016

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.
Wikimedia Foundation RGB logo with text.svg
FoundedJune 20, 2003; 15 years ago (2003-06-20)
St. Petersburg, Florida, U.S.
FounderJimmy Wales
Type501(c)(3), charitable organization
FocusFree, open-content, wiki-based Internet projects
Location
Area served
Worldwide
MethodWikipedia, Wiktionary, Wikiquote, Wikibooks, Wikisource, Wikimedia Commons, Wikispecies, Wikinews, Wikiversity, Wikidata, Wikivoyage, Wikimedia Incubator, Meta-Wiki
Key people
Christophe Henner, chair of the board
Katherine Maher, Executive Director
Revenue
Expenses
  • Decrease US$ 1542080114.6 million (2015)
  • 45.9 million (2014)
Employees
~280 staff/contractors (as of October 2015)
Websitewikimediafoundation.org

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. (WMF) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement. It owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means.

As of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board. Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016.

Goal

The Wikimedia Foundation's stated goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects and to provide the full contents of those projects to the public free of charge.

The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501(c)(3) status by the US Internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE) code is B60 (Adult, Continuing education). The foundation's by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally.

History

In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, a philosopher of knowledge and online community organizer, founded Wikipedia and Nupedia as Internet encyclopedias. The project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales' for-profit business. As Wikipedia's popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled. Since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis' resources, Wales and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20, 2003. It applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17, 2004. The mark was granted registration status on January 10, 2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16, 2004, and, in the European Union, on January 20, 2005. There were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs.

In April 2005, the US Internal Revenue Service approved the foundation as an educational foundation in the category "Adult, Continuing education", meaning all contributions to the foundation are tax-deductible for US federal income tax purposes.

On December 11, 2006, the Foundation's board noted that the corporation could not become the membership organization initially planned but never implemented due to an inability to meet the registration requirements of Florida statutory law. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights and activities. The decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously.

On September 25, 2007, the foundation's board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Major considerations cited for choosing San Francisco were proximity to like-minded organizations and potential partners, a better talent pool, as well as cheaper and more convenient international travel than is available from St. Petersburg, Florida.

Lila Tretikov was appointed executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014. She resigned in March 2016. Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the interim executive director, a position made permanent in June 2016.

Projects and initiatives

Wikimedia projects

In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their main goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include:

Wikibooks logo Name: Wikibooks
Description: collection of textbooks
Website: www.wikibooks.org
Wikinews logo Name: Wikinews
Description: online newspaper
Website: www.wikinews.org
Wikispecies logo Name: Wikispecies
Description: taxonomic catalogue of species
Website: species.wikimedia.org
Wikidata logo Name: Wikidata
Description: knowledge base
Website: www.wikidata.org
Wikipedia logo Name: Wikipedia
Description: online encyclopedia
Website: www.wikipedia.org
Wikiversity logo Name: Wikiversity
Description: collection of tutorials and courses, while also serving as a hosting point to coordinate research.
Website: www.wikiversity.org
Wikimedia Commons logo Name: Wikimedia Commons
Description: repository of images, sounds, videos, and general media.
Website: commons.wikimedia.org
Wikiquote logo Name: Wikiquote
Description: collection of quotations
Website: www.wikiquote.org
Wikivoyage logo Name: Wikivoyage
Description: travel guide
Website: www.wikivoyage.org
Wikimedia Meta logo Name: Meta-Wiki
Description: central site to coordinate all Wikimedia projects.
Website: meta.wikimedia.org
Wikisource logo Name: Wikisource
Description: digital library
Website: www.wikisource.org
Wiktionary logo Name: Wiktionary
Description: online dictionary and thesaurus
Website: www.wiktionary.org

Movement affiliates

Wikimedia movement affiliates are independent, but formally recognized, groups of people intended to work together to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement. The Wikimedia Foundation's Board of Trustees has approved three active models for movement affiliates: chapters, thematic organizations, and user groups. Movement affiliates are intended to organize and engage in activities to support and contribute to the Wikimedia movement, such as regional conferences, outreach, edit-a-thons, hackathons, public relations, public policy advocacy, GLAM engagement, and Wikimania.

