James Madison Robertson
Born in New Hampshire, Robertson enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1838, and served for ten years in Batteries F and H, 2nd U.S. Artillery. Ranking as a quartermaster sergeant during the Mexican-American War, Robertson received a field commission on June 28, 1848. He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1852.
In May 1861, Robertson received his captaincy as the army expanded for the Civil War, and was assigned to command Battery B, 2nd U.S. Artillery. Robertson’s Battery B was combined with Battery L early in the war, and he commanded the combined batteries during the Peninsula Campaign in mid-1862.
Robertson succeeded William Hays as the commander of the U.S. Horse Artillery Brigade, and held that position through the remainder of the war. Engaged in most of the major battles in the Eastern Theater, Robertson was awarded successive brevet promotions to brigadier general. On June 30, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Robertson for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on July 25, 1866.
After the war, Robertson returned to his permanent rank of captain in the Regular Army, and earned a promotion to major in June 1874. He transferred to the 3rd U.S. Artillery in 1875, and retired in 1879. He died on January 21, 1891.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1.
- Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, From its Organization, September 29, 1789 to March 2, 1903. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1903.
- Simpson, Lt. W. A., History of the Second Regiment of Artillery.
- U.S. War Department. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1894.