Recognition of a chapter and thematic organization is approved by the foundation's board. Recommendations on recognition of chapters and thematic organizations are made to the foundation's board by an Affiliations Committee, composed of Wikimedia community volunteers. The Affiliations Committee approves the recognition of individual user groups. While movement affiliates are formally recognized by the Wikimedia Foundation, they are independent of the Wikimedia Foundation, with no legal control of nor responsibility for the Wikimedia projects.

The foundation began recognizing chapters in 2004. In 2010, development on additional models began. In 2012, the foundation approved, finalized, and adopted the thematic organization and user group recognition models. An additional model, movement partners, was also approved but as of 27 October 2015 has not yet been finalized or adopted.

Wikimania

Each year, an international conference called Wikimania brings the people together who are involved in the Wikimedia organizations and projects. The first Wikimania was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2005. Nowadays, Wikimania is organized by a committee supported usually by the national chapter, in collaboration with the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikimania has been held in cities such as Buenos Aires, Cambridge, Haifa, Hong Kong, and London. In 2015, Wikimania took place in Mexico City. In 2016, Wikimania will be held in Esino Lario, Italy.

Strategic plan

Video explaining the 2011 Wikimedia Strategic Plan
Executive director Katherine Maher, 2016

In response to the growing size and popularity of Wikipedia, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a Strategic Plan to improve and sustain the Wikimedia movement. The plan was announced in July 2009, followed by a process of interviews and surveys with people from across the Wikimedia movement, including board of trustees, members of staff and volunteer editors. The ongoing plan was intended to be the basis of a five-year plan to further outreach, improve content quality and quality control, and optimising operational areas such as finance and infrastructure.

Wikipedia Usability Initiative

In December 2008, the Wikimedia Foundation announced a restricted donation grant of US$890,000 from the Stanton Foundation, to improve Wikipedia's accessibility. Later named the Wikipedia Usability Initiative, the grant was used by the Wikimedia Foundation to appoint project-specific staff to the technology department.

A series of surveys were conducted throughout 2009. This began with a qualitative environment survey on MediaWiki extensions, followed by a Qualitative Statistical Survey focusing on volume of edits, number of new users, and related statistics. In March 2009, a usability and experience study was carried out on new and non-editors of the English Wikipedia. The aim was to discover what obstacles participants encountered while editing Wikipedia, ranging from small changes to more complicated syntax such as templates. The study recruited 2500 people for in-person laboratory testing via the Wikipedia website, which was filtered down to ten participants. The results were collated and used by the technology team to improve Wikipedia's usability. The Usability and Experience Study was followed up by the Usability, Experience and Progress Study in September 2009. This study recruited different new and non-editors for in-person trials on a new Wikipedia skin.

The initiative ultimately culminated in a new Wikipedia skin named Vector, constructed based on the results of the usability studies. This was introduced by default in stages, beginning in May 2010.

Public Policy Initiative

In May 2010, the Wikimedia Foundation announced the Public Policy Initiative, following a US$1.2 million donation by the Stanton Foundation. The Initiative was set up to improve articles relating to public policy–related issues. As part of the initiative, Wikipedia collaborated with ten universities to help students and professors create and maintain articles relating to public policy. Volunteer editors of Wikipedia, known as "ambassadors", provided assistance to students and professors. This was either done on campus sites or online.

Technology

The foundation employs technology including hardware and software to run its projects.

Hardware

Overview of system architecture, October 2015. See server layout diagrams on Meta-Wiki
Wikimedia Foundation servers

Wikipedia employed a single server until 2004, when the server setup was expanded into a distributed multitier architecture.

In January 2005, the project ran on 39 dedicated servers in Florida. This configuration included a single master database server running MySQL, multiple slave database servers, 21 web servers running the Apache HTTP Server, and seven Squid cache servers.

Wikimedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers (mainly Ubuntu). As of December 2009, there were 300 in Florida and 44 in Amsterdam. The number of servers needed to run the infrastructure has been mostly stable since then: 520 servers are used in the main cluster (eqiad) as of November 2015.

As of 2015, the system still runs on central master database and application servers, but there are several cache layers with various ever-changing technologies, as well as a multitude of subsystems for DNS resolution, load balancing, metrics, monitoring, other system administration etc.

Softwаrе

The operation of Wikimedia depends on MediaWiki, a custom-made, free and open-source wiki software platform written in PHP and built upon the MySQL database. The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection. MediaWiki is licensed under the GNU General Public License and it is used by all Wikimedia projects, as well as many other wiki projects. Originally, Wikipedia ran on UseModWiki written in Perl by Clifford Adams (Phase I), which initially required CamelCase for article hyperlinks; the present double bracket style was incorporated later. Starting in January 2002 (Phase II), Wikipedia began running on a PHP wiki engine with a MySQL database; this software was custom-made for Wikipedia by Magnus Manske. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand. In July 2002 (Phase III), Wikipedia shifted to the third-generation software, MediaWiki, originally written by Lee Daniel Crocker. Several MediaWiki extensions are installed to extend the functionality of MediaWiki software. In April 2005, a Lucene extension was added to MediaWiki's built-in search and Wikipedia switched from MySQL to Lucene for searching. Currently Lucene Search 2.1, which is written in Java and based on Lucene library 2.3, is used. Wikimedia Foundation also uses CiviCRM and WordPress.

The Foundation published official Wikipedia mobile apps for Android and iOS devices and in March 2015, the apps were updated to include mobile user friendly features.

Finances

In general

Financial development of the Wikimedia Foundation (in US$), 2003–2015
  Support and revenue
  Expenses
  Net assets at year-end
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Financial Statements

The Wikimedia Foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission. It is exempt from federal income tax and from state income tax. It is not a private foundation, and contributions to it qualify as tax-deductible charitable contributions.

The continued technical and economic growth of each of the Wikimedia projects is dependent mostly on donations but the Wikimedia Foundation also increases its revenue by alternative means of funding such as grants, sponsorship, services and brand merchandising. The Wikimedia OAI-PMH update feed service, targeted primarily at search engines and similar bulk analysis and republishing, has been a source of revenue for several years, but is no longer open to new customers. DBpedia was given access to this feed free of charge. In July 2014, the Foundation announced it would be accepting Bitcoin donations.

Since the end of fiscal year ended 2004, the Foundation's net assets have grown from US$57,000 to US$53.5 million at the end of fiscal year ended June 30, 2014. Under the leadership of Sue Gardner, who joined the Wikimedia Foundation in 2007, the Foundation's staff levels, number of donors and revenue have seen very significant growth.

Interview with Garfield Byrd, Chief of Finance and Administration at the Wikimedia Foundation. Recorded October 7, 2011

In 2007, Charity Navigator gave Wikimedia an overall rating of three out of four possible stars (one out of four in efficiency, which has been criticised). Charity Navigator gave three out of four possible stars in overall rating for fiscal years 2008 and 2009 which improved to four-stars in 2010. As of June 2016, the current overall rating had returned down to three stars – dragged down by an 85.17 (out of 100) for its Financial performance.

Grants

Wikimedia Foundation and chapters finance meeting 2012, Paris

In March 2008, the Foundation announced a large donation, at the time its largest donation yet: a three-year, US$3 million grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

In 2009, the Foundation received four grants – the first grant was a US$890,000 Stanton Foundation grant which was aimed to help study and simplify user interface for first-time authors of Wikipedia. The second was a US$300,000 Ford Foundation Grant, given in July 2009, for Wikimedia Commons that aimed to improve the interfaces and workflows for multimedia uploading on Wikimedia websites. In August 2009, the Foundation received a US$500,000 grant from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Lastly, in August 2009, the Omidyar Network issued a potential US$2 million in "grant" funding to Wikimedia.

In 2010, the Google corporation donated US$2 million to the Foundation. Also in 2010, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation pledged a US$800,000 grant and all was funded during 2011.

In March 2011, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation authorized another US$3 million grant to continue to develop and maintain the Foundation's mission. The grant was to be funded over three years with the first US$1 million funded in July 2011 and the remaining US$2 million was scheduled to be funded in August 2012 and 2013. In August 2011, the Stanton Foundation pledged to fund a US$3.6 million grant of which US$1.8 million was funded and the remaining was due to be funded in September 2012. As of 2011, this was the largest grant received by the Wikimedia Foundation to-date. In November 2011, the Foundation received a US$500,000 donation from Google co-founder Sergey Brin and his wife.

In 2012, the Foundation was awarded a grant of US$1.25 million from the historians Lisbet Rausing and Peter Baldwin through Charities Aid Foundation, scheduled to be funded in five equal installments. The first installment of US$250,000 was received in April 2012 and the remaining were to be funded in December 2012 through 2015. In 2014, the Foundation received the largest single gift in its history, a $5 million unrestricted donation from an anonymous donor supporting $1 million worth of expenses annually for the next five years.

In 2015 a grant agreement was reached with the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation to build a search engine called Knowledge Engine (Wikimedia Foundation).

Financial summary

Wikimedia financial data through June 2014 (financial years run from July 1 to June 30)
Fiscal year Revenue Year-over-year ratio
(revenue)
Expenses Year-over-year ratio
(expenses)
Net assets Year-over-year ratio
(net assets)
2003–2004
Steady US$80,129
Steady N/A
Steady US$23,463
Steady N/A
Steady US$56,666
Steady N/A
2004–2005
Increase US$379,088
Increase 373.1%
Negative increase US$177,670
Negative increase 657.2%
Increase US$268,084
Increase 373.1%
2005–2006
Increase US$1,508,039
Increase 297.8%
Negative increase US$791,907
Negative increase 345.7%
Increase US$1,004,216
Increase 274.6%
2006–2007
Increase US$2,734,909
Increase 81.4%
Negative increase US$2,077,843
Negative increase 162.4%
Increase US$1,658,282
Increase 65.1%
2007–2008
Increase US$5,032,981
Increase 84.0%
Negative increase US$3,540,724
Negative increase 70.4%
Increase US$5,178,168
Increase 212.3%
2008–2009
Increase US$8,658,006
Increase 72.0%
Negative increase US$5,617,236
Negative increase 58.6%
Increase US$8,231,767
Increase 59.0%
2009–2010
Increase US$17,979,312
Increase 107.7%
Negative increase US$10,266,793
Negative increase 82.8%
Increase US$14,542,731
Increase 76.7%
2010–2011
Increase US$24,785,092
Increase 37.8%
Negative increase US$17,889,794
Negative increase 74.2%
Increase US$24,192,144
Increase 66.3%
2011–2012
Increase US$38,479,665
Increase 55.2%
Negative increase US$29,260,652
Negative increase 63.6%
Increase US$34,929,058
Increase 44.4%
2012–2013
Increase US$48,635,408
Increase 26.4%
Negative increase US$35,704,796
Negative increase 22.0%
Increase US$45,189,124
Increase 29.4%
2013–2014
Increase US$52,465,287
Increase 8.6%
Negative increase US$45,900,745
Negative increase 28.6%
Increase US$53,475,021
Increase 18.3%
2014–2015
Increase US$75,797,223
Increase 44.5%
Negative increase US$52,596,782
Negative increase 14.6%
Increase US$77,820,298
Increase 45.5%

Governance

Board of Trustees

Christophe Henner, the current Chairman of the Board

The Board of Trustees has ultimate authority of all the businesses and affairs of the Foundation. It is composed of ten members:

  • four who are appointed by the Board itself;
  • three who are selected by the community encompassed by all the different Wikimedia projects;
  • two who are selected by the local chapters and thematic organizations;
  • and one emeritus for the foundation's founder, Jimmy Wales.

Three permanent entities support the board on its mission and responsibilities: an executive director, who leads and oversees the operational arm of the foundation; an advisory board composed of individuals selected by the board itself that advise the board on different matters; and standing committees to which the board delegates certain matters while retaining ultimate authority. The board has also at times created other orthodox entities to support itself, such as executive secretaries and ad-hoc committees established for specific tasks.

The current board comprises Christophe Henner as Chairman and María Sefidari as Vice-Chairman, together with Alice Wiegand, Nataliia Tymkiv, Kelly Battles, Dariusz Jemielniak, Guy Kawasaki, and Jimmy Wales as members at-large. There are two vacant seats, most recently occupied by Denny Vrandečić and Arnnon Geshuri.

In a high-profile decision of 2015, James Heilman was removed from the board, with little explanation. In January 2016, Arnnon Geshuri stepped down from the board following a controversy about an agreement he executed when at google, violating US anti-trust law. The participating companies paid US$ 415 million in a class action suit on behalf of affected employees.

Advisory board

The Advisory Board, according to the Wikimedia Foundation, is an international network of experts who have agreed to give the foundation meaningful help on a regular basis in many different areas, including law, organizational development, technology, policy, and outreach.

Staff

First appointments

Staff and workplace at Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco office

In 2004, the foundation appointed Tim Starling as developer liaison to help improve the MediaWiki software, Daniel Mayer as chief financial officer (finance, budgeting, and coordination of fund drives), and Erik Möller as content partnership coordinator. In May 2005, the foundation announced seven more official appointments.

In January 2006, the foundation created several committees, including the Communication Committee, in an attempt to further organize activities essentially handled by volunteers at that time. Starling resigned that month to spend more time on his PhD program.

Employees

A workers area at the Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco headquarters

The foundation's functions were, for the first few years, executed almost entirely by volunteers. In 2005, it had only two employees, Danny Wool, a coordinator, and Brion Vibber, a software manager.

As of October 4, 2006, the foundation had five paid employees: two programmers, an administrative assistant, a coordinator handling fundraising and grants, and an interim executive director, Brad Patrick, previously the foundation's general counsel. Patrick ceased his activity as interim director in January 2007, and then resigned from his position as legal counsel, effective April 1, 2007. He was replaced by Mike Godwin, who served as general counsel and legal coordinator from July 2007 until 2010.

In January 2007, Carolyn Doran was named chief operating officer and Sandy Ordonez joined as head of communications. Doran began working as a part-time bookkeeper in 2006 after being sent by a temporary agency. Doran later left the foundation in July 2007, and Sue Gardner was hired as consultant and special advisor (later CEO). Her departure from the organization was cited by Florence Devouard as one of the reasons the foundation took about seven months to release its fiscal 2007 financial audit.

The location of the Wikimedia Foundation's San Francisco headquarters

Danny Wool, officially the grant coordinator but also largely involved in fundraising and business development, resigned in March 2007. He accused Wales of misusing the foundation's funds for recreational purposes, and said that Wales had his Wikimedia credit card taken away in part because of his spending habits, a claim Wales denied. In February 2007, the foundation added a new position, chapters coordinator, and hired Delphine Ménard, who had been occupying the position as a volunteer since August 2005. Cary Bass was hired in March 2007 in the position of volunteer coordinator. Oleta McHenry was brought in as accountant in May 2007, through a temporary placement agency and made the official full-time accountant in August 2007. In January 2008, the foundation appointed Veronique Kessler as the new chief financial and operating officer, Kul Wadhwa as head of business development, and Jay Walsh as head of communications.

By early 2015, the foundation had well over 200 employees.

Disputes and lawsuits

Wikimedia Foundation post-SOPA party, 2012

Many disputes have resulted in litigation while others have not. Attorney Matt Zimmerman stated, "Without strong liability protection, it would be difficult for Wikipedia to continue to provide a platform for user-created encyclopedia content."

In December 2011, the Foundation hired Washington, DC lobbyist Dow Lohnes Government Strategies LLC to lobby the United States Congress with regard to "Civil Rights/Civil Liberties" and "Copyright/Patent/Trademark." At the time of the hire the Foundation was concerned specifically about a bill known as the Stop Online Piracy Act.

In October 2013, a German Court ruled that the Wikimedia Foundation can be held liable for content added to Wikipedia.

In June 2014, a copyright infringement lawsuit was filed by Bildkonst Upphovsrätt i Sverige against Wikimedia Sweden.

On June 20, 2014, a defamation lawsuit (Law Division civil case No. L-1400-14) involving Wikipedia editors was filed with the Mercer County Superior Court in New Jersey seeking, inter alia, compensatory and punitive damages.

In a March 10, 2015, op-ed for The New York Times, Wales and Tretikov announced the Foundation was filing a lawsuit against the National Security Agency, calling into question its practice of mass surveillance, which they argued infringed the constitutional rights of the Foundation's readers, editors and staff. On October 23, 2015, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland dismissed the suit Wikimedia Foundation v. NSA on grounds of standing. US District Judge T. S. Ellis III ruled that the plaintiffs could not plausibly prove they were subject to upstream surveillance, and that their argument is riddled with assumptions, speculations and mathematical gymnastics. The plaintiffs filed an appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 17, 2016.

In February 2016, Lila Tretikov announced her resignation as executive director, as a result of the WMF's controversial Knowledge Engine project and disagreements with the staff.

See also